The Skeletal System. 206 bones in adult human (about 300 in babies) Functions of the skeleton –Support –Protection for internal organs (heart, brain,

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  • The Skeletal System

  • The Skeletal System206 bones in adult human (about 300 in babies)Functions of the skeletonSupportProtection for internal organs (heart, brain, lungs, etc)Provides movementStores minerals (calcium)Site of attachment for musclesSite of blood cell formation (from bone marrow)

  • Two Parts of a Skeleton Axial and appendicular skeletonAxial skeleton supports central part of body and consists of skull, vertebral column (backbone), and rib cageAppendicular skeleton limbs consists of arms, legs, shoulders, and pelvis (hip)

  • The SkeletonAxial SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton

  • The Male Skeleton vs. Female Skeleton

  • Types of Bone JointsPlace where one bone attaches to another is a jointSome joints allow extensive movement (shoulder), while others are fixed (skull)Three types of bone jointsImmovable fixed joints allowing no movement and the bones may be interlocked (skull)Slightly movable small amount of restricted movement (backbone)Freely movable allow movement in one or more directions and there are four types of freely movable joints

  • Types of Freely Movable JointsBall and socket circular movement (leg and arm)Hinge back and forth movement (elbow and knee)Pivot one bone rotates around another (lower arm)Saddle one bone slides in two directions (thumb/hand)

  • Freely Movable JointsBall-and-Socket JointHinge JointPivot Joint

  • Structure of A Knee Joint

  • Structure of Bone JointsConnective tissue called a ligament holds bones together at a jointArthritis is an inflammation of a joint

  • Structure of BonesBones are living tissue made of living cells and protein surrounded by calciumBone is surrounded by tough layer of connective tissue called periosteumBlood vessels in bone carry oxygen and nutrients to bone

  • Types of Bone and MarrowTwo types of bone compact and spongyCompact bone dense boneSpongy bone less dense, but very strong and adds strength, but not massBone marrow is within cavities of bone and there are two typesYellow bone marrow made up of fat cellsRed bone marrow produces red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets

  • The Structure of BoneFigure 27.28CartilageSpongy bone(contains redbone marrow)Compact boneCentral cavityYellow bone marrowFibrousconnective tissueBlood vesselsCartilage

  • Development of BoneWhen born, most of skeleton is cartilageCartilage is replaced by bone during bone formation, called ossificationWhen cartilage has been completely replaced, the person stops growing

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