The Interstate Air Pollution Surveillance Program Effects Network

Download The Interstate Air Pollution Surveillance Program Effects Network

Post on 10-Feb-2017

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Uppsala universitetsbibliotek]On: 05 October 2014, At: 18:53Publisher: Taylor &amp; FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: MortimerHouse, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Journal of the Air Pollution Control AssociationPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uawm16</p><p>The Interstate Air Pollution Surveillance ProgramEffects NetworkGeorge A. Jutze a , Robert L. Harris JR. a , Maurice Georgevich a &amp; Robert A. Taft ba Field Investigations Section, Abatement Branch , Division of Air Pollutionb U. S. Public Health Service, U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare ,Sanitary Engineering Center , Cincinnati , Ohio , USAPublished online: 16 Mar 2012.</p><p>To cite this article: George A. Jutze , Robert L. Harris JR. , Maurice Georgevich &amp; Robert A. Taft (1967) The InterstateAir Pollution Surveillance Program Effects Network, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 17:5, 291-293, DOI:10.1080/00022470.1967.10468980</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1967.10468980</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purposeof the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of theauthors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Content should notbe relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francisshall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, andother liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relationto or arising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uawm16http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/00022470.1967.10468980http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00022470.1967.10468980http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>GEORGE A. JUTZE,ROBERT L. HARRIS, JR.,</p><p>and MAURICE GEORGEVICH</p><p>Field Investigations Section,Abatement Branch,</p><p>Division of Air Pollution,Robert A. Taft</p><p>Sanitary Engineering Center,Cincinnati, Ohio,</p><p>U. S. Public Health Service,U. S. Department of Health,</p><p>Education, and Welfare</p><p>The Interstate Air PollutionSurveillance Program Effects Network</p><p>A program has been designed to meet a nationwide intelligence-gathering responsibility to obtain generaland relative information on current and potential air pollution in areas where interstate transport of pollu-tion may reasonably be expected to exist. This paper describes the field devices utilized in the program.By means of these static "effects packages," data will be accumulated on: dustfall, particulate impinge-ment, sulfation, corrosion, and tarnishing of metals, and deterioration of textiles, dyes, and rubber. Dataaccumulated during the "pilot phase" of the program will be discussed.</p><p> ursuant to administration ofthe Clean Air Act by the Department ofHealth, Education, and Welfare theAbatement Branch, Division of AirPollution, U. S. Public Health Servicehas responsibility for obtaining informa-tion on air pollution problems in allareas where interstate movement of pol-lutants may reasonably be expected tooccur.</p><p>Comprehensive intelligence such asdetailed air quality and meteorologicalinformation for all interstate areas in theU. S. cannot be gathered within the nextfew years with the resources presentlyavailable or projected for the AbatementBranch. This does not, however, re-lieve the Branch, through the Field In-vestigations Section, of its responsibilityfor and interest in obtaining general in-formation on current and potential airpollution problems in interstate areas.</p><p>A realistic estimate of general area-wide air quality requires measurement ofa variety of parameters. Such measure-ments could entail diversity of tech-niques coupled with various levels ofequipment sophistication, therefore, theresulting "package" of cost and man-power requirements is also variable.</p><p>The Field Investigations Section, inundertaking a nationwide program togather information on types of air pollu-tants and their effects on specific mate-rials in interstate areas, is using as itsmajor field device an "effects package."The effects package is a static unit whichrequires no power and relatively infre-quent servicing. By means of theseunits, data are being accumulated on:(1) dustfall, (2) identification of im-pinged particulate materials, (3) sulfa-tion, (4) corrosion, and (5) tarnishing of</p><p>metals, (6) deterioration of textiles, dyes,and (7) rubber. In certain areas, or asintelligence is accumulated, additionalmaterials may be exposed and other airsampling means may be added. Fromsuch data, information can be developedon the presence or absence of varioustypes of pollutants. In addition to thegathering of "effects package" data,assessment of air pollution effects onvegetation will be undertaken whereappropriate.</p><p>The program is designed to help meeta national intelligence-gathering respon-sibility with limited resources. By useof volunteer personnel for weekly on-siteservicing of effects packages; centraloffice responsibility for supply, analyti-cal, and statistical services; and occa-sional field visits by staff specialists, asubstantial amount of pertinent infor-mation will be developed at a modestcost.</p><p>It is planned that the major effort ofthe Field Investigations Section, will bedevoted to intensive field surveys, eitherin supporting formal abatement actionsor in obtaining data necessary for com-petent evaluation of specific areas, sothat the Secretary, Department ofHealth, Education, and Welfare, canfactually judge whether or not federalabatement procedures are needed. Thenationwide effects studies, even thoughqualitative or semiquantitative at best,may prove to be of importance equal tothe intensive field studies. The effectsstudies will indicate where air pollutionproblems do exist, allow for a national"ranking" of problems (an increase ordecrease in rank could prove as signifi-cant as rank position), and indicateprogress with time. In fact, the demon-</p><p>stration of effects of air pollutants in aninterstate area could be a decisive factorin an abatement action.</p><p>Scope</p><p>As previously indicated, this programis being established on a nationwidebasis. Approximately 200 stations inapproximately 75 interstate populationcenters in the United States will be oper-ational in 1968. At least one, and asmany as nine, stations will be located ineach state. In every known interstatearea of potential pollution, stations willbe installed. Size and complexity of thearea will determine where and how manystations will be employed. Whereasmany other types of air monitoring sta-tions are purposely located so as to ob-tain data representative of "average"stations are purposely located so as toobtain data representative of "average"conditions. "Effects Network" sta-tions are to be located in highly pollutedor other special-interest areas as well.</p><p>At this time, it is difficult to state howlong a station will be located at a fixedsite. Most certainly we will have tosample for at least three years to es-tablish a sufficient body of data to havecon fidence in the pollution trend exhib-ited. This does not, however, meanthat abatement action in an area undersurveillance would be delayed for threeyears, nor that the data gathered wouldnot be useful in such action. Several ofthe techniques to be used, however, arerelatively unexplored and require devel-opment work bordering on research.Some time will be needed to accumulatesufficient data to evaluate the methods.It is possible that observation of effects</p><p>May 1967 / Volume 17, No. 5 291</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Upp</p><p>sala</p><p> uni</p><p>vers</p><p>itets</p><p>bibl</p><p>iote</p><p>k] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>53 0</p><p>5 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Fig. 1. Components.</p><p>Fig. 2. Sampler.</p><p>Table IComponents of Sampler</p><p>will prove to be the most efficientmethod for long-term surveillance of anarea following an abatement action.</p><p>Field Operations</p><p>Table I summarizes the pertinent in-formation concerning components of theunits currently utilized in the program.These components are shown in Fig. 1.The sampler is pictured in Fig. 2.Establishing a sampling station and pro-viding component supplies for a full yearof operation, exclusive of analyticallaboratory services and transportation,costs about 1200. We estimate that astaff consisting of the program coordi-nator, a junior engineer or scientist, fivetechnicians (chemical, statistical, andengineering), and one man-year of pro-fessional (meteorological, statistical, andchemical) consultative service will be re-quired to support a nationwide networkof 200 stations.</p><p>At the present time, implementationof the program has been accomplishedaccording to the following procedure:</p><p>1. Detailed information packagespertaining to the air pollution characterof every interstate standard metropoli-tan area in the U. S. have been as-sembled.</p><p>2. These dossiers have been ex-amined and a priority schedule for as-similation into the program has been set.This schedule was established by con-sidering such variables as: existing airquality data, prior or current Division ofAir Pollution activity in the area, exist-ence of state and local control programs,socioeconomic evaluations of the area,and an evaluation of public opinion orrequests for assistance within the area.</p><p>3. State agencies are currently beingvisited by Abatement Branch staff per-sonnel and the appropriate RegionalProgram Director, DAP. Contiguousstates are visited in groupings that per-mit the establishment of approximate^25 stations every three months to pro-vide basic "effects" intelligence for fiveto ten interstate areas. During thesevisits the purpose and scope of this pro-gram are explained and the agency is in-</p><p>ComponentMeasurement</p><p>Technique</p><p>ExposurePeriod(days) Reporting Unit Effect Demonstration</p><p>Dustfallbucket</p><p>Lead peroxidecandle</p><p>Sticky paperjar</p><p>Steel and zincpanels</p><p>Silver platepanels</p><p>Cloth fabricdyed panels</p><p>Nylon fabricpanels</p><p>Rubberpanels</p><p>Total weight</p><p>Chemical analysis-colorimetry</p><p>Microscopic examina-tion</p><p>Weight loss</p><p>Reflectance dif-ferential</p><p>Reflectance dif-ferential</p><p>Microscopic examina-tion</p><p>Microscopic examina-tion and count</p><p>30</p><p>30</p><p>7</p><p>90/365</p><p>30</p><p>90</p><p>30-90</p><p>7</p><p>Tons/mi 2-month</p><p>Milligrams SO3/100 cm2-day</p><p>Composition and number of particles/in.2-wk for each of 8 compass points</p><p>Grams/unit, weight loss/time</p><p>Percent decrease</p><p>Percent decrease</p><p>Number of /unit fiber defects/time</p><p>Millimeters/crack depth/inch</p><p>Particulate loading and composition(SO4CI, etc.)</p><p>Oxides of sulfur</p><p>Composition (combustible, silicous,etc.) and directional loading of par-ticulate</p><p>Corrosion (SO2, etc.)</p><p>Tarnishing (H2S, etc.)</p><p>Color fading (O8, NO2, SO2/HC, etc.)Photochemical pollutants, corrosive</p><p>aerosolsMaterial deterioration (O3, oxidants,</p><p>etc.)</p><p>292 Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Upp</p><p>sala</p><p> uni</p><p>vers</p><p>itets</p><p>bibl</p><p>iote</p><p>k] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>53 0</p><p>5 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>vited to participate. Preliminaryscheduling and arrangements for estab-lishment of the "Effects Network" sta-tions within the respective jurisdictionsare decided.</p><p>4. Equipment is assembled, supplyand laboratory support is provided, anda target date for initiation of the nextexpansion of the program is set.</p><p>5. Concurrently, the interstate areaunder consideration is inspected, sitelocations are cooperatively selected andobtained, and arrangements are securedfor servicing of the samplers by localvolunteers.</p><p>6. The equipment is transported tothe appropriate sites, local participantsare oriented and instructed in theirphase of the program, and the equip-ment is placed "on-stream."</p><p>7. Complete data summaries, re-porting the results of all measurements,will be made semi-annually. An inter-pretive report, including statistical anal-ysis of the data, will be produced an-nually.</p><p>REFERENCES</p><p>1. "Proposed ASTM Tentative Methodfor Collection and Primary Analysis ofDustfall," Am. Soc. Testing Materials,Philadelphia (1958).</p><p>2. C. W. Gruber, and G. A. Jutze, "TheUse of Sticky Paper in an Air PollutionMonitoring Program," / . Air Poll.Control Assoc, 7: 115 (1957).</p><p>3. M. B. Jacobs, "Chemical Analysis ofAir Pollutants," Intersience, New York(1960).</p><p>4. J. B. Upham, "Program for Studyingthe Relationship Between Air Pollutionand Atmospheric Corrosion Behaviorof Some Metals" (Internal Report),Field Studies Branch, Division of AirPollution, Robert A. Taft SanitaryEngineering Center, Cincinnati, Ohio(May 1963).</p><p>5. M. D. High and S. W. Horstman,"Field Experience in Measuring Hydro-gen Sulfide," / . American IndustrialHygiene Assoc, 26: 366 (1965).</p><p>6. "Effect of Atmospheric Contaminantson Lightfastness Testing" (AATCC Re-port), Am. Dyestuff Reptr., 47: 450(1958).</p><p>7. C. E. Bradley and A. J. Haagen-Smit,Rubber Chem. and Technol., 24: 750(1951).</p><p>JACKSON &amp; MORELANDDIVISION OF UNITED</p><p>ENGINEERS &amp; CONSTRUCTORS INC.</p><p>Air Pollution Evaluation and ControlServices for Utilities and Industrials</p><p>DESIGN. SPECIFICATION, AND EVALU-ATION OF SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT</p><p>SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCTIONAND OPERATION</p><p>AIR SAMPLING SURVEYS</p><p>Boston Washington</p><p>Higher pressures...lower tip speeds with</p><p>CLARAGES COMPACT 2-STAGE* UNITWhere higher pressures are required, Clarage's 2-Stage gives you muchlower peripheral velocity resulting in less abrasion, longer life and fewerbalance problems! A much more reliable system to handle greatercapacity with less danger of costly break downs. This arrangementavailable in a full line of sizes and wheel types. These heavy duty unitsare built for rugged service by a firm specializing in quality equipment.Learn more about the many features that make Clarage Fans standoutperformers.</p><p>Write today for catalogs or contact your nearest Clarage Sales Engineer-ing office for 2-Stage details and applications.</p><p>Patented</p><p>Dependable equipment iojr making air your servant</p><p>CLARAGE FAN COMPANYKalamazoo, Michigan</p><p>SALES ENGINEERING OFFICES IN ALL PRINCIPAL CITIES Write or call for information on Canadian distribution</p><p>May 1967 / Volume 17, No. 5 293</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Upp</p><p>sala</p><p> uni</p><p>vers</p><p>itets</p><p>bibl</p><p>iote</p><p>k] a</p><p>t 18:</p><p>53 0</p><p>5 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li></ul>

Recommended

View more >