The Skeletal System.  1. The Skeletal system performs the following functions:  Support - framework of the body and attachment for muscles  Protection.

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G. Bone Formation

Chapter 6The Skeletal System

A. Functions of Bone and the Skeletal System1. The Skeletal system performs the following functions:Support - framework of the body and attachment for musclesProtection protects internal organsAssisting in movement muscles pull on bones to produce movementMineral homeostasis Bones store several minerals including calcium and phosphorusProduction of blood cells red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and plateletsTriglyceride storage Yellow bone marrow stores triglycerides in its adipose tissueB. Types of bones1. Bones can be classified on the basis of shape and location into four main types. They are, long, short, flat, and irregular.2. Long bones have a greater length than width and a variable number of ends. Examples include the femur (thigh bone) and humerus (arm bone).3. Short bones are somewhat cubed shaped and nearly equal in length and width. Examples include most wrist and anklebones.4. Flat bones are thin and comprised of two or more or less parallel plates of compact tissue enclosing spongy bone. Examples: skull, hip, and sternum, ribs5. Irregular bones have complex shapes and include vertebrae and some facial bones6. Sesamoid a bone that connects to ligaments, tendons, or muscles instead of another bone the patella (knee cap)C. Structure of Bone1. The typical anatomy of a long bone includes the following:Diaphysis shaft or long cylindrical, main portion of the bone.Epiphyses the distal and proximal ends of a long bone.Metaphyses the areas where the diaphyses and epiphyses meetArticular cartilage -a thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the epiphyseal ends at an articulation point with another bonePeriosteum the tough, dense irregular CT on the outer surface of the boneMedullary cavity space within the diaphysis; it contains fatty yellow bone marrow in the adult.Endosteum thin membrane lining of the medullary canal which contains bone-forming cellsObserve the diagram of the structure of a long bone and identify ...562 x 440130KBusi.eduEnlargeView all

D. Histology of bone1. Structurally, several types of connective tissue are involved in the skeletal system. These include cartilage, dense CT, and osseous tissue.2. bone is connective tissue with a great deal of extracellular substance (Matrix) and sparsely distributed cells. The extracellular substance consists of 25% water, 50% mineral salts, and 25% collagenous fibers. The collagenous fibers form the framework around which the salts will harden (or crystallize).3. The types of cells found in bone tissue are:a. Osteogenic cells Beginning cells that form osteoblasts.b. Osteoblasts Build new bone material > form osteocytesc. Osteocytes Mature bone cell that maintains bone tissued. Osteoclasts Huge type of WBC that breaks down bone tissue** Normal bone building includes a balance between osteoblasts building bone tissue and osteoclasts breaking down bone tissue4. The typical long bone has several parts. The microscopic structure is easier to understand if one is first familiar with its gross structure.5. Bone is not solid. It contains a SOLID REGION (Compact bone), and a more POROUS REGION (Spongy or cancellous bone)6. The structural unit of compact bone is the OSTEON or HAVERSIAN SYSTEM. It is characterized by a concentric ring structure or layer (lamellae), a central (Haversian) Canal which is surrounded by interspersed layers of matrix, and osteocytes in small spaces (lacunae), from which radiate tiny channels ( canaliculi)7. The structural unit of cancellous (spongy) bone is the trabeculae an irregular latticework of thin columns of bone. Contained in the trabeculae are osteocytes and red bone marrow.E. Compact Bone Tissue1. Compact bone tissue contains few spaces and forms the external layer of all bones.2. Compact bone tissue provides protection and support. It aids in the stress of weight placed upon it.3. Nutrient vessels penetrate compact bone through perforating (Volkmans) canals. And are connected to those of the central (Haversian) canals. (They run horizontal)4. The Central canals run lengthwise (longitudinally) and are surrounded by concentric lamellae.5. The lamellae contain small spaces called lacunae which contain the osteocytes.6. Radiating from the lacunae are the canaliculi which contain the slender process of the osteocytes. These interconnect all of the lacunae to the central canal.7. The sum of the central canal, surrounding lamellae, lacunae, osteocytes, and canaliculi comprise the Haversian System or Osteon.F. Spongy Bone Tissue1. Spongy bone tissue does not contain true osteons. It is composed of an irregular latticework of thin plates of bone called trabeculae in which the microscopic spaces are filled with red bone marrow.2. Spongy bone tissue comprises the bulk of all bones in the body and the spongy bone tissue of the hipbones, ribs, breastbone, backbones, and some of the epiphyseal ends of long bones, is the site of red bone marrow and hemopoiesis (making of blood cells) in the adult.G. Bone Formation1. Bone formation, or OSSIFICATION, begins with OSTEOGENIC CELLS, these arise from mesenchymal embryonic connective tissue.2. The osteogenic cells give rise to OSTEOBLASTS, which form BONE.3. Bone formation takes place in the embryo, within mesenchyme arranged in sheetlike layers that resemble membranes (intramembranous ossification), or in hyaline cartilage (endochondral ossification)

4. The SURFACE SKULL BONES and MANDIBLE are formed by INTRAMEMBRANOUS OSSIFICATION5. The OTHER BONES, including the LOWER SKULL BONES, are formed by ENDOCHONDRAL OSSIFICATION.6. The cartilage that exists between the epiphysis and diaphysis is the epiphyseal plate. It permits growth in length until adulthood7. When the ossification process is complete, the cartilage in the epiphyseal plate ossifies (becomes bone) and forms the epiphyseal line.

Factors Affecting Bone Growth*1. Adequate Minerals calcium, phsphorus, magnesium2. vitamins A, C, & D3. Several Hormones4. weight bearing exercises running, weights, walking, etc.

Look at table 6.1 on page 124***H. Factors affecting Bone Growth1. bone growth is under control of the HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (hGH) from the anterior pituitary gland as well as ovarian and testicular sex hormones.2. VITAMINS A, C, and D are also necessary for the absorption of calcium ions from the digestive tract into the blood, proper bone mineralization, calcium removal from the bones, and reabsorption of calcium from potential urine via kidney tubules.3. Adequate minerals, such as calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium are essential for proper bone growth.4. Growth and remodeling of bone is also dependent on several hormones and upon weight-bearing exercise.I. Bones Role in Calcium Homeostasis1. Bone stores 99% of the total amount of calcium present in the body.2. Calcium becomes available to other tissue when bone is broken down during remodeling.This is controlled by CALCITONIN(CT), PARATHYROID HORMONES (PTH), and VITAMIN D.PTH activates the osteoclasts and decreases bone density by increasing calcium levels.Exercise and Bones1. When placed under mechanical stress, bone tissue becomes stronger. Absence of mechanical stress weakens bone2. The important mechanical stresses result from the pull of skeletal muscles and the pull of gravity.23K. Divisions of the skeletal system1. The adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones in two principal divisions 2. The axial skeleton is composed of 80 bones.3. The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones.

L. Axial Skeleton: Skull1. The SKULL rests atop the vertebral column and consists of the CRANIAL BONES (8) and FACIAL BONES (14)2. The CRANIAL BONES are the FRONTAL bone (1), PARIETAL bones (2), TEMPORAL bones (2), OCCIPITAL bone (1), SPHENOID bone (1), and ETHMOID bone (1).3. The FACIAL bones are the NASAL bones (2), MAXILLA (2), ZYGOMATIC bones (2), MANDIBLE (1), LACRIMAL (2), PALATINE bones (2), INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2), and the VOMER(1)

M. Sutures1. Sutures are immovable joints in an adult found only in the skull bones. They are represented by the following:CORONAL SUTURE unites the frontal bone with the two parietal bones (Where you would wear a crown)SAGITTAL SUTURE unites the two parietal bones (where you would make a sagittal cut down the skull)LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE unites the occipital bones with the two parietal bonesSQUAMOUS SUTURE unites the two parietal bones with the temporal bone.N. Paranasal sinuses and fontanels1. Certain skull bones contain paranasal sinuses, which serve as resonating chambers, and produce mucus they also help lighten the skull.2. Fontanels are membrane-filled spaces found between cranial bones. They enable the fetal skull to compress during labor and delivery.

O. Axial skeleton: Hyoid bone1. the HYOID bone is unique in that it does not articulate with any other bone n the body. It acts as an attachment site for several muscles and ligaments of the tongue, neck, and pharynxP. Axial Skeleton: Vertebral Column1. The VERTEBRAL COLUMN is composed of 26 bones, distributed into five regions2. the CERVICAL REGION in the neck region contains 7 bones. The THORACIC REGION CONTAINS 12 bones. The LUMBAR region contains 5 bones. The SACRAL region contains 5 bones fused into one. The COCCYGEAL region can contain up to 4 bones fused into one.Figure 6.12a

3. There are FOUR CURVES found in the normal vertebral column. They aid to increase strength, maintain balance, absorb shocks, and prevent fracturing of the vertebral column bones4. The THORACIC and SACRAL CURVES are primary curves, remnants of the fetuss single anteriorly concave curve5. The CERVICAL and LUMBAR CURVES are anteriorly convex. These secondary curves develop as a child begins to hold the head up (cervical curve) and assumes an upright position (lumbar curve) respectively.

6. Between each vertebrae there is a disc of fibroelastic cartilage called the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC, which serves to act as a shock absorber.7. The typical vertebra can be characterized by specific components. These are a BODY, VERTEBRAL ARCH (PEDICLE & LAMINA), SEVEN PROCESSES. Some exceptions do occur in the cervical and sacral regions.

Q. Axial Skeleton: Thorax1. the THORACIC CAGE consists of the STERNUM, RIBS (and the associated costal cartilages), and the BODIES OF THE THORACIC VERTEBRAE. It protects the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavity.2. The STERNUM is composed of three major areas. These are the MANUBRIUM, BODY, and the XIPHOID process.

3. Twelve pairs of RIBS make up the thoracic cavity. They attach posterior to the thoracic vertebrae.4. The FIRST SEVEN PAIRS of RIBS are attached directly to the sternum via hyaline cartilage and are called the TRUE RIBS.5. The remaining FIVE PAIRS OF RIBS are referred to as the FALSE RIBS because their costal cartilages do not directly attach to the sternum.6. The ELEVENTH and TWELFTH FALSE RIBS are also called the FLOATING RIBS because their anterior ends do not attach at all.

R. Appendicular Skeleton1. There are 126 bones of the appendicular skeleton.2. the Appendicular Skeleton consists of the Pectoral (Shoulder) girdles, upper limbs, pelvic(hip) girdle, and the Lower limbs.

S. Appendicular Skeleton: Pectoral Girdles1. The Pectoral or Shoulder Girdles attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. Each of the two pectoral girdles consists of two bones: A Clavicle and a Scapula2. The Clavicle articulates with the sternum at the sternoclavicular joint.3. The scapula articulates with the clavicle and the humerus.

T. Appendicular Skeleton: Upper Limbs1. Each upper extremity consists of 30 bones (60 total). This includes the Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, and Phalanges.2. The Humerus, or arm bone, is the longest and the largest bone in the upper extremity.3. The forearm contains the radius and the ulna, which lie parallel to one another. The ulna is medial to the radius. The radius and ulna articulate with the humerus and distally with the carpus (wrist)4. Eight Carpal bones comprise each wrist and are bound together by ligaments.5. Distal to the carpal bones are five Metacarpal bones contained in the palm of each hand.6. A total of 14 Phalanges comprise the five digits of each hand. Each digit is comprised of a proximal, medial, and distal phalanx except the thumb, which lacks a medial phalanx.

U. Appendicular Skeleton: Pelvic Girdle1. The PELVIC GIRDLE consists of two hip (coxal) bones and provides a strong and stable support for the lower extremities on which the weight of the body is carried.2. Together with the sacrum and coccyx, the two coxal bones form the PELVIS3. the PELVIS is anatomically subdivided into the false pelvis, and the true pelvis.

4. Each coxal bone is composed of three separate bones at birth. These are the ILIUM, ISCHIUM, and PUBIS. These bones fuse at the ACETABULUM. (Attachment area for the femur.)5. The two coxal bones articulate posteriorly with the sacrum and are fused by fibrocartilage anteriorly at a region called the symphysis pubis.

V. Appendicular Skeletons: Lower Limb1. The lower extremities are composed of 30 bones (60 in total).2. The FEMUR, or thighbone, is the longest and heaviest bone in the body and lies distal to the pelvic girdle.3. Distal to the femur is the patella which lies anterior to the knee joint.4. Distal to the patella are the TIBIA and FIBULA. They are parallel bones in the lower leg. The TIBIA is larger and medial and bears the major portion of weight in the leg.5. The TARSUS is a collective term for the seven bones of the ankle called the tarsals. The two largest ones, the talus and the calcaneus, are located on the posterior part of the foot. These bones articulate with the tibia and the fibula.6. The METATARSUS consists of five metatarsal bones and are analogous to the metacarpals of the palm of the hand.7. The PHALANGES of the foot resemble those of the hand in both number and arrangement. All are comprised of three bones except for the big toe which consists of two bones.

W. Arches of the foot1. The bones of the foot are arranged in two arches that enable the foot to support the weight of the body, provide an ideal distribution of body weight over the hard and soft tissues of the foot, and provide leverage while walking.2. The TWO ARCHES are the LONGITUDINAL ARCH and the TRANSVERSE ARCH.The arches are flexible.

4. The LONGITUDINAL ARCH runs from the front to the back of the foot, and consists of a medial and lateral part.5. The TRANSVERSE ARCH is formed by the navicular, third cuneiform, and the proximal end of the fifth metatarsal.6. The bones comprising the arches are maintained in position by the ligaments and tendons of the foot.

X. Comparison: Female and Male skeletons1. Male bones are g...

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