The Leading Edge by Goro Tamai - Complete Index

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The complete index from The Leading Edge by Goro Tamai. For more information on this repair manual, visit http://www.bentleypublishers.com/product.htm?code=grle

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<p>INDEX</p> <p>Aacceleration, force for, 3-4 Ackermann geometry, 140-141 aerodynamic drag, significance of, 1-6 aerodynamic drag components, 69 aerodynamic drag equation, 1-3 aerodynamic drag measurements, 249-253 direct measurement of, 253 indirect measurement of, 251253 aerodynamic moments, 128-132 pitching moment, 131-132 yaw and roll moments, 128-131 AeroVironment solar bike, 128 AeroVironment think tank, 256 air density, 1 air velocity. See velocity air viscosity. See fluid viscosity airflow. See flow airfoils. See also NACA; streamlined body; 2-D airfoils; XFOIL program ground effect on drag, 119 leading-edge (LE) separation, 64 low drag solar cars, 7-8 perturbances near leading edge of, 48-50 in planview, xii-xiii supervelocity effect, 79 thinness of, and Cp slope, 45 very low ground clearance, 126128 AIRSET program, 104, 105 altitude, 23 angle-of-attack, 226 lift reduction and, 119, 134 models, 223 for vehicle testing, 237, 238 for zero lift, 121 animals</p> <p>aerodynamic motive efficiency of, 73 denticles, 66-67 appendages, 255. See also canopies; fairings angle with body in front view, 149-150 drag of, 220 fillet radius along side of, 150151 junctions, 147-158, 268 APS Solar/Electric 500, 1991, 15 atmospheric pressure, 1 attached air/fluid flow, 7 attachment-line contamination, 52 average skin-friction coefficient Cf. See total skin-friction coefficient Cf Awet. See wetted area axisymmetric teardrop body (torpedo), xi-xii, 10, 56 axles, lift imbalance between front and rear, 131-132 Aztec College 1995 Pure Energy, 190</p> <p>Bbase area (flow separation), 10, 11 battery ventilation, 210, 212-213 bellypan, 226, 228 fairings mounted to, 149-150 ground clearance of, 116-119, 126 laminar flow and, 116-117, 131, 196-197, 199, 264, 268 lift and, 136, 220 optimal flow for, 65 sanding of, 248 seals, 175-183, 208 supervelocity on, 218 3-D relieving effect and, 104</p> <p>wheel openings in, for wheel steer, 160-164 Bernoulli, Daniel, 25 Bernoulli Equation, 2 Bernoullis Principle, 106 bicycle wheels, testing of, 158-160 Biel cars, 90, 230 Biel cars 1990 Spirit of BielBienne II, xv, 17, 116, 170, 266 canopy, 184 crosswind drag and, 142-143 surface smoothness of, 199, 249 Biel cars 1993 Spirit of BielBienne III, 170, 193, 249, 266267 crosswind drag reduction, 138139, 142-143 TFT model compared, 97-99, 218 trailing edge, 116 wheel fairings, 175-178 Biel cars 1995 design, 30 bluff bodies, 7, 10, 255 drag proportional to frontal area, 11 negative pressure and, 43 body generating lift, 8-9 body thickness maximum, 268 model, 219 streamlined body drag of, effect on, 78-79 boundary layer, 27-67. See also laminar flow; shape factor H; turbulent flow Cd and, 13 cross-flow effect, 44, 52-56 definition, 25, 28 design and development issues, 64-67 duct placement and, 211 flat plate, plotting thickness over, 34-35</p> <p>282</p> <p>INDEXfriction, 37-41 introduction to, 27-30 junctions, flowing into, 156-157 momentum-flow dissipated by, 33 non-flat streamlined body, thickness over, 35-37 pressure drag, 79, 88 pressure inside, 224 separation, 33, 59-64 superlayer, 31 surface perturbances, effect on transition of, 46-50 thickness, 24, 31-37 transition location (See boundary layer transition location) viscous friction and, 7-8 wheel openings and, 160-164 boundary layer transition location, 30, 41-59, 62, 63, 74, 77-78, 220 canopy and, 185-188 models, testing of, 223 narrow cars, 99 shear-fluid tests, 246-247 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 82-83, 85 3-D body drag-calculation results, 94-95, 97 brake signals, 202 bubble canopies. See canopies bugs, removal of, 51-52 sealing of, 237 shape changes, effect on drag of, 194-196 on short cars, 184-185, 189, 260267 truncation at rear of, 10 variables, 191-196 yarn-tuft tests, 241-242 catamarans, 155-156, 160-161, 169-170, 179, 185, 203 CD. See drag coefficient (CD) center-of-gravity CG, 128-131 center-of-pressure CP 128-131 , chordwise velocity, 52-53 circular leading edge, 54 Clarkson University 1995 Helios, 14-15, 97, 117, 139141, 179, 198, 218, 231 1997 Solar Knight, 117, 198, 231 coefficient-of-pressure (Cp), 60, 63, 88-89, 153 plots, 43-45, 62, 104-105, 197198, 223, 224-231, 268 shape of curves, 226 combination bodies, xii computational fluid dynamics (CFD), 102, 120-121, 135 models, testing of, 222-223 plots, 224-232 concave surfaces, 50, 231 cone tail, 87-89, 203 corner flow, 56-57 crabbing, 139-140 cross-flow, 44, 52-56, 77 crosswinds, 103, 114-115, 132144, 255 drag reduction, 137-144 lateral edge shape and, 122-123 lift and, 105, 132-137, 136-137, 263 sharp nose in, 154-155 trailing edge design and, 203 yaw stability and, 128-131 Crowder College 1990 2-seater, 185 1984 TSAR, xiv</p> <p>283</p> <p>CCal-Poly Pomona 1995 car, 179, 181 Cal-State LA 1993 car, 262 camber, xi-xii, 114-121, 268 definition, 106-107 in free air, 107 canopies, xii, 89, 136, 183-196, 227-229, 268 camber effects and, 119 design concepts, 185-186 elimination of, 147-148 flow separation and, 60-61, 64, 190 hatch seams, 204, 207 introduction, 183-191 junctions, 185, 196, 230, 262, 268 length-to-height ratio L/h, 192194 location on car, 192 narrow cars, 99 optimal flow for, 65 sail effect and, 142-143</p> <p>distortion, rate of, 23 downwash, 114 draft, 58, 173 drag area (CdA), 2, 9-17 comparisons of, 15 flat plate transition point, 78 model vehicle, 217-218 NACA ducts, 211 non-lifting 3-D streamlined body, 101 power data, estimation from, 253-254 sharpened nose and, 56 solar-viscosity ratio, 16-17 3-D body, 95-98 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 85-86 wind-averaged, 253 drag coefficient (Cd). See also drag area (CdA) boundary layer management and, 13 canopy, 194-195 flat plate (Cf), 73-77, 79, 80 reference area, coupled with, 1, 2 rotationally symmetric body (torpedo), 87 of streamlined bodies, 69-73 torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) drag-calculation results, 94-95 2-D and 3-D bodies compared, 103, 105 volume to the two-thirds power, based on, 12 whole body, drag of (Cd, plan), 79-84 drag force skin-friction (See skin friction) total, 3 (See also aerodynamic drag; rolling resistance) drag index. See drag area (CdA) driver, ventilation for, 210, 213 drivetrain efficiency, 3 ducts, inlet and exhaust, 209-216 dynamic pressure, 2</p> <p>DDaedalus human-powered aircraft, 212 DAlembert, Jean, 25, 219, 232 denticles, 66-67 development. See testing and development Dexter-Hysol Cheetah, xiii-xiv displacement thickness * (boundary layer), 31-33, 46, 47</p> <p>Eearly car design, xiv effective body shape, 31 Electrathon cars, ix, xiii, 119, 128 electric vehicles, ix, 117. See also General Motors Impact Rumpler design, xiii truncation, effect of, 10-11 ellipses, 91-92 Euler, Leonhard, 25</p> <p>284</p> <p>INDEXrate of distortion, 23 shear rate, 23-24 force (Newtons), 3 Ford of Australia 1993 Aurora, 130 1996 Aurora 101, 117, 130, 149, 156, 179, 199, 205, 231 form drag. See pressure drag four wheelers center-of-pressure and, 129-130 chassis configuration, 173-175 wheel drag compared to three wheelers, 169-175 free air, lift in, 105-109 freestream body-contour angles and flow of, 61 turbulence, 58-59 velocity, 54 frontal area as Cd reference area, 2, 10, 11 narrow cars, 100 streamlined bodies, 13-14, 69-71 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 84-85, 86-87 3-D body, 96-97 fuel-economy-record cars, ix Fusion human-powered vehicle, 198 trailing edge of, 201-202 wheel design, 159 wheel drag, 169, 171 wheel openings, 160-162 GM Sunraycer Case History, vii ground clearance, 114-121, 226, 268 minimum, 118 very low, 126-128 ground effect, 105-128, 220, 226 camber and ground clearance of land vehicles, 114-121 induced drag, 109-114, 124-126 lateral-edge shaping, 121-124 lift in free air and in proximity of ground, 105-109 rolling resistance and, 124-126 very low ground clearance, 126128</p> <p>Ffairings, 13-15, 18, 224. See also wheel fairings definition, 13-14 fillets, 230 gaps and seams, 204 half-fairings compared to full fairings, 179-181 leading edge designs, 153-154 stability, effect on, 238-239 winglets, 126 fastbacks, xii, 118 fillets, 230 leading edge, 152-155 radius along side of appendage, 150-151 trailing-edge, 158 flat plate drag calculation results, 73-78 model, 219 plotting boundary layer thickness over, 34-35 flat spots, detection of, 51 flat tail, 87. See also torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) flow distortion, 64 inviscid, 27, 28, 31 flow separation, xv, 7-8, 59-64, 152, 268. See also pressure drag avoiding, 10 body thickness and, 79 flow distortion, 64 at front of body-appendage junction, 60-61 lateral-edge shaping and, 103 leading-edge separation, 64 local separation, 64 minimizing, 60 at rear of body, 61-64 shear-fluid tests, 249 turbulent separation, 61-62 yarn-tuft tests, 241-242 fluid density, 21-23 aerodynamic drag, effect on, 1 altitude, effect of, 23 humidity, effect of, 22 Fluid Dynamic Drag, vii fluid kinetic energy, 2 fluid mechanics fundamentals, 21-27 fluid viscosity, 7, 23-25. See also boundary layer dynamic viscosity and temperature, 24 history, 24-25 inviscid air flow and, 27, 28, 31 no-slip condition, 28-29</p> <p>Hhalf-fairings, 164-169, 179-181 head wind pitching and, 131 velocity relative to road (Vwind), 1, 2 heat-shrink film, 209, 247-248 Heliotrope, 1996 (France), 170 Hibbs, Bart, vii high spots, detection of, 50 history of streamlined land vehicles, xi-xvi Hoerner, S. F., vii Honda 1990 CRX, 203 Honda 1990 Dream, 14, 180, 257258 crosswinds effects, 136 vent inlets, 213 wheel openings, 160-162 Honda 1993 Dream, 14, 15, 17, 258-260 crosswinds effects, 136 drag area, 218 vent inlet, 213 wetted area, 73 wheel openings, 161-162 Honda 1996 Dream, 17, 259 bellypan, 175 crosswind effects, 136 fairings, 178 leading edge junction geometry, 152, 155 lift of axles, 132 models, 259 seals, 210 trailing edge junction geometry, 158</p> <p>Ggaps, 204-208, 237, 268 General Motors Impact 1990 EV1 prototype, 4, 11, 303 General Motors Sunraycer ducts in, 210-211 empirical drag equations, 87, 88 laminar flow and, 55, 204 lateral edges, 122 lift of, 112, 125 nose shape and canopy of, 199 rudders at tail of, 130 sailing thrust of, 142, 199 surface perturbances on nose of, 48 unibody shape, 147, 170 vent inlet, 213 General Motors Sunraycer 1987, xiv-xv, 4, 17, 99, 218, 226, 256257 Awet/2D plan ratio, 102 crosswind lift, 133-135 lift of, 115 nose of, 54, 90, 197 separation of, 64 solar array, boundary layer thickness over, 207</p> <p>INDEXwheel drag, 169 wheel openings, 163, 169 wheel well housing, 182 winglets, 126 yaw of, 143 Honda Motor Company wind tunnel tests, 171 Hookes Law, 23 horseshoe vortex, 108-109, 152155, 195, 230-231 Huber, Chris, xiii human-powered aircraft, 212 human-powered vehicles (HPVs), ix, 119, 128 200 meter land-speed record, xiii-xiv Rumpler design, xiii trial-and-error design, xiii humidity, 22 hybrid electric vehicles, ix hysteresis losses, 4, 6</p> <p>285</p> <p>LLake Tuggeranong College, 156 laminar flow (boundary layer), 3037, 79, 228-229 bellypan and, 116-117, 131, 196197, 199, 264, 268 Biel-type body, 230 concave surfaces and, 50 corner flow and, 57 flat plate, plotting layer thickness over, 34-35 junction geometry and, 156-157 lateral-edge shaping and, 103 models, testing for, 223 Morelli body, 231 negative pressure gradient and laminar flow, 45-46 nose shape and, 44, 196-199, 268 nose-sweep angles and, 54-56 optimal amount, determining, 64-65 seams and, 204-205 separation at rear of body and, 63-64 shear-fluid tests, 232-236, 245249 skin friction coefficients, 37-41 skin friction reduction and, 64, 72 supervelocity effect, 78 surface fairness and, 50-52 surface finish and, 29, 208-209, 223 torpedo with a flat tail (TFT body) drag-calculation results, 95, 97 transition to turbulent flow (See boundary layer transition location) 2-D airfoil drag-calculation results, 83-84, 86-87 laminar sublayer, 30-31 land-speed-record vehicles, ix, 128 lateral edges crosswinds and, 122-123 height of, and lift, 115 induced drag, effect on, 121 shaping, 103, 121-124 wetted area, 123 leading edge boundary layer at, 28, 34 circular, 54 junction geometry, 152-157 optimal flow for, 65 perturbances near, 48-50 separation, 64 sharpness at junction, 154-155 swept, cross-flow due to, 53</p> <p>IIdeal Gas Law, 22 indicator lights, in trailing edge, 202 induced drag (Dind), 6, 8-9, 109114, 121, 124-126. See also vortex shedding interference drag (Dint), 6, 9, 64, 147-158, 185, 220 inviscid flow, 27, 28, 31</p> <p>LED light, 202 Lexan, 189-190 lift, xv, 8-9 crosswinds and (See crosswinds) elimination of, 220 in free air and in proximity of ground, 105-109 horseshoe vortex and, 108-109 minimizing, 263, 268 uneven, on front and rear wheels, 105 line-of-sight, 121 Lissaman, Peter, vii, 105 local Reynolds numbers (Rex), 26, 35 laminar state for, 46 surface perturbances based on, 47-48 local separation, 8, 64 local skin-friction coefficient Ct, 35, 37-41 local velocity, 24 low spots, detection of, 50-51</p> <p>Mmaintenance of surface, 51-52 Mana La car, 1987, 137, 139 mass-acceleration effect, 3-4 Messiah College 1997 Genesis solar car, 90 MIT, 152. See also XFOIL program APS Solar/Electric 500 design, 15 Aztec, xii, 97, 118, 198, 203, 231, 239 electric car, 117 Galaxy, xv, 99, 184-185, 188-189, 260-261 shear-fluid tests, 59 wheel-fairing wind tunnel study, 164-169 MIT 1995 Manta, xv, 14-15, 17, 218 camber and lift, 112, 120, 124125 canopy, 185, 189-190 chassis testing, 236-237 Cp curves, 226 cross-flow instability, 55-56 crosswind lift, 135 drag of, 99 empirical drag equations, 87-89 goals of, 262-264 junction flows, 148 lateral edges, 123 nose shape, 197-198, 199</p> <p>JJaray and Klemperer, xi-xii, 114 junctions angle between appendage and body in front view, 149-150 canopy, 185, 196, 230, 262, 268 drag at, 262, 268 flows, 147-158 leading-edge geometry, 152-157 minimizing number of, 147-148 negative drag increments, 148 solar array and body, 208 trailing-edge junction geometry, 157-158 wheel fairings, 228</p> <p>Kkinetic energy per unit volume, 2 Klemperer. See Jaray and Klemperer Konig-Fachsenfeld, xii</p> <p>286</p> <p>INDEXNACA 0010 airfoil, 44, 102 NACA 0012 airfoil, 49 NACA 0015 airfoil, 102, 127-128 NACA 4412 airfoil, 128 NACA ducts, 210-212 narrow cars, 77, 99-101 Nissan 1990 Hoxan, 56, 179, 181 1993 Sunfavor, 64, 123-124, 171 Northern Essex Community College 1995 TNE-3, 15, 63, 128 Northern Territory University (Australia) 1996 Desert Rose, 150, 158, 177, 198, 242, 252 nose, 196-200, 228 airfoil thinness and Cp slope, 45 boundary layer thickness and, 47 canopy, bluntness of, 195 crosswinds, wrap for, 103 ducts, 212 favourable pressure gradient, 42-43 laminar flow and, 44, 268 lateral edges and, 122-123 optimal flow for, 65 radius of, and cross flow, 53-55 rounded, 44, 77, 90 sharp, 77, 154-155 smoothness, maintenance of, 5152 surface perturbances on, 29-30, 48, 249 wetted area, reduction of, 77 nose-sweep angles, 54-56 nose-up/nose-down pitch, 131132, 237 no-slip condition, 28-29, 52 Prandtl, Ludwig, 25 pressure drag, 6-7, 9, 11, 37, 64 boundary layer (Dpres,BL), 8, 79, 88 horseshoe vortex, caused by...</p>

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