the role of motivation and motivational strategies in ... role of motivation and motivational...

Download The Role of Motivation and Motivational Strategies in ...  Role of Motivation and Motivational Strategies in Saudi Students’ Communicative Competence in English By: ... from the two groups answered a questionnaire

Post on 16-Apr-2018

213 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • The Role of Motivation and Motivational Strategies in Saudi

    Students Communicative Competence in English

    By:

    Amal A. Alnatheer

    Bachelor of English Literature, Riyadh, KSA, 2005

    Master of TESOL, QUT, AUS, 2009

    Thesis submitted in accordance with the regulations for

    Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    School of Cultural and Professional Learning

    Faculty of Education

    Queensland University of Technology

    Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    PhD Thesis 2013

  • ii

    This thesis is dedicated to my Husband, my Son, and my Parents

  • iii

    Declaration of Authorship

    The work contained in this thesis has not been previously submitted for a degree or

    diploma at any higher education institution. To the best of my knowledge and belief, th

    thesis contains no material previously published or written by another person except

    where due reference is made.

    Signed: Date: J.

  • iv

    Supervisory Panel

    Principal Supervisor

    Dr. Karen Woodman

    Faculty of Education

    School of Culture and Professional Learning

    Queensland University of Technology

    Associate Supervisor

    Associate Professor Karen Dooley

    Faculty of Education

    School of Curriculum

    Queensland University of Technology

    Associate Supervisor

    Dr. Susan Walker

    Faculty of Education

    School of Early Childhood

    Queensland University of Technology

  • v

    Keywords

    Communicative competence, second language motivation, teaching strategies

    supporting motivation, Saudi students in Saudi Arabia, Saudi students in Australia,

    second language learning, Gardners socio-educational model.

  • vi

    Abstract

    Motivation and motivational strategies are generally believed to enhance student

    communicative competence in English as a foreign language; yet, there is not much

    empirical evidence to support this claim. This investigation focused on how motivation

    and motivational strategies influence Saudi students communicative competence. In the

    First Phase, 16 participants were interviewed from two groups of Saudi students: Saudi

    students who were enrolled in English courses in Australian educational institutions and

    Saudi students living in Saudi Arabia who had graduated from Saudi Arabian high

    schools and were studying in English language institutes in Saudi Arabia. In the Second

    Phase, 279 participants from the two groups answered a questionnaire. The

    questionnaire included items derived from Gardners (1985, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007)

    Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) and items from Drnyei (2001b), Cheng and

    Drnyei (2007) and Guilloteaux and Drnyei (2008) motivational strategies framework

    for foreign language classrooms. The results indicated that participants measured and

    self-reported communicative competence differed between the two groups. The

    Australian group had higher levels of measured and self-reported communicative

    competence than the Saudi group. Another finding is that participants communicative

    competence is significantly affected by motivation. Also, the results indicated that

    teaching strategies supporting motivation do not directly affect students

    communicative competence, but rather affect their motivation.

  • vii

    Acknowledgements

    First, and foremost, praise is due to God, Who bestowed upon me the ability and skills

    to complete this thesis.

    I would like to thank Dr. Karen Woodman, Associate Professor Karen Dooley and Dr.

    Susan Walker for having been such supportive supervisors. All of them have been very

    enthusiastic, energetic and consistent in providing me with guidance, encouragement,

    and unlimited mentoring support. I am also appreciative of their unlimited support in

    improving my research skills. Many thanks for their patience, effort and valuable

    guidance. I have been very fortunate to have them as my supervisors.

    I would like to thank Dr. Paul Shield (Queensland University of Technology) for

    providing invaluable comments and suggestions during the quantitative analysis of my

    study. I also wish to thank my sponsor Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    for providing me an opportunity to continue my higher education. Many thanks are also

    due to all the individuals who willingly participated in the interviews and the

    questionnaire.

    Last but not least, I wish to thank my husband for his patience, care, support and

    continual encouragement, which has enabled me to complete this thesis. His sacrifices

    have not gone unnoticed. I also extend special thanks to my parents for their continual

    support and prayers. I am grateful to my brothers, sisters, relatives and friends who have

    always encouraged me during this time. My last words are for my little son, Abdullah,

    who has brightened my days during the last few months in my PhD journey.

  • viii

    Contents

    Declaration of Authorship ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    Abstract ............................................................................................................................ vi

    Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................... vii

    List of Figures ................................................................................................................. xv

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................ xvii

    List of Abbreviations ...................................................................................................... xx

    Chapter 1: Introduction ..................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Background to the study ..................................................................................... 4

    1.1.1 The place of English in the Saudi society ................................................... 4

    1.1.2 English in the education system in Saudi Arabia: Influences on motivation

    and communicative outcomes ................................................................................... 5

    1.2 Social factors as influences on motivation and communicative competence .. 10

    1.3 Aims of the study ............................................................................................. 16

    1.4 The research questions and hypotheses ............................................................ 16

    1.5 Significance of the proposed study .................................................................. 18

    1.6 Structure of the thesis ....................................................................................... 18

    Chapter 2: Literature Review .......................................................................................... 20

    2.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 20

    2.2 Theories of communicative competence .......................................................... 20

    2.2.1 Definitions................................................................................................. 21

    2.3 Motivation and its relation to students communicative competence .............. 29

    2.3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 29

    2.4 The studys model ............................................................................................ 29

  • ix

    2.4.1 First part of the model: Gardners (1985, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2007) Socio-

    educational Model ................................................................................................... 32

    2.4.1.1 The history of motivational research in L2 learning ......................... 33

    2.4.1.2 The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) ................................ 37

    2.4.2 Second part of the model: Teaching strategies supporting motivation .... 49

    2.4.2.1 Teachers communicative style ......................................................... 50

    2.4.2.2 Language class activities ................................................................... 57

    2.5 Chapter Summary ............................................................................................ 61

    Chapter 3: Research Methodology ................................................................................. 62

    3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................... 62

    3.2 Research design and methods .......................................................................... 62

    3.2.1 Research design ........................................................................................ 62

    3.2.2 Justification of research design ................................................................ 63

    3.3 Conceptual model development ....................................................................... 66

    3.4 The interview study ......................................................................................... 66

    3.4.1 Selection of interview participants ........................................................... 67

    3.4.2 Development of the interview guide ....

Recommended

View more >