The Skeletal System: The Appendicular Skeleton. I. Introduction A. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities and

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<ul><li><p>The Skeletal System:The Appendicular Skeleton</p></li><li><p>I. IntroductionA. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities and the shoulder and hip girdles.</p></li><li><p>I. IntroductionB. The appendicular skeleton functions primarily to facilitate movement.</p></li><li><p>II. Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdleThe pectoral girdle attaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton.</p></li><li><p>II. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle1. The clavicle or collar bone lies horizontally in the superior and anterior part of the thorax and articulates with the sternum and the scapula.</p></li><li><p>II. Pectoral Girdle ContinueThe clavicle, one of the most frequently broken bones in the body</p></li><li><p>II. Pectoral Girdle Continue2. The scapula or shoulder blade articulates with the clavicle and the humerus.</p></li><li><p>II. Pectoral Girdle Continue The scapulae is held in place posteriorly only by complex shoulder and back musculature.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper LimbEach upper limb consists of 30 bones including the humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb1. The humerus is the longest and largest bone of the upper limb.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb It articulates proximally with the scapula at the glenohumeral joint, and distally at the elbow with both the radius and ulna.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb Continue2. The ulna is located on the medial aspect of the foramen.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb Continue3. The radius is located on the lateral aspect (thumb side) of the foramen. </p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb Continue Falling on an outstretched arm may create a Colles fracture, a fracture near the distal end.</p></li><li><p>Upper Limb ContinueThe radius and ulna articulate with the humerus at the elbow joint, with each other, and with three carpal bones.</p></li><li><p>Upper Limb Continue4. Carpals, Metacarpal, Phalanges</p></li><li><p>Upper Limb Continue The eight carpal bones, bound together by ligaments, comprise the wrist. </p></li><li><p>Upper Limb Continue Because of the scant blood supply to the scaphoid, scaphoid fractures may be very slow to heal.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb ContinueFive metacarpal bones are contained in the palm of each hand.</p></li><li><p>III. Upper Limb Continue Each hand contains 14 phalnges, three in each finger and two in in each thumb.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic GirdleThe pelvic (hip) girdle consists of two hipbones (coxal bones) on which the weight of the body is carried.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic GirdleEach hipbone is composed of three separate bones at birth: Iliumpubisischium.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic GirdleThese bones eventually fuse at a depression called the acetabulum, which forms the socket for the hip joint.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic GirdleThe ilium is the largest and articulates (fuses) with the ischium and pubis.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic Girdle The ischium is the inferior, posterior portion of the hip bone.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic GirdleThe pubis is the anterior and inferior part of the hip bone.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic Girdle ContinueB. True or False Pelves1. Together with the sacrum and coccyx, the two hipbones form the pelvis.</p></li><li><p>IV. Pelvic Girdle Continue2. The greater (false) and lesser (true) pelvis are anatomicaly separated by a plane at the pelvic brim.</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Male and FemaleFemale and male pelvic girdles differences are primarily related to the need for a larger outlet in females to facilitate childbirth. </p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesMale bones are larger and heavier than those of the female</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male Pelves Males joint surfaces also tend to be larger.</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesMuscle attachment points are more well-defined in the bones of a male than of a female due to the larger size of the muscles in males.</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesIliac bones of male more vertical</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPelvic brim in male is heart shaped due to prominence of the sacral promontary</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPelvic brim more oval in female</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPubic arch in male is under 90 degrees</p></li><li><p>V. Comparison of Female and Male PelvesPubic arch in females over 90 degrees</p></li><li><p>VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic GirdlesThe pectoral girdle does not directly articulate with the vertebral column; the pelvic girdle does.</p></li><li><p>VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles2. The pectoral girdle sockets are shallow and maximize movement</p></li><li><p>VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles3. Sockets of the pelvic girdle are deeper and allow less movement.</p></li><li><p>VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles4. The structure of the pectoral girdle offers more movement than strength</p></li><li><p>VI. Comparison of Pectoral and Pelvic Girdles5. The pelvic girdle, more strength than movement. </p></li><li><p>VII. Lower LimbEach lower extremity is composed of 30 bones, including the femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.</p></li><li><p>FemurThe femur or thighbone is the largest, heaviest, and strongest bone of the body.</p></li><li><p>FemurIt articulates with the hip bone and the tibia.</p></li><li><p>Patella The patella or kneecap is a sesamoid bone located anterior to the knee joint</p></li><li><p>PatellaProtects the knee joint</p></li><li><p>Patellofemoral stress syndromeCommon knee problem in runners</p></li><li><p>Patellofemoral stress syndromeDuring normal flexion and extension of the knee, the patella tracks up and down in the patellar groove of the femur</p></li><li><p>Patellofemoral stress syndrome In this syndrome the patella also tracks laterally, increasing the pressure on the cartilage coating the underside of the patella.</p></li><li><p>Tibia The tibia or shinbone is the larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of the leg.</p></li><li><p>Fibula The fibula is parallel and lateral to the tibia.</p></li><li><p>Tarsals Seven tarsal bones constitute the ankle </p></li><li><p>Metatarsals Five metatarsal bones are contained in the foot.</p></li><li><p>Phalanges Fourteen bones in each foot.</p></li><li><p>Arches of the footThe bones of the foot are arranged in two nonrigid arches that enable the foot to support the weight of the body</p></li><li><p>Arches of the foot Provide an ideal distribution of body weight over the hard and soft tissues</p></li><li><p>Arches of the foot Provide leverage while walking.</p></li><li><p>Arches of the foot The longitudinal arch has a medial and lateral component.</p></li><li><p>Arches of the foot The transverse arch is perpendicular to these arches.</p></li><li><p>VII. Lower Limb Continue2. As a person ages, they tend to get flattening of the longitudinal arches, causing the foot to elongate.</p></li><li><p>Hip FracturesA break in the bones associated with the hip joint.</p></li><li><p>Hip FracturesOften require surgical treatment</p></li><li><p>Hallux Called a bunion</p></li><li><p>Hallux The proximal phalanx of the great toe deviates laterally</p></li><li><p>HalluxThe first metatarsal deviates medially.</p></li></ul>


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