the mongols

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The Mongols. From their home on the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongols eventually ruled most of Eurasia. Mongol Conquests. Steppes are…. Mongolians were pastoralists. …and nomads. didn’t “wander” followed seasonal patterns to find water and grass for animals. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • The Mongols

  • From their home on the steppes of Central Asia, the Mongols eventually ruled most of Eurasia

  • Mongol Conquests

  • Steppes are

  • Mongolians were pastoralists

  • and nomads didnt wander followed seasonal patterns to find water and grass for animals lived in clans: groups with common ancestor

  • Lived in yurts or gers

  • Yurts are still used in Mongolia today

  • Known for skill on horseback

  • Genghis KhanChingghis or Jenghiz named Temujin

    1206 united Mongols

    given title Genghis Khan or Universal Ruler

    1221 controlled Central Asia

  • army had 3 horses per soldier invented stirrup--could stand, turn, shoot silk underwear under armor for protection13th century saddle

  • Feared yet Respected organized army decimal units: 10 = platoon, 100 = company, 1000 = brigade employed clever strategiesadopted weapons & technology used cruelty as weapon

  • There can be no doubt that even if for a thousand years to come no evil befalls the country, yet will it not be possible to completely repair the damage, and bring back the land to the state in which it was formerly.

    Hamd-Allah Mustawfidescribing damage to Tigris and Euphrates Valley in The Geographical Part of the Nuzhat al-Qulub

  • The Four Khanates

  • Kublai Khan grandson of Genghis

    established Yuan Dynasty in 1279

    moved capital to Beijing rather than ruling from the steppes

    Mongols lived apart from Chinese

    encouraged foreign trade

    tolerated Chinese culture

  • Kublai Khan welcomed many foreigners

    considered more trustworthy than Chinese

    spent 17 years in China

    told stories years later while imprisoned during war between Genoa and Venice

    Travels of Marco PoloMarco Polo

  • Failure to Conquer Japan 1274 forced Koreans to build massive fleet--largest invasion until WWII 1281 typhoon destroyed fleet Japanese praised kamikaze Divine Wind

  • Fall of Mongol Empire after Kublai Khans death resentment grew

    Chinese taxed to finance war

    floods cause famine, disease

    1368 Ming overthrow Yuan

    only Golden Horde continues

  • Focus questionWere the Mongols a regressive force or agents of cultural diffusion in world history?

    Regressive force to make worseCultural diffusionSpread of cultureMovement of ideas from one culture to another

    *Man on horse killing wolves

    **Grassland from northern China to HungaryWestern steppe was home to the AryansNorth of Gobi DesertVery little rain (west more rainy), grassy, extreme temperature range summer/winter*Mongols on horses*Mongols cooking/RVs*Yurt

    **Mongol on horseback

    *Genghis Khan**Tricks: fake retreat, make army look bigger with dummiesNew weapons: captured Chinese engineers, forced them to work for him

    **Mongol empire by 1260Destroyed irrigation system on Tigris/EuphratesSacked numerous cities, some never recovered

    ****