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  • 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    C H A P T E R 7

    O B J EC T I V ES

    ACTIVITIES

    A. CompletionFill in the blank spaces with the correct term.

    1. The five functions of the skeletal system include , , , , and .

    2. Osteoblasts invade and begin the process of ossification.

    3. The is a fibrovascular membrane that covers bone; the is the membrane that lines the medullary cavity.

    4. Bone remodeling is made possible by and .

    5. The process of ossification can be either or .

    6. Correct calcium ion concentration in blood and bone is maintained by and .

    7. bone is dense and strong, whereas bone is spongy.

    8. An osteon, also called the , allows for the effective metabolism of bone cells.

    After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

    1. Name the functions of the skeletal system.

    2. Name the two types of ossification.

    3. Describe why diet can affect bone development in children and bone maintenance in older adults.

    4. Describe the histology of compact bone.

    5. Define and give examples of bone markings.

    6. Name the cranial and facial bones.

    7. Name the bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton.

    The Skeletal System

    NAME: DATE:

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  • 98 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

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    9. The spaces within cancellous bone contain , which is responsible for hematopoiesis.

    10. Long bones consist of a(n) , , and a(n) .

    11. bones are enclosed in a tendon and fascial tissue.

    12. An obvious bony prominence is called a(n) .

    13. A depression or cavity in or on a bone is called a(n) .

    14. The skeleton is divided into two main parts, the and the .

    15. The bone is a single bone that forms the posterior base of the cranium.

    16. The anchor bone for the cranium is the .

    17. The freely movable bone of the face is the .

    18. The spinal cord passes through a space called the .

    19. The largest and strongest vertebrae are those of the section of the spine.

    20. are the bones of the fingers and toes.

    21. is the manufacture of red blood cells.

    22. The turbinates are also called the nasal bones.

    23. A black eye is also known as a(n) ecchymosis or bruise.

    B. MatchingMatch the term on the right with the definition on the left.

    24. result of abnormal endochondral ossifi cation at the epiphyseal plate of long bones a. osteoporosis

    25. lateral curvature of the spine b. lordosis

    26. the laminae of the posterior vertebral arch do not unite at the midline c. giantism

    27. disorder characterized by disease in bone mass with increased susceptibility to fractures d. axis

    28. rupture of fi brocartilage surrounding an intervertebral disk e. kyphosis

    29. irregular thickening and softening of the bones with excessive bone destruction f. scoliosis

    30. swayback g. false ribs

    31. strongest portion of the hip bone h. spina bifi da

    32. accentuated curvature of the spine in the upper thoracic region i. herniated disk

    33. second vertebra j. incus

    34. direct articulation with the sternum k. patella

    35. indirect articulation with the sternum l. carpals

    36. do not attach anteriorly m. ischium

    37. bones of the wrist n. true ribs

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 99

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    38. anvil o. hyoid

    39. kneecap p. osteoprogenitor

    40. give rise to osteoblasts q. Pagets disease

    41. immovable joint line of the cranium r. fl oating ribs

    42. tie bone to bones s. suture

    43. tongue attached to it t. ligaments

    C. Key TermsUse the text to look up the following terms. Write the definition or explanation.

    44. Acetabulum:

    45. Acromegaly:

    46. Acromial process:

    47. Calcaneus:

    48. Capitate:

    49. Cervical vertebrae:

    50. Condyle:

    51. Coracoid process:

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  • 100 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    52. Fontanelle:

    53. Foramen:

    54. Gladiolus:

    55. Hamate:

    56. Haversian (system):

    57. Hematopoiesis:

    58. Lunate:

    59. Malleus:

    60. Manubrium:

    61. Meatus:

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 101

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    62. Obturator foramen:

    63. Ossification:

    64. Osteomalacia:

    65. Osteon:

    66. Phalanx:

    67. Pisiform:

    68. Sagittal suture:

    69: Sinusitis:

    70. Stapes:

    71. Talus:

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  • 102 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    72. Trabeculae:

    73. Triquetral:

    74. Tympanic plate:

    75. Vomer (bone):

    76. Xiphoid:

    77. Zygomatic (bones):

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 103

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    D. Labeling Exercise 78. Label the bones of the skeletal system as indicated in Figure 7-1.

    A.

    B.

    C.

    D.

    E.

    P.

    O.

    N.

    M.

    Lower limbs

    Upper limbs

    I.

    Pectoral girdle

    G.

    F.

    H.

    J.

    K.

    L.

    Figure 7-1

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  • 104 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    A.

    B.

    C.

    D.

    E.

    F.

    G.

    H.

    I.

    J.

    K.

    L.

    M.

    N.

    O.

    P.

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 105

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    79. Label the parts of the spinal column as indicated in Figure 7-2.

    A.

    F.

    D.

    E.

    G.

    H.

    Anterior view

    B.

    C1 C2

    C1 C2

    C3 C4 C5 C6 C7

    T1

    T2

    T3

    T4

    T5

    L1

    L2

    L3

    L4

    L5

    T6 T7

    T8

    T9

    T10

    T11

    T12

    C.

    Figure 7-2

    A.

    B.

    C.

    D.

    E.

    F.

    G.

    H.

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  • 106 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    80. Label the bones of the thoracic cage as indicated in Figure 7-3.

    A. (17)

    11

    12

    B.

    C. (812)

    D.(11 and 12)

    Figure 7-3

    A.

    B.

    C.

    D.

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 107

    2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

    81. Label the bones of the hand and wrist as indicated in Figure 7-4.

    A.

    D. E.

    C.

    B.

    Figure 7-4

    A.

    B.

    C.

    D.

    E.

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  • 108 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

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    82. Label the bones of the foot as indicated in Figure 7-5.

    B.

    C.

    A.

    D.

    Figure 7-5

    A.

    B.

    C.

    D.

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 109

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    E. Coloring Exercise 83. Using Figure 7-6, color the skull blue, the axial skeleton green, and the appendicular skeleton red.

    Figure 7-6

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  • 110 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

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    F. Critical ThinkingAnswer the following questions in complete sentences.

    84. Why is the calcaneus a large strong bone?

    85. Differentiate osteoblast, osteoclast, and osteoprogenitor cell.

    86. How does the body maintain proper calcium balance?

    87. Differentiate red and yellow bone marrow.

    88. What defect results from fusion failure of the maxillary bones? Why would it affect speech?

    89. Why are the 11th and 12th pairs of ribs called floating ribs?

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 111

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    90. The glenoid fossa is similar to what structure of the hip?

    91. Why is rickets a common disease in many third world countries?

    92. Differentiate between tendon and ligament.

    93. Explain how aging affects bone and its supporting tissues.

    94. Identify the skeletal system career option that would best fit your interests and explain why.

    95. Briefly explain the difference among an orthotist, an orthopedist, and a prosthetist.

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  • 112 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

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    96. Describe what a Doctor of Chiropractic, or chiropractor, does and the training required to become one.

    G. Crossword Puzzle

    1 2 3 4 5 6

    7 8 9

    10 11 12 13

    14 15 16

    17 18

    19 20

    21

    22 23 24

    25

    26

    27 28

    29 30

    31 32 33 34

    35

    36 37 38 39

    40

    41

    42

    43

    44

    45

    46 47

    48 49

    Complete the crossword puzzle using the following clues.

    ACROSS DOWN

    1. Narrow junction between two bones 2. Disease caused by lack of vitamin D

    5. Sharp, slender projection 3. Opening in bone for nerve or blood vessel, etc.

    8. Bone supporting the tongue 4. Bone depressions

    12. Ear bone referred to as the anvil 6. Bones forming the bridge of the nose

    14. Five unfused vertebrae in the lower back 7. Knuckle-like prominence at an articulation point

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  • Chapter 7 The Skeletal System 113

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    Aayshah, a 13-year-old girl, is being evaluated by her health care provider. Aayshah, who has an abnormal curvature of her spine in the thoracic region, was born with one leg slightly shorter than the other. The health care provider determines that the curvature is progressing in severity, and she refers Aayshah to an orthotist for treatment.

    QUESTIONS

    1. For what skeletal problem is Aayshah being treated?

    2. What are the major causes of this condition?

    3. What is the role of an orthotist in treating individuals with orthopedic disorders?

    C A S E S T U D Y

    16. Shoulder blade 9. Small, rounded process

    17. Mature osteoblast 10. Bone type that protects vital body parts

    19. Connects the head to the rest of a long bone 11. Ear bone referred to as the hammer

    20. 12 vertebrae that connect with the ribs 13. Longest bone of the upper arm

    22. Small rounded bone 15. Pulley-shaped process

    23. Perforating canals 18. Single bone forming the back of the cranium

    26. Bones that make up part of the orbit of the 20. Meshwork of interconnecting bone sections inner angle of the eye

    28. Forms the dense, outer layer of bone

    30. Part of the sternum resembling the handle of a sword

    33. Finger bones

    39. Long, tubelike passage

    40. Narrow ridge of bone

    41. Cavity within a bone

    42. Fibrovascular membrane covering a bone

    44. Making blood cells

    46. Shorter bone of the forearm

    47. Flared portion at the ends of a long bone

    48. Terminal enlargement of a bone

    49. Lines the medullary cavity of long bones

    21. Zygomatic bone

    24. Furrow or groove

    25. Tiny cavities between lamellae

    27. Shaft of long bone

    29. Soft spot on a babys head

    31. Cells responsible for reabsorption of bone

    32. Spongy bone

    34. Breastbone

    35. Haversian canal

    36. Formation of bone by osteoblasts

    37. Ring of bone around the haversian canal

    38. Bone supporting the nasal cavity structure

    43. Bone whose length exceeds its width

    45. Ear bone referred to as the stirrup

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  • 114 Section 2 Chapter Exercises

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    CHAPTER QUIZ

    1. Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?

    a. support d. movement b. protection e. storage of mineral salts c. nutrient absorption

    Answer:

    2. Longitudinal growth of bone continues until approximately what age in boys?

    a. 15 d. 21 b. 13 e. 16 c. 14

    Answer:

    3. Undifferentiated bone cells are called

    a. osteoclasts d. osteons b. osteoprogenitors e. osteocytes c. osteoblasts

    Answer:

    4. The skeletal system is most closely associated with which system?

    ...

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