The Old Testament: A Very Brief Overview What ’ s in the Book? The Old Testament (OT) The Old Testament (OT) The Hebrew Bible (HB) The Hebrew Bible (HB)

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  • The Old Testament:A Very Brief Overview

  • Whats in the Book?The Old Testament (OT)

    The Hebrew Bible (HB)Torah (Law)Nebiim (Prophets)Kethubim (Writings)

    Best Options: First Testament or Hebrew Bible

  • If Christians continue to use Old Testament (and in my judgment that is preferable), they must make clear that the term is not pejorative, but descriptive, serving the purpose of distinguishing the books so designated from the New Testament. In traditional Christian thought the Old Testament is Scripture, just as sacred and enduringly valid as the New Testament.Raymond E. Brown, An Introduction to the New Testament, p. xxxiv.

  • Hebrew Bible

  • English BibleThe Structure of the English Old Testament(English 39 = Books) Pentateuch (5)Historical Books (12)Poetry and Wisdom (5)Major Prophets (5)Minor Prophets (12)

  • English Bible

  • Historical ContextThe Biblical Times

  • A Brief but Must-Know Timeline1250 B.C.Moses and Exodus1200-1000 B.C. Joshua: Conquest, SettlementJudges1000 B.C. David/United Monarchy922 B.C. Division of the Kingdom722 B.C. Fall of the Northern Kingdom (Israel)586 B.C. Fall of the Southern Kingdom (Judah)538 B.C. Edict of Persian King Cyrus; Return from Exile

  • SEQ CHAPTER \h \r 1Old Testament Timeline

    Biblical Period

    Patriarchal

    Egypt/Desert

    Promised Land

    Judges

    United Monarchy

    Divided Kingdom

    Exile

    Restoration

    Biblical Events

    Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph

    Moses, Joshua

    Deborah, Gideon,

    Samson, etc.

    Saul, David, Solomon

    Enemies

    Environment

    Egypt, Canaanites

    Philistines

    All Quiet

    Assyria, Babylon

    Persia

    Samaritans

    Time

    Creation - 1500 B.C.

    1250 B.C.

    1200 B.C.

    1050-930 B.C.

    Northern Kingdom (Israel)

    930-722 B.C.

    Southern Kingdom (Judah):

    930-586 B.C.

    Northern Kingdom:

    Lost 10 Tribes

    Southern Kingdom:

    Exiled to Persia

    1. Zerubbabel

    515 B.C.

    2. Ezra

    458 B.C.

    3. Nehemiah

    445 B.C.

    Biblical Books

    Genesis

    Exodus-Deut

    Joshua

    Judges

    Ruth

    1 Sam -

    1 Kings 11

    1 Kings 12-

    2 Kings

    Isaiah

    Esther

    Daniel Ezekiel

    Ezra, Nehemiah,

    Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

  • EdenNoahAbraham/Isaac/JacobDown into Egypt with Joseph & the Tribes(??)(??)@2000 BCE (@1850)@1850 BCE (@1700)Hyksos Period in Egypt- @1650-1550EXODUSCONQUEST & SETTLEMENTTHE UNITED MONARCHY1446 BCE (@1290)Desert Wanderings40 yrsJoshua & the Conquest@1400 (@1250)Era of the JudgesSamuelSaul/David/Solomon@1020/@1000/@960THE DIVIDED MONARCHYJeroboam I 932 BCEThe Omrides876-843Ahab869ElijahDynasty of Jehu843-745Jereboam II786Hosea & AmosSyro-Ephraimite Wars 734-732Series of assassinations745-722722 BCE AssyrianDestruction (Shalmaneser V)Moabite Stone - @840 BCERehoboam I932 BCEJehosaphat873Uzziah783Ahaz735Hezekiah715Manasseh695Dan Stele - @850IsaiahIsaiahJosiah640-609Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim,Jehoiachin1st Deportation609-59770 yrs

    Edict of Cyrus538 BCETemple Rebuilt520-515 BCEHaggai & ZechariahEzra & Nehemiah458-398 BCEMalachiPATRIARCHAL PERIODJeremiah Merneptah Stele - @1220 BCE587/6BCETHE EXILETHE RETURN2ND TEMPLE JUDAISMBabylon falls to Medo-Persian Empire- 539 BCEZedekiah597-586

    EzekielDaniel Assyria falls to Babylon-612 BCE Egypt defeated at Carchemish-605 BCE

    Sennacheribs Campaign- 701 BCENahumJeremiah BabylonianDestruction (Nebuchadrezzar)Alexander Hasmoneans 336 BCE 152-64 BCEMicahJeremiah

  • Historical ContextThe Biblical Places

  • Where Did These Events Take Place?Fertile CrescentMesopotamiaEuphrates and Tigris RiversFertile yet politically unstableAssyria Babylon Persia Greece Rome

  • Where Did These Events Take Place?EgyptNile RiverFertile and stable

  • Where Did These Events Take Place?PalestinePalestines geographic features made isolation the norm

  • The Zones of Israel

  • Canaan in the Days of Abraham

  • Cultural ContextThe Biblical Culture

  • Thinking Like an AncientThe ancient world of which Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Paul were a part was in various ways very unlike modern western culture.

  • 1. HONOR and SHAMEA primary value is honor, life is a secondary value in such a culture. Better to die than to be dishonored or shamed. Honor was a public and male value in this culture, shame a private, and often female value.Society was structured such that one got ahead by means of Honor challenges-- in which there were always winners and losers.

  • 2. Group vs. Individual IdentityAncient Mediterranean persons got their primary sense of identity not from their uniqueness but from the groups and locale of which they were a part-- in particular, their family group (OT tribe or father, Jeremiah, son of Hilkiah) ethnic group (Ruth the Moabite) homeland (e.g. Elijah the Tishbite 1 Kings 17:1)

  • 3. LIMITED GOODIn antiquity, goods, services, honor, and the like were all in limited supply. If one person had them another did not. Thus one spent much of one's time trying to protect what one had. There was not a free market economy. Bartering, trading, stealing, or winning were the chief means of obtaining what one did not have. One could seldom earn improvement in life, it had to be bestowed and one had to know the right people.

  • 4. PATRON-CLIENT RelationshipsThe chief means of succeeding in antiquity was through patronage. Favors and payback were the order of the day. Once one entered a patron-client relationship, it was difficult if not impossible to get out. In such a culture, grace was a foreign concept.

  • 5. A PATRIARCHAL WORLDThe ancient world was highly patriarchal and male-centered. Not only was it a male dominated world, but the major values of the world were set up to keep it that way. Ancient literature was almost all written from a male point of view. Higher Education was basically the provenance of males, and so most ancient literature was written by and for men. In this world, we should see Gods attempt to modify patriarchy as much more revolutionary than they appear today.

  • Ancient Near Eastern (ANE) World ViewConcept of ContinuityNatueHumanity

    NatureDeity

  • The Biblical World ViewConcept of TranscendenceGodNatueHumanityNatureGodGod

  • CONTRASTING WORLDVIEWSANCIENT NEAR SCRIPTURAL EASTERN1. Polytheism1. Monotheism2. Continuity2. Discontinuity3. Role of history= 3. History = insignificant significant

  • A Theology of Biblical History

    History is not just facts.Its interpretation

    History is not all the facts.Its selective

  • A Theology of Biblical HistoryHistory is linearBeginning, middle, end (Exception: Judges 2:6-3:6)History is purposefulSomething (someone) stands behind history, pushing it to a climax

  • A Theology of Biblical HistoryHistory is RelationalGod acts not by determinism but in response to our relationship to HimHistory is Crisis-OrientedLeads to a decision for something or someone

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