the middle east prior to wwi. background on the middle east (me) territory: turkey to afghanistan &...

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  • Slide 1
  • The Middle East Prior to WWI
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  • Background on the Middle East (ME) Territory: Turkey to Afghanistan & part of N. Africa Birthplace for 3 monotheist rel.: Judaism, Christianity, Islam Ottomans: 500 yrs Aft. WWI=Turkey Great Britain (GB)=Palestine, Transjordan, Iraq Fr=Syria, Lebanon
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  • Nation Building Turkey: 1 st republic in ME (1923) Theocracy (Koran) Mustafa Kemal Father of the Turks Persia: controlled by GB and Russia (RU) Never under Ottoman control Shah 1935=Iran
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  • Mustafa Kemal Father of the Turks
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  • Saudi Arabia Bedouin: Shaykh Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud Palestine (PAL) Jews: 586 BCE Chaldeans Returned to PAL by Persians Israel taken off map in AD 6 Fled PAL or stayed w/ Otto. & Arabs
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  • Jewish nationalist=homeland= Zionist Kibbutzim: social farming communities
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  • Anti-Semitism Begins 1.Pogroms in E. Europe & RU forced many to FR, GB, GER, US, PAL
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  • 2.1894 Capt Alfred Dreyfus Jew in FR army & officer Secrets to GER wh/= 12 yrs. in prison Dreyfus Affair
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  • Balfour Declaration (1917) Sir Arthur Balfour: both Jews and Pal. w/ homeland Ea. side believed they had GB support 85,000 (1914) to 445,000 (1930) of pop. Riots broke out; immigration limited
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  • The Middle East WWII-present
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  • Preview What is happening in this photograph? Who are the people that are blindfolded? Why is this event significant?
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  • Processing People are being taken hostage. American citizens Iranian Hostage Crisis Still have a bad relationship with them today; view ea. other as threat
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  • Israel 1948 recreated as ind. Nation PAL felt Jews had best land wh/ = war w/ Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria Arab refugees PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) Yasser Arafat: 1988 said PAL ind. Nation PAL not recognized by the global community
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  • Yasser Arafat Died November 11, 2004 at the age of 75. The exact cause of his illness is unknown.
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  • 1978 border dispute btw. Egypt and Israel finally settled Anwar Sadat: Egypt Menachim Begin: Israel Jimmy Carter: US Nobel Peace Prize 2002 Still working in ME
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  • On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade in Cairo. The assassination had been planned by Omar Abdel-Rahman, a cleric later convicted in the U.S. for his role in the 1993 World trade Center bombing.
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  • The officers in charge of the parade security for Sadat were on hajj to Mecca. As the air force jets flew overhead, distracting the crowd, a troop truck halted before the presidential reviewing stand, and a lieutenant strode forward. Sadat stood to receive his salute, whereupon the assassins rose from the truck, throwing grenades and firing assault rifle rounds. The attack lasted about two minutes.
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  • Culture & conflicts Economy Oil: Organization of Petroleum Exports (OPEC) Rt. Price for their product Oil crisis 1973: shortages & increased prices wh/ forced options 1.Conservation 2.Alternatives
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  • Making the connection The recent oil crisis (2007 to present) has forced what new options? Why do you think the US is reluctant to reduce its dependence on foreign oil?
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  • Tension 1975 Persian Gulf countries w/ highest per capita income in the world=blending of old & new Islamic fundamentalist Obedience to the basic laws of the religion
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  • Iran Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi wanted modernization like the west; great friend of US Conservative Muslims= ayatollahs wanted an Islamic republic in strict obedience to Koran
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  • Ayatollah Khomeini: Death to the Shah Down with America 1979 Shah fled to US & AK to power 1979 US embassy taking 60 AM hostage for 444days; Released in 1981 when Reagan cam to power Demand: Shah be returned to Iran for trial
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  • October 22, 1979 received treatment in NY Died in Egypt on July 27th, 1980, aged 60.
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  • Ayatollah Khomeini
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  • Ronald Reagan
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  • Iraq War w/ Iran over rel. differences Saddam Hussein in power in Iraq wh/ = secular leadership
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  • Hussein Opposed W. influence & wanted to lead an United Arab World against Israel 1979: 20 cabinet members executed wh/ = total obedience due to fear Sword of the Arabs
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  • Iraq under Hussein Testing new world order Charter of Paris 1990 August 2, 1990 Saddam Hussein attacked Kuwait w/I 1 hr. 100,000 Iraqi soldiers @capt. Kuwait city President George Bush = naked aggression
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  • Saddam Hussein
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  • 41st President George Bush
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  • Kuwait 1.War w/ Iran = $80 bil debt 2.120 mile shoreline w/ best deep H20 port 3.2 islands blocked Iraq fr. Gulf 4.Wanted oil reserves 5.Good position to invade Saudi Arabia
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  • President George Bush 1.No 1 nation can dominate the ME 2.Production of nuclear weapons threatened Israel wh/ = war
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  • 3.Upset global balance of power Hussein compared to Hitler Gather allies Operation Desert Shield Congress voted for war 01-16- 1991 Operation Desert Storm=Persian Gulf War Kuwait City freed 02-27-1991
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  • 1993 attack on World Trade Center *News footage video*
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  • What is happening in this picture?
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  • September 11, 2001 Attack on the World Trade Center, New York City Al-Qaeda Osama Bin Laden Afghanistan Saddam Hussein: Iraq
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  • Osama bin Laden
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  • President Bush addresses a joint session of Congress on September 20, 2001
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  • President George W. Bush Weapons of mass destruction 2 nd Persian Gulf War 8 years of fighting
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  • President Obama Slowly w/drawing troops Leaving 33,000 troops there for undetermined amount of time Concerned w/ Iran Sworn to protect Israel
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  • Making the Connection How old were you when 09/11 happened? How has 09/11 directly affected you?
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  • ISIS trail-terror-isis-threat-us-25053190 trail-terror-isis-threat-us-25053190


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