The Need for Science/Research and Research Methods Chapter 1

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  • Slide 1
  • The Need for Science/Research and Research Methods Chapter 1
  • Slide 2
  • Why we need Psychological Science and Research Three reasons: 1. Intuition, 2. Hindsight Bias, 3. Overconfidence Intuition = gut instinct That feeling inside of you telling you something is right or wrong That feeling inside of you telling you something is right or wrong Hindsight Bias = after you find out the outcome you believe you knew the outcome all along Examples: Columbia Disaster, Gulf oil spill, Man on the moon(1969) Examples: Columbia Disaster, Gulf oil spill, Man on the moon(1969) Overconfidence = thinking we know more than we do about something; tend to be more confident than correct Examples man will never reach the moon(1957),[Ronald] Reagan doesnt have the presidential look. 1964, Heavier than air flying machines are impossible. 1895 Examples man will never reach the moon(1957),[Ronald] Reagan doesnt have the presidential look. 1964, Heavier than air flying machines are impossible. 1895
  • Slide 3
  • The Scientific Attitude and Critical Thinking The scientific attitude includes being curious, skeptical and humble Explore, ask questions and be willing to make or admit mistakes Explore, ask questions and be willing to make or admit mistakes Accepting those three characteristics allows one to think critically Critical thinkers: Are open minded Can live with uncertainty Distinguish fact from opinion; rely on science rather than personal experience Realize the world is complex; dont over simplify View all available evidence before reaching a conclusion
  • Slide 4
  • The Scientific Method
  • Slide 5
  • Slide 6
  • Research Methods
  • Slide 7
  • Descriptive Method
  • Slide 8
  • Observe, collect, record data Describes but does not explain Easy to collect data Little or no control over variables, biases and behaviors Three types Naturalistic observation, survey method, case study Naturalistic observation, survey method, case study
  • Slide 9
  • Slide 10
  • Naturalistic Observation Watching and recording the behavior of an organism in their natural environment Only describes the behavior Ex: Counting the number of people who wear hats on a college campus
  • Slide 11
  • Survey Method research asks a representative sample (target group) of people oral or written questions to find out about their attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, opinions, and values. mail, face-to-face, by telephone, and the Internet Standardized, Inexpensive, replicable, large amount of data quickly Describes doesnt explain Ex: Student survey of risky behavior
  • Slide 12
  • Case Study detailed in-depth investigation of a single case concerning a person, a family, an organization, or an event. detailed in-depth information Can lead to a hypothesis for further study Doesnt explain, cannot be replicated, reliability and validity are in question Ex: effects of smoking on one individual
  • Slide 13
  • Experimental Method
  • Slide 14
  • Experimental Research Manipulation and control of variables Identifies cause and effect Allows researcher precise control over variables Ethical concerns, practical limitations, artificiality, uncontrolled variables, biases
  • Slide 15
  • Steps for Experimentation 1) Theory - idea Sugar rots your teeth Sugar rots your teeth 2) Hypothesis/Operational Definition testable, measurable, verifiable - Eating one bowl of sugar cereal every morning rots your teeth
  • Slide 16
  • 3) Variables -Independent Variable (IV): manipulated variable (types of cereal, amount of cereal ) - Dependent Variable (DV): actual outcome (rotten teeth) - Confounding Variable: any variable other than the IV that could effect the outcome 4) Groups - Control Group: does not receive treatment (Placebo) - Experimental Group: receives treatment (cereal)
  • Slide 17
  • How groups are selected Population People that the sample is drawn from People that the sample is drawn from Ex: Swampscott High SchoolEx: Swampscott High School Sample Subjects drawn from a particular population; target group Subjects drawn from a particular population; target group Ex: 9 th grade boysEx: 9 th grade boys Random Sample Randomly choosing from a population Randomly choosing from a population Ex: picking every 10 th student who walks through the doorEx: picking every 10 th student who walks through the door
  • Slide 18
  • Control Measures Single Blind Controls subjects awareness Controls subjects awareness Researcher knows who is receiving active drug and who is receiving placebo Researcher knows who is receiving active drug and who is receiving placebo Researcher can influence results Researcher can influence results Double Blind Controls both subject and researchers awareness Controls both subject and researchers awareness Third party controls distribution Third party controls distribution Less bias Less bias More scientific More scientific
  • Slide 19
  • DrinkBeliefBelief Vodka Tonic Believed drinking Vodka Believed drinking Tonic Water Tonic Water Believe drinking Vodka Believed drinking tonic water Behavior More aggressive Behavior Less aggressive Conclusion: Belief affected behavior more than actual drink Hypothesis: Drinking Vodka causes aggressive behavior
  • Slide 20
  • Correlation Method
  • Slide 21
  • Correlation Correlation Research Statistical analysis of relationships between variables Statistical analysis of relationships between variables Identify relationships and how well one variable predicts another Identify relationships and how well one variable predicts another Helps clarify relationships between variables that cant be examined by other methods and allows prediction Helps clarify relationships between variables that cant be examined by other methods and allows prediction Does not allow researchers to identify cause and effect relationships Does not allow researchers to identify cause and effect relationships Correlation causation Correlation causation
  • Slide 22
  • Types of Correlation Perfect Rarely occurs Rarely occurs Positive When both factors go up (left-right) When both factors go up (left-right) 0 - +1.0 0 - +1.0 Negative When one factor goes up and the other goes down (right left) When one factor goes up and the other goes down (right left) 0 - -1.0 0 - -1.0 Zero No relationship No relationship
  • Slide 23
  • Slide 24
  • Statistical Measures Mean (average) = Median (middle) = Mode (most frequent)= Range (difference between hi/lo) =

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