The moderating effect of cultural congruence on the internal marketing practice and employee satisfaction relationship: An empirical examination of Australian and Taiwanese born tourism employees
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<ul><li><p>ecT</p><p>Yu-Ting Huang a,1, Sharyn RundlaDepartment of Hotel and Club Management, School ofb Social Marketing @ Grifth, Grifth Business School, G</p><p>n internand Taationsh</p><p>Accepted 10 December 2013than 200 internal marketing studies are evident in the literature yet few consider the role of an em-ployees own cultural background with no quantitative exploration to date. In response to this gap in the</p><p>engthen the internalarch directions are</p><p>. All rights reserved.</p><p>differences can be. Even travel to a country with the same languageand cultural background involves learning subtle differences invocabulary to communicate effectively. In brief, it may be difcult</p><p>f the different cul-ge and shared un-ht try to adopt theones own culture.derstand whether</p><p>marketing programs are equally effective for all employees in amulti-cultural workforce. Extensive research on internal marketingsuggests that internal marketing can improve many indicators withemployee satisfaction being a frequently explored outcome (ex-amples include Joseph, 1996; Paraskevas, 2001). However, therelationship between internal marketing and employee satisfactionhas been developed within a singular (Western) cultural context(Ville, 2009; Wasmer & Brunner, 1991) and further empiricalresearch is needed. Firstly, to understand whether the internal</p><p>* Corresponding author. Tel.: 61 (0)7 3735 6446; fax: 61 (0)7 3735 7126.E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (Y.-T. Huang), s.rundle-thiele@</p><p>grifth.edu.au (S. Rundle-Thiele).1</p><p>Contents lists availab</p><p>Tourism Ma</p><p>journal homepage: www.els</p><p>Tourism Management 42 (2014) 196e206Tel.: 86 (0)756 3668277; fax: 86 (0)756 3668279.comes with empirical evidence establishing that cultural congruence can further strmarketing and employee satisfaction relationship. Limitations and future reseoutlined.</p><p> 2013 Elsevier Ltd</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>Anyone who has travelled to a country where they have little orno understanding of the local language can understand howisolating the inability to communicate and understand cultural</p><p>to manage a multi-cultural workforce as each otural employee groups brings their own languaderstandings. Foreign and migrant workers mighost culture; however, it is difcult to discardConsequently, organisations may need to unEmployee satisfactionCultural congruence</p><p>was received from English and Traditional Chinese online and face to face surveys of tourism employeesin Australia who were both Australian and Taiwanese born. The data were analysed using conrmatoryfactor analysis and multi-group analysis. The results conrmed the positive internal marketing andemployee satisfaction relationship. Further, this research contributes both applied and theoretical out-Keywords:TourismInternal marketing</p><p>literature, this research seeks to understand whether cultural congruence (the degree to which anorganisation meets an employees cultural needs) moderates the internal marketing practice andemployee satisfaction relationship in a culturally diverse work setting. A sample of 458 valid responsesh i g h l i g h t s</p><p> A persons own cultural background o Internal marketing leads to Australian Companies can improve the IM-ES rel</p><p>a r t i c l e i n f o</p><p>Article history:Received 11 December 20120261-5177/$ e see front matter 2013 Elsevier Ltd.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2013.12.005e-Thiele b,*</p><p>Tourism Management, Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong 519000, Chinarifth University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia</p><p>al marketing (IM) has received limited research focus.iwanese tourism employee satisfaction (ES).ip by catering to employees cultural needs.</p><p>a b s t r a c t</p><p>The role of internal marketing on building employee satisfaction has been empirically established. MoreemployeesThe moderating effect of cultural congrumarketing practice and employee satisfaempirical examination of Australian andAll rights reserved.nce on the internaltion relationship: Anaiwanese born tourism</p><p>le at ScienceDirect</p><p>nagement</p><p>evier .com/locate/ tourman</p></li><li><p>rismmarketing and employee satisfaction relationship extends to anEastern, specically Taiwanese culture and secondly, to understandthe moderating effects of cultural congruence on the internalmarketing and employee satisfaction relationship.</p><p>According to the statistics from the World TourismOrganisation (2012), there are a large proportion of foreign andmigrant employees working in the tourism and hospitality in-dustry worldwide. Recent statistics (ABS, 2010a) suggest theAustralian population was an estimated 21.9 million in 2009. Inthe same year, 81,018 immigrants from more than 185 countriesmigrated to Australia (ABS, 2010a). Nearly 30,000 immigrantscome from Asian countries including both North-East Asia andSouth-East Asia, who account for 23.4 per cent and 11.7 per centrespectively (ABS, 2010a). Furthermore, a language other thanEnglish was spoken at home in 16.2 per cent of Australian homesin 2006, including Italian (10 per cent), Cantonese (7.8 per cent)and Mandarin (7 per cent) to name but a few (Department ofImmigrant and Citizenship, 2010).</p><p>Australia has long been a migrant country and the effect ofimmigration from Britain and Northern Europe to Southeast Asiaand New Zealand signicantly contributed almost 60 per cent oflabour growth (Bennett & Carter, 2001). Asian immigrants con-sisting of the Indians, Chinese, and Vietnamese are one of thelargest migrant populations in Australia (ABS, 2010b). Internationalstudents also account for 40 per cent of the visa-holding popula-tion, and most of them work in services, including tourism andhospitality, customer service, and massage services (ABS, 2012).The Australianworkforce is characterised as onewith people from avariety of different cultural backgrounds. It is the experience of twodifferent cultural members in one country, namely the Taiwanesein Australia and native born Australians who are the focus of thisstudy. In the 1980s Australia targeted Taiwan as a source countryfor business migrants, consequently the Taiwan-born populationrose from 2056 in 1986 to 12,528 in 1991. According to the 2006Census, the estimated rate of Australian citizenship for Taiwan-born people in Australia was 4.1 per cent of the Australian popu-lation (Museum Victoria, 2012). Consequently, Taiwan has rankedsecond in Australian business and skilled migration during the lasttwo decades (Museum Victoria, 2012). Moreover, Taiwan is one ofthe major source countries for tourism and education in Australia.In 2010 over 87,000 Taiwanese visited Australia and there wereover 8400 Taiwanese enrolments in Australian educational in-stitutions. Also, there were over 10,000 Taiwanese people in theWorking Holiday Marker programme (ACPET, 2010; Department ofForeign Affairs and Trade, 2011).</p><p>Currently, most Taiwanese speak a language other than Englishat home; 88.9 per cent speak Mandarin and 2.5 per cent speakHokkien (Depatment of Immigration and Citizenship, 2012).Moreover, the ndings from Tsais (2010) study indicated thatTaiwanese people maintain a Taiwanese culture at home, and tendto absorb Chinese news and information rather than Australiannews and information. Further, the Tsai (2010) study suggests thatTaiwan immigrants continue to celebrate Chinese festivals andholidays, although they will adopt Australian culture outside thehome. In response to the growing number of Taiwanese peopleliving in Australia temporarily and permanently, the Taiwanesepopulation was selected as a focal point for this study. Taiwanesewere expected to have low cultural congruence with tourism andhospitality employers in Australia not necessarily meeting theircultural needs.</p><p>This research aims to consider cultural congruence from datacollected in Australia that targets both Taiwanese and Australianswho are from an English speaking background. The aim of thisstudy is to examine the inuence of cultural congruence on the</p><p>Y.-T. Huang, S. Rundle-Thiele / Touinternal marketing and employee satisfaction relationship. TheAustralian group was expected to provide a group with high cul-tural congruence when compared to a group who had recentlymigrated to Australia. In this study, the migrant group selectedwere the Taiwanese. The unique contribution that is expected toarise from this study is that to date no study has empirically soughtto understand how cultural congruence impacts the internalmarketing-employee satisfaction relationship. An understanding ofdifferent cultural backgrounds and subsequent experiences in theworkplace may assist to build an understanding of how internalmarketing practices could be enhanced to further increaseemployee satisfaction.</p><p>2. Literature review</p><p>Since internal marketing was rst dened as employee as in-ternal customer and job as product by Berry, Hensel, and Burke(1976), there has been a great deal of debate about the construct.Forty-two denitions spanning more than three decades fromBerry et al.s (1976) original denition to that recently put forth byAbzari, Ghorbani, and Madani (2011) are evident in the literature.The generally accepted denition of internal marketing is that in-ternal marketing is a cultural framework and an instrument toachieve strategic alignment between front-line employees andmarketing (Ahmed & Raq, 2003). More specically, internal mar-keting is a collection of human resource (HR) policies and pro-cedures that treat employees as members of an internal marketwho need to be informed, educated, developed, and motivated inorder to serve clients more effectively (Arnett, German, & Hunt,2003). In the beginning internal marketing was a simple conceptwhich has become more complex over time. Furthermore, moststudies have not sought employees views (Barnes, Fox, & Morris,2004; Foreman & Money, 1995). This represents a serious omis-sion given that an employees perceptions are critical to under-standing how well internal marketing is practised. A review of theliterature indicates three signicant ways that internal marketing ispracticed (see Fig. 1). The elements of internal marketing that arepracticed include internal communication (e.g. Naud, Desai, &Murphy, 2003; Varey & Lewis, 1999), training (e.g. Gray, 2006;Zampetakis & Moustakis, 2007) and internal market research (e.g.Paraskevas, 2001; Quester & Kelly, 1999). Based on the extant bodyof literature the current study views internal marketing practice asa three dimensional construct comprised of internal communica-tion, training, and internal market research.</p><p>The ultimate responsibility of key elements of internal mar-keting rests on senior management. An internal marketing pro-gramme requires continuous management support to be effective.For that reason, the internal marketing programme with keyfunctions can then affect employees, leading to better outcomes(see Fig. 1), especially in the tourism and hospitality industry (e.g.Helman & Payne, 1992; King & Grace, 2005; Punjaisri & Wilson,2007). As the majority of studies have previously focussed on therelationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction(for example Helman & Payne, 1992; Joseph, 1996; King & Grace,2010; Tanshhaj, Randall, & McCullough, 1991) this relationshipwas chosen as a basis for the current study.</p><p>Employee satisfaction has been widely examined because of itssignicant impact on organisational performance owing to itsability to form a base for competitive advantage, through improvedservice quality and decreased costs (Bell, Meng, & Stefani, 2004;Broady-Preston & Steel, 2002; Mosahab, Mahamad, & Ramayah,2011). Taken together, the literature suggests that organisationsthat provide and practice internal marketing are more likely tosatisfy their employees. In turn, satised employees are more likelyto deliver to a customers satisfaction and be more productive (Asif</p><p>Management 42 (2014) 196e206 197& Sargeant, 2000; Raq & Ahmad, 2000). Based on previous studies,</p></li><li><p>Y.-T. Huang, S. Rundle-Thiele / Tourism Management 42 (2014) 196e206198internal marketing practice with three specic and signicant di-mensions, if carried out effectively, would be expected to positivelyinuence employee attitudes and behaviours (Bowers & Martin,2007; Bruhn & Georgi, 2000). Therefore, this research hypothe-sises that:</p><p>H1. High internal marketing practice is associated with highemployee satisfaction.</p><p>2.1. Culture in internal marketing</p><p>What is lacking in the internal marketing literature as Joseph(1996) points out; is any empirical evidence of the inuence of an</p><p>Fig. 1. Framework of internal marketing practice (Ahmed and Al-Borie, 2012; Arnett et aBarkensjo, 2005; Berthon et al., 2005; Bouranta et al., 2005; Bussy et al., 2003; Chi et al., 200Chi, 2005; Jou et al., 2008; Karasa et al., 2008; Keller et al., 2006; King and Grace, 2006; LasMoller and Rajala, 1999; Mount, 1999; Papasolomou, 2006; Papasolomou & Vrontis, 2006;2010; Stachowski, 2008; Thomson & Hecker, 2000; Tsai & Wu, 2007).</p><p>Fig. 2. Hypothesiseemployees culture on internal marketing (see Table 1 for internalmarketing studies that consider culture).</p><p>Most internal marketing studies that have considered an em-ployees cultural background were conceptual and qualitative (seeTable 1). Given few studies have empirically quantitatively exam-ined culture; an examination of the signicance of culture in thecurrent study was warranted. Furthermore, Australia is a multi-cultural country in which many recent immigrants are employedin the service sector (Bennett & Carter, 2001). Cultural consider-ations may need to be considered given that each different culturalgroup brings his/her language and cultural background into anorganisation. Similarly, different employees may have differentculture-specic needs. Such an employee may not feel satisedabout their job perceiving a lack of support despite extensive</p><p>l., 2002; Azizi et al., 2012; Back et al., 2011; Bellou & Andronkidis, 2008; Bennett &8; Cooper and Cronin, 2000; Farzad et al., 2008; Gapp and Merrilees, 2006; Hwang andsk et al., 2004; Lee & Chen, 2005; Lings and Greenley, 2005; Logaj & Trnavcevic, 2006;Peltier et al., 2006; Peltier and Scovotti, 2005; Punjaisri et al., 2009; Roberts-Lombard,</p><p>d relationship.</p></li><li><p>develop, utilising the health care philosophy (Costantino et al.,2009), targeted training and communication for foreign workers,so that they could communicate condently with all employees.Cultural congruence not only increases the similarities between</p><p>rism Management 42 (2014) 196e206 199Table 1Considerations of culture in the internal marketing literature.</p><p>Author Context Method Key ndings</p><p>Joseph (1996) Healthcare Conceptual - Culturally diverse employeesmay be linguistically as wellas culturally challenged.</p><p>- Cultural differences existbetween host andforeign workers.</p><p>- Training in culture isnormally expected in theprocess of internal marketing.</p><p>Maguire, Ball,and MacRae(2001)</p><p>Education Interview - The understanding ofcultural differences hasincreased, as the numberof international studentshas increased.</p><p>Kale (2007) Casino Conceptual - The increasing number ofculturally diverse employeesinue...</p></li></ul>
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