The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks

Download The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks

Post on 05-Mar-2017

214 views

Category:

Documents

2 download

TRANSCRIPT

  • This article was downloaded by: [Stony Brook University]On: 28 October 2014, At: 17:32Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Educational Psychology: AnInternational Journal of ExperimentalEducational PsychologyPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cedp20

    The lack of representation ofeducational psychology and schoolpsychology in introductory psychologytextbooksJennifer L. Lucas , Melissa A. Blazek , Amber B. Raley & ChristiWashingtona Agnes Scott College , Georgia, USAPublished online: 05 Oct 2010.

    To cite this article: Jennifer L. Lucas , Melissa A. Blazek , Amber B. Raley & Christi Washington(2005) The lack of representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductorypsychology textbooks, Educational Psychology: An International Journal of ExperimentalEducational Psychology, 25:4, 347-351, DOI: 10.1080/01443410500041318

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410500041318

    PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE

    Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.

    This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &

    http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/cedp20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/01443410500041318http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443410500041318

  • Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [

    Ston

    y B

    rook

    Uni

    vers

    ity]

    at 1

    7:32

    28

    Oct

    ober

    201

    4

    http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

  • Educational Psychology,Vol. 25, No. 4, August 2005, pp. 347351

    ISSN 0144-3410 (print)/ISSN 1469-5820 (online)/05/04034705 2005 Taylor & Francis Group LtdDOI: 10.1080/01443410500041318

    The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Jennifer L. Lucas*, Melissa A. Blazek, Amber B. Raley and Christi WashingtonAgnes Scott College, Georgia, USATaylor and Francis LtdCEDP104114.sgm10.1080/01443410500041318Educational Psychology0144-3410 (print)/0144-3410 (online)Original Article2005Taylor & Francis Group Ltd254000000August 2005JenniferL.LucasDepartment of Psychology141 E. College Avenue, Agnes Scott CollegeDecaturGA 30030USAjlucas@agnesscott.edu

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychologyin introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields ofpsychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or schoolpsychology. The second goal was to compare the representation of educational and schoolpsychology in introductory psychology textbooks to see if one or the other is receiving more cover-age. Third, the textbooks with the most coverage were listed in order to aid educational and schoolpsychologists teaching introductory psychology courses in selecting textbooks that adequatelycover material from their sub-fields. A total of 57 introductory psychology textbooks were contentanalyzed: 65% of the introductory psychology textbooks had educational psychology material and65% had school psychology material. However, in the textbooks containing this material theeducational and school psychology material made up only .29% and .19% of the textbooks totalcontent.

    Both educational psychology and school psychology have evolved as specialty sub-fields based on the fields of psychology and education. Unfortunately, students oftendo not learn about these two areas of psychology in their introductory psychologycourses and do not know the differences between the two areas. Many studentsconfuse educational and school psychologists with school counselors (School-Psychologist.com, n.d.).

    The educational psychology division of the American Psychological Association isDivision 15. This division is a collegial environment for psychologists with interests

    *Corresponding author. Department of Psychology, 141 E. College Avenue, Agnes Scott College,Decatur, GA 30030, USA. Email: jlucas@agnesscott.edu

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [

    Ston

    y B

    rook

    Uni

    vers

    ity]

    at 1

    7:32

    28

    Oct

    ober

    201

    4

  • 348 J. L. Lucas et al.

    in research, teaching, or practice in educational settings at all levels (AmericanPsychological Association, n.d.). Sdorow and Rickabaugh define educationalpsychology as the field that applies psychological principles to help improve curric-ulum, teaching methods, and administrative procedures (2002, p. 22). Educationalpsychologists constitute 2% of the psychologists in the United States (Sdorow &Rickabaugh, 2002).

    The school psychology division of the American Psychological Association isDivision 16. The National Association of School Psychologists characterizes schoolpsychologists as using their training and skills to team with educators, parents, andother mental health professionals to ensure that every child learns in a safe, healthy,and supportive environment (n.d., 2). The majority of school psychologists work inpublic and private school systems. School psychologists make up 4% of the psychol-ogists in the United States (Sdorow & Rickabaugh, 2002).

    At least 1.5 million students take an introductory psychology course every year inthe United States (Cush & Buskist, 1997). For most college students an introductorypsychology course is the only psychology course they will take (Buskist, Miller, Ecott,& Critchfield, 1999). Hence the comprehensiveness, depth, and accuracy of thetopics covered in this introductory course are particularly important. The representa-tion of information about sub-fields of psychology in an introductory psychologytextbook can be an indicator of the general view of particular sub-fields (Herzog,1986; Roig, Icochea, & Cuzzucoli, 1991). Little or no representation of a particularsection of psychology could indicate that a particular sub-field is not respected in thepsychological community (Herzog, 1986; Roig et al., 1991).

    The combination of topics taught in an introductory psychology course can shapestudents impression of psychology. These early impressions often affect studentsdecisions to major in psychology and the area of psychology that becomes the focusof their career ambitions (Buskist et al., 1999; Maynard, Bachiochi, & Luna, 2002).

    The current study had three goals. The first goal of this study was to look at therepresentation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychologytextbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology, suchas industrial/organizational psychology and parapsychology (Raley, Lucas, & Blazek,2003; Roig et al., 1991), has been conducted but no research has looked specificallyat educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the represen-tation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks tosee if one or the other is receiving more coverage. Third, the textbooks with the mostcoverage were listed in order to help educational and school psychologists teachingintroductory psychology courses to select textbooks covering these sub-fields.

    Method

    Materials

    A search of psychology professors textbook collections and nine American publisherswebsites resulted in 56 introductory psychology textbooks published from 2000 to

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [

    Ston

    y B

    rook

    Uni

    vers

    ity]

    at 1

    7:32

    28

    Oct

    ober

    201

    4

  • The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology 349

    2003. This list was compared to a list of current introductory psychology textbookswritten by Koenig, Griggs, Marek, and Christopher (n.d.) and both lists were the sameexcept for Gleitman, Fridlund, and Reisberg (1999) and Rathus (2000). They addedGleitman et al. because the textbook has a longer revision cycle. We added Gleitmanet al. to our list, making a total of 57 textbooks. We did not include Rathus becausethe textbook is a build-your-own textbook where faculty can select which chapters toinclude. For a complete list of references please contact the first author. All of thetextbooks were borrowed from psychology professors or the school library.

    Procedure

    Two of the four researchers evaluated each of the introductory psychology textbooks.Before coding the textbooks, each researcher was trained on how to use the scoresheet, which was developed by the authors. The results were evaluated for reliabilityand inter-rater reliability was found to be 99%. When there were inconsistencies, theresearchers re-reviewed the textbooks until there was complete agreement.

    The coding procedure involved first recording the total number of pages of eachtextbook, not including the appendices, glossary, or index. Second, the appliedpsychology terms were searched for in the textbook glossaries. Third, the index ofeach textbook was evaluated to look for the terms educational psychology andschool psychology. Chatman and Goetz (1985) found that using textbook indexeswas a valid method to use for this type of research. Fourth, the researchers recordedthe page number(s) with content; then they looked at those pages, as well as fivepages before and after the page number(s) listed, for educational and schoolpsychology content. Finally, the number of pages with educational and schoolpsychology content was recorded by counting each page with any information as onepage. Past research has used the same procedure (Griggs, Jackson, Christopher, &Marek, 1999; Griggs, Jackson, & Napolitano, 1994).

    Results

    The mean number of overall textbook pages was 602.21 (SD = 93.55; range =361850). One of the introductory psychology textbooks did not contain a glossary.Of the remaining 56, educational psychology was represented in only nine andschool psychology was represented in 11 of the textbooks.

    We found that 37 (65%) of the introductory psychology textbooks containededucational psychology content and 38(66%) contained school psychology content.Textbooks with this content had an average of 1.46 (SD = 1.72, .29% of the totaltextbook pages) pages of educational psychology content and 1.14 (SD = 1.14, .19%of the total textbook pages) pages of school psychology content. The greatestnumber of pages of content was six for both educational and school psychology. Thefollowing books had six pages of educational psychology content: Kassin (2001),Lahey (2001), and Wade and Tavris (2003). Coon (2001), Lefton and Brannon(2003), Plotnik (2002), and Sdorow and Rickabaugh (2002) all contained five pages

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [

    Ston

    y B

    rook

    Uni

    vers

    ity]

    at 1

    7:32

    28

    Oct

    ober

    201

    4

  • 350 J. L. Lucas et al.

    of educational psychology content. As for school psychology, Gray (2002) containedsix pages of material and Lahey (2001) contained four. Most of the material wasfound in introductory chapters (88% for educational psychology and 97% for schoolpsychology).

    Discussion

    These results indicate that over half of introductory psychology textbooks haveeducational and school psychology material, but the coverage of these two fields isminimal, and usually is only briefly covered in the introductory chapters of thetextbooks. The sub-fields were represented about equally.

    Representation of educational psychology and school psychology in introductorypsychology textbooks is important. Without proper exposure to these sub-fields inintroductory psychology courses, many students will not gain enough information tobe able to make educated career decisions about going into these specialties.

    One way to correct the absence of coverage of educational and school psychologyin introductory psychology textbooks is for educational and school psychologists toget involved. One way for them to get involved would be to contact authors of intro-ductory psychology textbooks and offer assistance with collecting information to beincluded in future editions of their textbooks.

    Second, psychology professors should adopt introductory psychology textbookswith the greatest representation of educational psychology and school psychology.This will send a message to the publishers to continue to publish textbooks containingeducational psychology and school psychology material.

    Third, psychology faculty should spend more time in their introductory psychol-ogy courses on the applied sub-fields of psychology such as educational psychologyand school psychology. Educational and school psychologists should volunteer tospeak in introductory psychology courses about their professions. This will helpstudents to learn more about these sub-fields and potential career choices in thesesub-fields.

    References

    American Psychological Association (n.d.). Division 15Educational psychology. Retrieved July 25,2003, from http://www.apa.org/about/division/div15.html

    Buskist, W., Miller, E., Ecott, C., & Critchfield, T. S. (1999). Updating coverage of operantconditioning in introductory psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 26, 280283.

    Chatman, S. P., & Goetz, E. T. (1985). Improving textbook selection. Teaching of Psychology, 12,150152.

    Coon, D. (2001). Introduction to psychology: Exploration and application (9th ed.). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth.

    Cush, D. T., & Buskist, W. (1997). Future of the introductory psychology textbook: A survey.Teaching of Psychology, 24, 119122.

    Gleitman, H., Fridlund, A. J., & Reisberg, D. (1999). Psychology (6th ed.). New York: Norton.Gray, P. (2002). Psychology (4th ed.). New York: Worth.

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [

    Ston

    y B

    rook

    Uni

    vers

    ity]

    at 1

    7:32

    28

    Oct

    ober

    201

    4

  • The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology 351

    Griggs, R. A., Jackson, S. L., Christopher, A. N., & Marek, P. (1999). Introductory psychologytextbooks: An objective analysis and update. Teaching of Psychology, 26, 182188.

    Griggs, R. A., Jackson, S. L., & Napolitano, T. J. (1994). Brief introductory psychology textbooks:An objective analysis. Teaching of Psychology, 21, 136140.

    Herzog, H. A. (1986). The treatment of sociobiology in introductory psychology textbooks. Teachingof Psychology, 13, 1215.

    Kassin, S. (2001). Psychology (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Koenig, C. S., Griggs, R. A., Marek, P., & Christopher, A. N. (n.d.). A compendium of in-

    troductory psychology textbooks 20002003. Retrieved September 27, 2003, from http://www.lemoyne.edu/otrp/introtexts.html

    Lahey, B. B. (2001). Psychology: An introduction (7th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.Lefton, L. A., & Brannon, L. (2003). Psychology (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Maynard, D. C., Bachiochi, P. D., & Luna, A.C. (2002). An evaluation of industrial/organiza-

    tional psychology teaching modules for use in introductory psychology. Teaching of Psychology,29, 3945.

    National Association of School Psychologists. (n.d.). National Association of School Psychologists:Effective partners in the commitment ot help school children and youth achieve their best. Inschool. At home. In Life. Retrieved October 23, 2003, from http://www.nasponline.org/about_nasp/whatisa.html

    Plotnik, R. (2002). Introduction to psychology (6th ed.). New York: Wiley.Raley, A. B., Lucas, J. L., & Blazek, M. A. (2003). Representation of industrial/organizational

    psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. The IndustrialOrganizational Psychologist,41, 6268.

    Rathus, S. A. (2000). Psychology: The core. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt.Roig, M., Icochea, H., & Cuzzucoli, A. (1991). Coverage of parapsychology in introductory

    psychology textbooks. Teaching of Psychology, 18, 157160.School-Psychologist.com. (n.d.). What is a school psychologist? Retrieved October 1, 2003, from

    http://www.school-psychologist.com/whatis.htmlSdorow, L. N., & Rickabaugh, C. A. (2002). Psychology (5th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2003). Psychology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Dow

    nloa

    ded

    by [

    Ston

    y B

    rook

    Uni

    vers

    ity]

    at 1

    7:32

    28

    Oct

    ober

    201

    4

Recommended

View more >