The Skeletal System The adult skeleton is composed of 206 bones Newborns have about 300 bones! Bones begin to develop during the second month of fetal

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Skeletal System The adult skeleton is composed of 206 bones Newborns have about 300 bones! Bones begin to develop during the second month of fetal development The smallest bone in your body is the stapes which of one of 3 tiny bones found in the inner ear The largest bone in your body is the femur Blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow in your bones </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> What can bones tell us? Age at time of death Gender Whether or not a woman has had a vaginal birth Whether you are right or left handed What kind of a occupation or activities you may have done What kind of a diet you may have had What you may have looked like in life What race/ethnicity you may have been </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Anatomy &amp; Physiology Major structures that make the framework of the skeleton 206 Bones (primary) Cartilage Tendons (connect muscles to bones) Ligaments (connect bones to bones) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Anatomy &amp; Physiology The skeleton is divided into main groups The Axial Skeleton Consists of 80 bones Includes the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage The Appendicular Skeleton Consists of 126 bones Includes shoulder girdle, arms and hands, pelvic girdle, legs, and feet </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Anatomy &amp; Physiology Bones are composed of: 50%Water 50% Solid matter (osseous tissue) Calcium phosphate contributes to hardness of bones Collagen contributes to the slight elasticity/flexibility of bones </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Functions of the Skeletal System Provide shape, support, and the framework of the body Provide protection for internal organs Serves as a storage place for mineral salts, calcium, and phosphorus Formation of blood cells (hematopoiesis) Provides sites for attachment of muscles Helps make movement possible through articulations (joints) </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Classifications of Bones Long Bones Most of the bones of the appendages Longer than they are wide Short Bones Cube shaped bones Found in the wrist and ankles Sesamoid special class of short bone found in tendons (kneecap) </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Classifications of Bones Flat Bones Layer of spongy bone sandwiched between to layers of compact bone Found in skull, sternum, ribs Irregular Bones Irregularly shaped bones that do not fit in the other categories Examples include: vertebrae, hip bones, and some skull bones Sutural or Wormian bones small bones between the flat bones of the skull </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Classifications of Bones </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Structure of a Long Bone </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Bell Work List the classifications of bone and provide an example of each Draw a long bone and identify both external and internal structures Describe the 2 divisions of the skeletal system </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Bell Work What class of bone do the ribs fall in? What class of bone does the sacrum fall in? Where is spongy bone found in a long bone? What is found inside the medullary cavity? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Joints A joint (jt) is an articulation A place where 2 or more bones connect </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Classifications of Joints Synarthroses (Fibrous) Immoveable joints No joint cavity Example Sutures of skull </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Classification of Joints Amphiarthroses (cartilaginous) Slightly moveable Connects bone to bone with cartilage Example would be vertebrae </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Classification of Joints Diarthroses (Synovial) Freely moveable Contains a joint capsule with synovial fluid Example would be knee, elbow, </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Joint Movements (synovial joints) Flexion/Extension Abduction/Adduction Circumduction/Rotation Protraction/Retraction Pronation/Suppination Dorsiflexion/Plantar Flexion Inversion/Eversion </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Fractures (Fx) All fractures can be classified as Simple or Compound Simple (closed) fractures: do not penetrate the skin Compound (open) fractures break the skin </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Transverse Fx Bone breaks across the longitudinal axis </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Comminuted Fx Bone shatters into 3 or more pieces </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Green Stick FX Only one side of shaft broken Common in children whos bones have not yet ossified </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Spiral Fx Caused by twisting forces Common in sports injuries May indicate abuse </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Bell Ringer!!! All Bell Ringers Due Friday Great Aunt Martha was watching her neighbors yorkie. Upon waking in the middle of the night to go to the bathroom, she tripped upon the poor yorkie and attempted to cushion her fall with her arms. This resulted in breaking the distal portion of her radius. What kind of a Fx did Great Aunt Martha sustain? Little Timmy loves to see how high he can jump off the swings at the playground. One day, he landed wrong and broke his leg. His Dr. told his mom that he broke his growth plate. What kind of Fx did Timmy sustain? Suzie was riding her bike no-handed with her eyes closedThis was quite a site to see until she crashed her bike into a parked car. When she looked down, she could see a piece of her humerus (she didnt find it very funny poking out of her skin. What kind of Fx did Suzie have? </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Arthritis Arthr= (?) -itis = (?) Common types of arthritis include: Osteoarthritis (OA) Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Gouty Arthritis All present with similar symptoms including inflammation and arthralgia (?) but differ in their etiology (cause) </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Osteoarthritis (OA) Most common form of arthritis Considered wear and tear related to articular cartilage wearing down over time Can affect any joint in the body, but hands, knees, hips, &amp; spine most commonly affected Gradually worsens over time No cure exists but maintaining a healthy weight, and keeping active may slow progression Pain is usually worse in the morning </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Osteoarthritis (OA) Risk Factors Genetics Age (55 and older more affected) Gender (women are at higher risk) Obesity Joint injuries Certain occupations </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Osteoarthritis (OA) Treatments include : Analgesics such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) NSAIDs such as ibuprofen or Alieve (anti-inflammatory) Corticosteroids (limited in frequency per year) Lubrication injections Physical therapy and low-impact activity Surgical interventions (i.e. joint replacement surgery </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Chronic autoimmune disease where the bodys immune system attacks the lining of the joints Usually affects the small joints of the hands and feet Causes swelling that erodes bone and causes deformities which can lead to disability Can occur at any age (i.e. juvenile rheumatoid arthritis) but is more common after age 40 More common in women than men </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Symptoms Similar to OA but may also include: Firm bumps of tissue under the skin on your arms (rheumatoid nodules) Fatigue, fever and weight loss May come and go in periods of remission and exacerbation </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatments include: Analgesics &amp; NSAIDs DMARDs (disease modifying antirheumatic drugs) which suppress the immune response to tissues but may also increase risk for infections Surgical interventions PT/OT (including assistive devices) </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Gouty Arthritis Complex form of arthritis Occurs when urate crystals accumulate in joints Urate crystals form when high levels of uric acid accumulates in the blood Uric acid is produced by the breakdown of purines substances that are found naturally in the body, as well as in certain foods, such as organ meats, anchovies, herring, asparagus and mushrooms Uric acid builds up, forming sharp, needle-like urate crystals in a joint or surrounding tissue that cause pain, inflammation and swelling </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Gouty Arthritis Symptoms: sudden, severe attacks of pain, redness and tenderness in joint often affects the joint at the base of the big toe but can affect the knees, feet, hands, ankles &amp; wrists Pain is most sever in first 12-24 hours of flare-up Historically gout was stereotyped as the lazy- mans disease </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Gouty Arthritis Risk Factors Include: Lifestyle- excessive alcohol intake, and purine-rich diet if you are susceptible Gender - occurs more often in men Family History of Gout Age men in their 40s-50s and post-menopausal women Certain medications Medical conditions such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Gouty Arthritis Treatments NSAIDs and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation Hydration- 2-4L of fluid each day Avoid alcohol Limit your daily intake of meat, fish and poultry to 4 to 6 ounces (about the size of a deck of cards) Avoid purine rich foods such as Organ meats, such as liver, kidneys, sweetbreads, and brains Meats, including bacon, beef, pork, and lamb Game meats Any other meats in large amounts Anchovies, sardines, herring, mackerel, and scallops Gravy Beer </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Gouty Arthritis </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Before you leave What makes gouty arthritis different from OA or RA? How are all 3 forms of arthritis the same? What is the difference between OA and RA? </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Bell Ringer Great Uncle Rupert loves is bedtime snack of sardines washed down with an ice-cold beer. Last night, Great Uncle Rupert woke up in pain stating that his right great toe felt like it was on fire! Upon inspection, his toe was swollen, angry red, and it appeared to have white stone-like rocks embedded into the tissue. What do you suppose he has? What is causing his problems? What can he do to avoid future problems of this nature? </li> </ul>


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