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  • The NEMO Collaboration The NEMO Project

    An underwater Cherenkov telescope in the Mediterranean Sea Looking for high energy neutrinos

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    An AGN is as luminous as 10 billions suns

    An Active Galactic Nucleus

    AGNs emit radiowavesand optical radiation

    Hubble Space Telescope can seen deeper than other Telescopes..but only neutrinos can

    reveal us the sectretsof the engine of the AGN: the Black Hole

    Buco nero ?

    The brightest and most powerful sources in the Universe

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Neutrinos can travel the entire Universe

    Electromagnetic radiation is strongly absorbed

    Protons are deflected or absorbed during their journey in the space

    1 parsec (pc) 3 light years 30.000 billions km

    Only neutrinos may come from the deepest space

    AGN and Gamma Ray Bursts are

    extremely powerful sources of radiation

    and particles

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    How we see neutrinos ? In the Sea !

    neutrino

    The telescope will be equiopped with 4000 light detectors

    neutrino

    Depth: 3500m

    AGN

    Connection to shore: 80 km

    Picture from ANATRES

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The Present Projects

    Southern Hemisphere: AMANDA-ICECUBE

    Northern Hemisphere: The Mediterranean km3

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The NEMO Collaboration

    INFN:Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Genova, LNF, LNS, Messina, Roma

    CNR:Istituto di Oceanografia Fisica (La Spezia)Istituto di Biologia del Mare (Venezia)Istituto Talassografico (Messina)Istituto GEOMARE-SUD (Napoli)

    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

    Istituto Nazionale di Oceanorafia e Geofisica Sperimentale (Trieste)

    Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali (Pavia)

    Marina Militare Italiana

    Saclant NATO Undersea Research Centre

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Investigated sites

    Test Site

    35 50 N, 16 10 E (3350m) in the Jonian Sea (Capo Passero) 39 05 N, 13 20 E (3400m) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Ustica))39 05 N, 14 20 E (3400m) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Alicudi)40 40 N, 12 45 E (3500m) in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Ponza)

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Capo Passero characteristics

    distance from the cosat ~ 80 km

    distance from shelf break >40 km

    close to ports, international airport, Labs

    depth > 3300 m

    bathimetric profile is flat over 10 km2

    average current Intensity ~ 3 cm/sec (max < 15 cm/s)

    light attenuation length ~ 35 m (42 m in March)

    light absorption length ~ 70 (100 m in March)

    biological activity is low

    measured sedimentation rate and fouling rate are low

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Vessels for marine investigation

    The Oceanographic Vessel Urania

    SOPROMAR-CNR

    The Corvette Urania

    Marina Militare ItalianaThe Oceanographic Vessel Thetis

    SOPROMAR-CNR

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Current metres

    Buoy

    RCM8

    40cm

    360m

    RCM8

    100m

    Acoustic Release

    Current Metre Aanderaa RCM8

    Current metre and sediment trap chain moored in Capo Passero

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Deep Sea Current Measurements (August 1998 - running)

    Detailed report available at OGS

    North10 cm/secTidal Effect Filtered out

    Raw DataNorth10 cm/sec

    Lat:3630N Long:1550E Depth: 3350m

    current meter moored @ -3325m

    Average current intensity: 3.6 cm/sec

    RMS: 2.5 cm/sec

    Average angle: 8 NW

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Sediment Trap

    50 cmThe Jonian Sea has a low biological activity

    Current metre and sediment trap chain moored in Capo Passero KM4

    Buoy

    RCM8

    360m

    Sediment Trap

    16m

    RCM8

    100m

    Acoustic Release trap moored @ -3210m

    Collected data are integrated over a 15 days period.

    Sediment Trap re-deployed in August 2001, running

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Sediments

    days

    July 1st

    Northern Ionian Sea(1997 data)

    Flux

    (mg

    m-2

    day-

    1 )

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Biofouling short term measurement

    22/12/99

    0.60

    0.70

    0.80

    0.90

    1.00

    1.10

    1.20

    1.30

    0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

    days

    tran

    spar

    ency

    theta 75 theta 60 theta 45 theta 30 theta 15 theta 5

    Negligible effect of fouling after 40 days

    Transparency =(PD/reference)t / (PD/reference)day#1

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Bioluminescent bacteria

    Bioluminescent bacteria on SWC

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Optical Background data

    PMT: 2 EMI

    Thershold: .16 p.e.

    PMT noise: 50 Hz

    Measured Rate: ~300350 HzCompatible with expected rate from 40K only

    Capo Passero (March 2000)

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Capo Passero

    100 km

    KM2

    KM3

    KM4

    KM2 3610 N 1619E, depth 3350m(1: Jan 99)

    KM3 3630 N 1550E, depth 3345m(1: Feb 99, 1: Aug99, 2: Dec 99)

    KM4 3619N, 1604E, depth 3341m (2: Dec 99, 2: March 00, contiuing )

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The Southern Ionian Sea: KM4 Temperature c(440nm) a(440nm)Salinity

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Comparison of 3000 m sites: La

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Comparison of 3000 m sites: Lc

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    DEep WAter Scatteringmetre

    60 cm

    In situ measurementof the volume scattering function

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Coordinated Feasibility Study for a km3 detector

    Cable construction and deployment

    NEXANS, Pirelli

    Detector:deployment and recovery

    ENI Consortium

    Data/power transmission system

    ALCATEL, Pirelli

    UnderwaterconnectionsOcean Design

    Detector:design and construction

    ENI Consortium

    ROV/AUVoperations

    ENI Consortium

    ENI Consortium: SAIPEM, SASP ENG., TECNOMARE INDUSTRIALE/SONSUB Artists view

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The telescope proposed by NEMOOPNEMO:fast montecarlo code is designed to study the telescopeperformance as a function of:

    detector geometryPMT dimensions, TTSwater optical properties

    Simulations show that a detector of:

    4096 Optical Modules64 Towers600m height200m distance between towers75m La (Capo Passero)

    May acheive:>2km2 trigger area

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The layout of the telescope

    4096 Optical Modules64 vertical structures (towers)200m distance between towers1 main Junction box1 main panel8 secondary junction boxes

    (each serves 8 towers)

    main JB

    secondary JB

    safety loop

    E.O. cable from shore(100km)base of the tower

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Deployment of the Telescope

    main JB

    secondary JB

    safety loop

    SASP and SOSUB (ENI)propose the use of the ROV class Innovator to operate undewater connections.

    Depyment sequence:main E.O. cablemain panel and main JBsecondary JBs and connections8 towers and connections ... E.O. cable from shore

    (100km)

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Cable Design

    AC solution

    NEXANS in collaboration with INFNproposes the following solution:

    100 km Electro-optical cable double armour 48 optical fibers 3 or 4 electrical conductors

    48 OF

    conductors

    DC solution (bipolar)

    The use of 3 or 4 conductors is submitted to the use of: AC (three-phases) DC monopolar (sea return) DC bipolar (cable return)

    48 OF

    conductors

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The NEMO tower

    tensioning cables (dynema)

    arm (fiberglass)

    electronics box

    Optical Modules

    The tower designed by NEMO is a flexible structure tobe constructed in composite material: fiberglass and dynema

    64OM per tower

    4OM per arm (downward and upward directed)

    40 mdistance between arms

    20 marm length

    150 mdistance between the seabed and lowest arm

    16number of arms

    600 mdistance between the lowest and the higest arm

    750 mtower height

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Deployment of the tower

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Deployment of the tower

    75

    0 m

    15

    m

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    The data transmission system

    The base of the tower host the module 1660-SM equipped with: 16 STM-1 modules (one per arm) 1 STM-16 (+1 for redundancy).This module groups the 16 optical signals from 16 arms into 1 wavelength,

    digital signals from 4 OM (one arm) are grouped into one S1.1 electro optical converter

    ALCATEL Italia in collaboration with INFNproposes a commercial, high speed

    telecommunication system.The system provides:

    high reliability and MTBF use of standard telecommunication protocols high speed (40 Gbps per line) auto re-configuration in case of failure

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Data transmission rate

    1 arm (4 OM)S1.1 + STM1155 Mbps

    8 Junction Boxes, 8 modules 1686 WM:4 for data transmission, 4 for redundancy16 each (DWDM)

    48 fibers:16 for the 1686WM (2 fibers each)32 fibers for redundancy

    E.O. cable

    1 tower (64 OM)STM16 + 1660 SM2.5 Gbps in one (DWDM)

    (total redundancy)

    16 towers (4096 OM)1686 WM40 Gbps in 16 (DWDM)

    (total redundancy) Shore station

  • The NEMO Collaboration

    Data transmission in DWDM technology1686 WM 1686 WM

    NEMO

    Spare

    1660 SM100 km

    Main

    Shorestation1686 WM 1686 WM

    data packing (underwater):

    4096 OM (electric) custom

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