The Modelling Journey Part 1: Introduction to Systems Modelling

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul><p>The Modelling Journey Part 1: Introduction to Systems Modelling Slide 2 Introductions Dr. David Millard Senior Lecturer of Computer Science University of Southampton dem@ecs.soton.ac.uk Dr. Yvonne Howard Senior Research Fellow University of Southampton ymh@ecs.soton.ac.uk Part of the JISC Community Support Team Slide 3 Objectives Model (noun): A simplified or idealized description or conception of a particular system, situation, or process, often in mathematical terms, that is put forward as a basis for theoretical or empirical understanding, or for calculations, predictions, etc.; a conceptual or mental representation of something. Oxford English Dictionary To widen the perception of what modelling is To demonstrate modelling techniques with a common example To illustrate the affordances of those modelling approaches, and how they connect together Slide 4 Why a Journey? Modelling is a spectrum of activity The soft Portfolios of evidence Scenarios and Personas Systems Theory (SSM etc.) The hard Universal Modelling Language Business Process Modelling EA Modelling Slide 5 Why a Journey? Modelling is a spectrum of activity The soft Portfolios of evidence Scenarios and Personas Systems Theory (SSM etc.) The hard Universal Modelling Language Business Process Modelling EA Modelling Communication Decision Support Technical Specification Business Intelligence Slide 6 Evidence Gathering The first stage of modelling is to gather evidence This portfolio of evidence is itself a lightweight model Used to communicate problems As evidence for potential solutions Useful to others as context Slide 7 Evidence Gathering Documentation Stakeholder Analysis Surveys Interviews Ethnography Related Studies Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Example: Induction Process SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Slide 8 Evidence Gathering Documentation Stakeholder Analysis Surveys Interviews Ethnography Related Studies Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Example: Induction Process SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Q1: what? Q2: why? Q3: when? Q1: what? Q2: why? Q3: when? Stakeholders Primary: - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary: - - - - - - - - - Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stakeholders Primary: - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary: - - - - - - - - - Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Slide 9 Evidence Gathering Documentation Stakeholder Analysis Surveys Interviews Ethnography Related Studies Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Example: Induction Process SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Q1: what? Q2: why? Q3: when? Q1: what? Q2: why? Q3: when? Observation Notes 0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Observation Notes 0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stakeholders Primary: - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary: - - - - - - - - - Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stakeholders Primary: - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary: - - - - - - - - - Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Slide 10 Evidence Gathering Documentation Stakeholder Analysis Surveys Interviews Ethnography Related Studies Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Induction Policy --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Example: Induction Process SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- SSLC Minutes --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- --------------------------- -- ------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Mission Statement --------------------------- -- ------------------------- --------------------------- Q1: what? Q2: why? Q3: when? Q1: what? Q2: why? Q3: when? Observation Notes 0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Observation Notes 0900 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1000 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1100 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1200 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stakeholders Primary: - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary: - - - - - - - - - Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Stakeholders Primary: - - - - - - - - - - - Secondary: - - - - - - - - - Key: - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Induction at KCL Induction at Bolton Slide 11 Scenarios and Personas Written Scenarios capture a person interacting with a system during a particular activity Accompanying Personas can capture the context of that interaction (motivations, concerns, priorities, etc.) Together they can help give insight into how different individuals experience a system Slide 12 Scenarios and Personas Induction Scenario After students have registered at the centre the School of Arts and Media holds a welcome event where they are introduced to the course, given core materials and receive a welcome from library staff. The School then runs a two day induction workshop. During this time students are given a tour of the facilities by staff, and are introduced to their peers and personal tutor (one of the lecturing staff) at an icebreaking event. Their tutor then helps them to get to know one another a bit better by producing and sharing a professional CV. They also attend WebCT training and have talks and discussions on lifelong learning. After the workshop they engage in ongoing tutorials on topics such as diversity, personal planning and numeracy. A scenario is a narrative account of how a particular interaction unfolds Easy to understand But can be ambiguous A Persona helps to highlight key issues for imaginary (but realistic) participants Slide 13 Scenarios and Personas Persona: Louise Louise is a new full-time student in the School of Arts and Media at Bolton University. She is confident of her own abilities, and excited about the new course. Louise took a few years out after college and is concerned about fitting in with younger students. Her accommodation is a few miles from campus, so she is worried about making friends and getting involved in social activities. Induction Scenario After students have registered at the centre the School of Arts and Media holds a welcome event where they are introduced to the course, given core materials and receive a welcome from library staff. The School then runs a two day induction workshop. During this time students are given a tour of the facilities by staff, and are introduced to their peers and personal tutor (one of the lecturing staff) at an icebreaking event. Their tutor then helps them to get to know one another a bit better by producing and sharing a professional CV. They also attend WebCT training and have talks and discussions on lifelong learning. After the workshop they engage in ongoing tutorials on topics such as diversity, personal planning and numeracy. Slide 14 Scenarios and Personas Persona: Tom Tom is a Lecturer in the School of Arts and Media at Bolton University. He has worked at the University for over ten years, and is proud of their courses and facilities. Toms teaching load is very high, particularly in the first semester, and he is concerned that more pastoral activities (such as tutoring, skills training or induction) will have a negative impact on his time and workload. Induction Scenario After students have registered at the centre the School of Arts and Media holds a welcome event where they are introduced to the course, given core materials and receive a welcome from library staff. The School then runs a two day induction workshop. During this time students are given a tour of the facilities by staff, and are introduced to their peers and personal tutor (one of the lecturing staff) at an icebreaking event. Their tutor then helps them to get to know one another a bit better by producing and sharing a professional CV. They also attend WebCT training and have talks and discussions on lifelong learning. After the workshop they engage in ongoing tutorials on topics such as diversity, personal planning and numeracy. Slide 15 Systems Thinking Slide 16 The structure of the system (components, relationships) creates its behaviour, the emergent properties Components with no structure have individual behaviour but no emergent properties The system as a whole displays behaviour or properties that the individual components do not Soft Systems Methodology Systems Dynamics Critical Systems Heuristics Slide 17 Soft Systems Method: 7 stage description Construct conceptual problem Compare models with problem situation Get information Draw pictures Analyse problem situation Conceive logical system CATWOE Debate with actors Actions for change Real world Conceptual world Slide 18 a system owned by Owner to do What by Actor by means of a Transformation (given the constraints of some Environment) in order to achieve X for Customer Used when formulating definitions for a desired system: called a root definition because it describes the root or core of the activity to be modelled helpful when exploring the problem situation as a basis for change Soft Systems Method: CATWOE Customers/clients Actors Transformation World view Owners Environment Customers/clients Actors Transformation World view Owners Environment Slide 19 Soft Systems Diagram Critical Systems Heuristics Heuristics because it uses a framework to discover boundary judgements To build a reference diagram (Soft Systems Diagram) which can provide a narrative for the evidence that is collected Shows where evidence and information is missing or unsupported Critical because the framework encourages critical questioning of: Legitimacy Ownership Assumptions Motivations Slide 20 Soft Systems Diagram: name, boundary and owner Student Induction System System owner ??? System Boundary Slide 21 Student Induction System System owner ??? New Students Students prepared for learning Beneficiaries &amp; victims Manager/Supervisor Soft Systems Diagram: inputs, outputs, beneficiaries and victims Slide 22 Student Induction System System owner ??? New Students Students prepared for learning Beneficiaries &amp; victims Intro to Student Services School Welcome School Induction Activities University Welcome Programme Induction Soft Systems Diagram: actors and processes Slide 23 Student Induction System System owner ??? New Students Students prepared for learning Beneficiaries &amp; victims Intro to Student Services School Welcome School Induction Activities University Welcome Standards ??? ???? Student feedback Retention rates Student feedback Retention rates Manager/Supervisor measurements Corrective action Programme Induction Soft Systems Diagram: control sub-systems Slide 24 Student Induction System System owner ??? New Students Students prepared for learning Beneficiaries &amp; victims Intro to Student Services School Welcome School Induction Activities University Welcome Standards ??? ???? Student feedback Retention rates Student feedback Retention rates Manager/Supervisor measurements Corrective action webCt, Lifelong learning resources Health &amp; safety Legislation Student sense of belonging Cohort identity Student retention Student sense of belonging Cohort identity Student retention Programme Induction Soft Systems Diagram: resources, authorities, emergent properties Slide 25 Student Induction System System owner ??? New Students Students prepared for learning Beneficiaries &amp; victims Intro to Student Services School Welcome School Induction Activities University Welcome Standards ??? ???? Student feedback Retention rates Student feedback Retention rates Manager/Supervisor measurements Corrective action webCt, Lifelong learning resources Health &amp; safety Legislation alliances conflicts Beliefs Values Attitudes Motivation How can I increase student retention ? Everyone we lose costs Student sense of belonging Cohort identity Student retention Student sense of belonging Cohort identity Student retention Programme Induction I have so much to do already and now thaey want me to blog and measure student satisfaction Soft Systems Diagram: alliances, conflicts, beliefs, values, attitudes, motivations Slide 26 Uni bid review process Soft Systems Activity Scenario: Successfully responding to a JISC Call, and setting up a new project in a University context Evidence: Activity: Drawing on both the evidence and your own experiences create a Soft Systems Diagram of this proces...</p>