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COPYRIGHT UCT The impact of sports celebrity/non-celebrity endorsement on consumer ad evaluation An investigative report presented to: in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Masters of Business Administration Degree by Lindani E. Mabuza & Tim Wigham November 2001 Supervisor: Professor Steve M. Burgess

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    The impact of sports celebrity/non-celebrity endorsement

    on consumer ad evaluation

    An investigative report presented to:

    in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the

    Masters of Business Administration Degree

    by

    Lindani E. Mabuza & Tim Wigham

    November 2001

    Supervisor: Professor Steve M. Burgess

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    I. PREFACE

    This report is not confidential. The Graduate School of Business may use it freely.

    We wish to thank Craig Livingstone and Dudley Horn for their assistance and for permitting us to use action photographs of two South African sports celebrities in this study. In

    accordance with the confidentiality agreements included at appendix B, the identities of the sports celebrities will not be revealed.

    We also wish to thank Steve Pieterse for his assistance in creating and enabling the web based questionnaire from which we gathered the data necessary for our findings.

    Finally, we are indebted to Professor Steve Burgess who sacrificed an enormous amount of his own busy schedule in order to direct and assist with our project. His patience and

    guidance was invaluable.

    We certify that except as noted above, the report is our own work and all references used are accurately recorded.

    Signed: .

    Lindani Mabuza

    Signed:

    Tim Wigham

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    II. ABSTRACT

    The relations between value priorities, optimum stimulation levels,

    sporting activity involvement and celebrity/non-celebrity status and the

    impact of these potential influences on consumer evaluations of endorsers

    and commercial communications.

    (An Exploratory Study)

    Considering the incredible investment in endorsement and model fees, it is surprising that so

    little research has focused on the relative merits of celebrity endorsers versus non-celebrity

    endorsers. The current research focuses on the consumers perception of endorsers and three

    potential characteristics of consumers that are thought to impact on advertising persuasion.

    These characteristics include involvement, values and optimum stimulation levels (OSL),

    which will be explained in more detail later.

    Although there has been much research concerning the credibility and trustworthiness

    imparted by celebrity endorsers, physical attractiveness and similarity to the consumer

    audience have received less attention. Recent research by Burgess and Blackwell (2001)

    suggests that attractiveness and similarity influence the way people react to endorsers directly

    and also indirectly by activating value priorities.

    The influence of audience characteristics also has begun to be better understood in recent

    years. Involvement in the sporting category refers to the importance of a particular sport in a

    persons life. Involvement increases the depth of processing and subsequent elaboration.

    Values are context-free deeply held goals that direct behaviour and information processing.

    Optimum stimulation level (OSL) is a personality trait that refers to the desired amount of

    stimulation people prefer in life. OSL has been linked to processing depth and style

    differences.

    The main findings of our research are that involvement along with physical attractiveness

    and value priorities emerge as important influences on both sports celebrity and non-celebrity

    endorsers. Similarity is not related to the consumers intention to try or recommend a product

    while openness to change values are important. Optimum stimulation level is influenced by

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    age and gender. Perceived value priorities of the celebrity/non-celebrity and the level of

    involvement in the product category are key factors to determining whether or not a

    consumer viewing an ad will try and/or recommend the new product advertised. This

    confirms that values and involvement are vital triggers in the sports advertising process.

    III. KEYWORDS: attractiveness, similarity, values, optimum stimulation levels (OSL),

    involvement, output/stimulus of ad (try and/or recommend product) and celebrity/non-

    celebrity endorsement.

    IV. GLOSSARY OF TERMS Advertising effectiveness:

    For the advertiser, this involves choosing the advertisements desired reach, frequency and

    impact, then choosing the media that will deliver the desired results in terms of circulation,

    audience, effective audience and effective ad exposed audience.

    Values:

    Deeply held beliefs regarding what is important in life. Values develop as an individual

    develops and these deeply held beliefs have an impact on every decision a person makes.

    Optimum Stimulation Levels:

    The desired level at which a person responds to stimuli. By establishing trends in consumer

    OSLs, advertisers can improve marketing campaigns.

    Involvement:

    This describes the extent to which a consumer identifies with the advertisement. It includes

    the context, the person or people in the ad and indeed the product being advertised.

    Sports Celebrities:

    Sports men and women who are recognised by the vast majority of the consumer audience.

    Consumer evaluations:

    The perceived impact of an advertisement as understood by each consumer. In other words,

    having viewed an ad, how likely it is that a consumer will purchase the advertised product.

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    Table of Contents

    1. AREA OF STUDY........................................................................... 7 1.1 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................ 7 1.2 INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 8

    2. LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................... 10 2.1 INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES ................................................................................. 10 2.2 CELEBRITY............................................................................................................ 13 2.3 OUTCOME.............................................................................................................. 14 2.4 PROBLEM STATEMENT AND HYPOTHESES/PROPOSITIONS ........................... 15

    3. THE RESEARCH PROCEDURE ........................................... 18 3.1 METHOD................................................................................................................ 18 3.2 MEASURES ............................................................................................................ 19 3.3 AD STIMULUS....................................................................................................... 20

    4. FINDINGS, RESULTS AND ANALYSIS............................. 22 4.1 RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY ............................................................................. 22

    4.1.1 Reliability and Validity of PVQ Scale 22 4.1.2 Reliability and Validity of Shortened CSI Scale 24

    4.2 RESULTS OF REGRESSION ANALYSES ............................................................. 25 4.2.1 Effects of Age and gender on psychosocial characteristics ........................... 25 4.2.2 Attractiveness, similarity and celebrity/non-celebrity endorser evaluations . 26 4.2.3 Value priorities and celebrity/non-celebrity endorser evaluations ................ 27 4.2.4 Optimum stimulation level, involvement in the product category and

    celebrity/non-celebrity endorser evaluations ................................................. 29

    5. DISCUSSION.................................................................................. 32 6. APPENDICES................................................................................. 35

    6.1 APPENDIX A ......................................................................................................... 35 6.2 APPENDIX B.......................................................................................................... 42

    7. REFERENCES ............................................................................... 44

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    List of Figures

    1. Figure 1: Motivational value types and higher order value domains. 12 2. Figure 2: Ad from the web-based questionnaire. 21

    3. Figure 3: Similarity Structure Analysis of PVQ Pearson Product-Moment 22

    Correlations.

    List of Tables

    1. Table 1: Value types in Schwartzs value theory. 11

    2. Table 2: Summary for Scale. 24

    3. Table 3: Means and Standard Deviations (final. celebrity.sta). 25

    Regression Tables

    4. Table 1: Effects of Age and Gender on Psychosocial Characteristics. 25

    5. Table 2(a) & (b): Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Similarity on Intention to

    Try or Recommend New Product. 26

    6. Table 3(a)&(b): Effects of Values on Intention to Try or Recommend New

    Product. 28

    7. Table 4(a)&(b): Effects of Optimum Stimulation Level on Intention to Try or

    Recommend New Product. 29

    8. Table 5(a)&(b): Effects of Socio-demographics on Intention to Try or Recommend

    New Product 31

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    1. Area of Study

    Celebrity/non-celebrity athlete endorsement has become a topic of great interest to

    practitioners, students and researchers. However, written efforts to explain how, why and if

    celebrity/non-celebrity athlete endorsement works contain a significant element of wow

    and hype but very little empirical evidence. There is an urgent need for research

    specifically related to athletes and their use in product endorsement that goes beyond hype

    and cursory descriptive discussions. Without the benefit of background knowledge regarding

    related research that may be used as a thought springboard, investigative studies in this area

    will remain rather modest, imperfect and/or uninspired (Brooks & Harris, 1998).

    1.1 Background

    There are several benefits to having celebrities endorse products or services. Research has

    indicated that customers are more likely to choose foods and services endorsed by celebrities

    than those with out such endorsements (Agrawal & Kamakura, 1995). Marketing Evaluations

    Inc. has compiled a list of 1500 U.S.-known celebrities with appealing qualities to

    consumers. Most of the 1500 were viewed as familiar and likable (Miciak & Shanklin, 1994).

    Another advantage to celebrity-based campaigns is that famous people hold the viewers

    attention. In this era of sound-bytes and channel surfing, there is a demand for peoples time

    and focus. For example, people want to see a commercial with Tiger Woods as opposed to

    Brad Faxon simply because Tiger Woods dominates the screen during golf tournaments and

    has made such an impact as an extremely talented, young African American.

    There are some disadvantages to Celebrity Endorsements. The first issue concerns the high

    finance to secure the big name endorsers. Pepsi paid Shaquille ONeal $25 million to endorse

    the popular soda product. Tiger Woods received $40 million from Nike to support the

    companys youth marketing campaign. Although these large companies do not have a

    problem spending the top dollar necessary to acquire famous personalities, most small

    companies struggle to afford any celebrities, let alone one that costs 25 or 40 million dollars.

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    It is a bigger risk for the smaller companies to invest large amounts. Their losses are greater

    if something goes wrong. Nike was not fazed by the 1996 case involving Dallas Cowboy

    wide receiver Michael Irvin, who was caught by police with drugs and prostitutes in a local

    hotel room. Irvin was only a small piece of Nikes endorsement scheme. However, there

    were 13 small Toyota dealerships that suffered tremendously. They had the Cowboys star

    lined up to do a series of commercials, worth about $500 000. Not only did they lose the

    money invested in Irvin and the ads, they also had to incur more expense by finding a

    replacement for him (Lane 1996).

    Another negative aspect is that the company may not be able to get a celebrity to represent

    their product exclusively. He/she may endorse several products, sometimes switching their

    endorsements to rival brands. This happens frequently when trying to secure someone who is

    well liked by society and in high demand for product endorsements. As a result, the

    credibility and trust in the product and the endorser, decreases. It also sends the following

    message to the consumer; If the endorser wont stick with a brand, why should I? (Dyson &

    Douglas, 1999)

    1.2 Introduction Sport is an integral part of society. Everyone is exposed to some form of sporting activity

    during his or her formative years and therefore people can generally identify with at least one

    sports celebrity. The advent of satellite television and information technology has ensured

    that increasing audiences can access sports coverage up to 24 hours a day, and many

    advertisers have found that sports stars can effectively differentiate their products from

    others.

    In general, the success of sport celebrity endorsement is due to the growing interest in sport.

    In the last 20 years, there have been significant increases in the number of children playing

    sport, as well as the dollars invested in televising and sponsoring sport. While there are

    several risks involved in using celebrity endorsers the continued practise in advertising,

    signals that corporations believe the risks are worth taking (Dyson & Douglas, 1999).

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    Advertising is the mechanism with which a product is introduced and promoted to the

    general public. It can be television, radio, Internet or billboard advertising which grabs the

    attention of a potential customer, but the reason a particular ad appeals to that individual

    represents the focus of this particular research report. More importantly this paper aims to

    investigate the difference between celebrity and non-celebrity endorsement in order to reach

    an informed conclusion about the justification for either.

    When an individual views an ad he or she attaches values to the product and the endorser.

    These values have developed as a result of numerous affecting factors such as culture,

    education and environment. It is important that an attempt is made to quantify these values

    when conducting a study such as this. Optimum stimulation levels also impact on the relative

    importance of an ad to an individual so it is important that this aspect is studied and assessed.

    Finally the involvement an individual experiences when he/she is exposed to an ad is a

    significant factor when considering the relative impact of celebrity versus unknown

    endorsers.

    Determinants in this research process include perceived similarity in terms of the

    relationship between the viewer and the endorser, and attractiveness in terms of the

    perception the viewer has of the endorsers attributes.

    The method used to conduct our research was quantitative in approach, focusing on the

    celebrity/non-celebrity endorsement. We have conducted regression analyses in order to

    uncover empirical evidence to support our hypotheses that there are factors, other than the

    use of celebrity endorsers in ads, which contribute to source effects in communication and

    persuasion, ultimately, to justify the consideration to use non-celebrity endorsers in ads.

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    2. Literature Review

    There are three main classes of variables Individual differences (OSL, personal values and

    involvement in the product category), celebrity status (celebrity vs. non-celebrity) and the

    outcome (does the use of a celebrity/non-celebrity in the ad increase the intent to try or

    recommend the product). Individual differences and celebrity status are classified as the

    independent variables with outcome (try and/or recommend product) being classified as the

    dependant variable in our study.

    2.1 Individual differences

    Optimum Stimulation Level (OSL)

    OSL is conceived as a personality trait that refers to a persons preferred amount of

    physiological activation or arousal. Internal and external factors influence OSL. The

    implications for marketers are that various products and leisure activities increase/decrease

    activation. High OSL may lead to brand switching or variety-seeking behaviour. High OSL

    consumers are information seeking and accept more risk, they also have higher levels of

    variety seeking motivation for Hedonic Experiences. Hedonism is defined as the need for

    pleasure, the need to use products to create fantasies, to feel new sensations, and obtain

    emotional arousal (Bailey, 1999).

    Value Priorities

    Values influence most aspects of consumer behaviour, including ad evaluations (Burgess

    1992). Values are trans-situational goals that refer to desirable end-states and modes of

    conduct, vary in importance, and serve as principles that guide behaviour and evaluations

    (Schwartz 1992). The value types in Schwartzs value theory are defined in Table 1. People

    evaluate the content of ads for congruency with values, attitudes and other beliefs in a

    process that links ad elements to stored symbolic representations of people, brands, events,

    and interaction episodes (Rokeach 1973). This process is intrinsic to constructing identity

    and includes complex affective and cognitive evaluations (Baumgartner et al. 1992).

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    Table 1: Value types in Schwartzs value theory.

    Value Type Definition Exemplary Values Power Social status and prestige,

    control or dominance over people and resources.

    Social power, authority, wealth.

    Achievement Personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards.

    Successful, capable, ambitious.

    Hedonism Pleasure and sensuous gratification for oneself.

    Pleasure, enjoying life.

    Stimulation Excitement, novelty and challenge in life.

    Daring, varied life, an exciting life.

    Self-Direction Independent thought and action choosing, creating, exploring.

    Creativity, curious, freedom.

    Universalism Understanding, appreciation, tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people and nature.

    Broadminded, social justice, equality, protecting the environment.

    Benevolence Preservation and enhancement of the welfare of people with whom one is in frequent personal contact.

    Helpful, honest, forgiving.

    Tradition Respect, commitment and acceptance of the customs and ideas that culture or religion provide.

    Humble, devout, accepting my portion in life.

    Conformity Restraints on actions, inclinations and impulses likely to upset or harm others and violate social expectations or norms.

    Politeness, obedient, honouring ones parents or elders.

    Security Safety, harmony and stability of society, of relationships and of self.

    Social order, clean.

    Source: Excerpted from Schwartz (1992)

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    Advertisers and the media tap into these inherent human characteristics and will use sport

    celebrity advertising because of its appeal to the average man on the street who holds the

    celebrity in high regard. The sports celebrity contains a symbolic quality, an image of style,

    and an aura of importance when being normal is the norm.

    Schwartz maintains that the hypothesised interrelations of values imply a circular structure

    (ie. a circumplex, see Figure 1) in which 10 motivational value types conveniently segment a

    continuum of related motivations. Values in closest proximity on the circumplex are most

    compatible and most positively correlated.

    Self-Direction Benevolence Stimulation Universalism Hedonism Conformity Achievement Tradition Power Security

    Figure 1: Motivational value types and higher order value domains.

    Note: Adapted from Schwartz (1992).

    SELF-TRANSCENDENCE

    CONSERVATION SELF-ENHANCEMENT

    OPENNESS TO CHANGE

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    Involvement in the product category advertised

    Certain types of products when being promoted will elicit different levels of consumer

    involvement. Some products are informative and elicit high involvement and thoughtful

    consideration, while others are products that are habitual, evoking some thought, yet low-

    involvement. Zaichkowsky defines involvement as, A persons perceived relevance of the

    advertisement based on inherent needs, values, and interests (Zaichkowsky 1985). Wilson

    and Sherrells (1993) source effects meta-analysis suggests that the characteristics of the

    message in their Involvement and Source Effects in Persuasion research have a significant

    impact on attitude change only in the low involvement condition.

    2.2 Celebrity

    Physical attractiveness

    Some researchers theorize that celebrity endorsers may be influential because they are

    viewed as highly dynamic and they have attractive and likable qualities (Atkin & Block,

    1983), and besides that, their fame attracts attention to the product. Advertisers also often

    choose celebrity athletes based on physical attractiveness believing that they can add value

    to their products due to a potent mixture of physical attractiveness and status of the athlete

    (Friedman & Friedman, 1979).

    Similarity

    Evaluations of endorsers also may be biased by perceptions of physical or ideological

    similarity/dissimilarity (Kelman 1961; Woodside and Davenport 1974). Similarity is thought

    to generate emotional responses that affect ad cognitions directly and through subsequent

    cognitive elaboration. It may generalise to expectation of mutual need gratification based on

    reciprocal liking (Berschied and Ries, 1998).

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    From an elaboration likelihood perspective, similarity may act as a persuasive message

    argument by indicating that a product is especially for people that share a salient

    characteristic. Even when the basis of similarity is not salient, similarity may create a feeling

    of warmth that acts as a peripheral cue (Aaker and Stayman 1988). Similarity may act as an

    unconditional stimulus, evoking a positive affective response by validating ones own beliefs

    (Byrne et al. 1968).

    2.3 Outcome

    The product category advertised will result in a positive or negative response in the consumer

    eliciting the desire to try the product and/or recommend it to others. We have focused our

    study on when the consumer views the product category favourably, so as to ascertain what

    kind of reaction is stimulated as a result of the consumer liking the product category and

    being able to associate with it.

    Can associate with the product category advertised: Taking all the above factors into

    consideration does the ad conjure up some feeling of association and appreciation for the

    product, in the consumer?

    Would increase the intent to buy the product: Having gained the attention of the consumer,

    does the ad (in a specific product category) inspire the consumer to actually purchase the

    product? Does the ad inspire the consumer to recommend the product to others?

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    2.4 Problem Statement and hypotheses/propositions The problem is trying to understand the influence of sports celebrities/non-celebrities on

    product endorsement and the effect of sports celebrities/non-celebrities on ad evaluations.

    Hypotheses

    We may now proceed to formalise some predictions about the nature of relations between

    sports celebrity endorser status, consumer individual differences and the outcome or stimulus

    of the ad. We expect a persons evaluations of the sports celebrity endorser (regarding the

    desire to associate with him/her and approve of his/her behaviour) to increase (decrease) in

    relation to perceptions of his/her status. We expect evaluations of the sports celebrity

    endorser to vary likewise in relation to his/her perceived similarity (dissimilarity).

    H1a: Consumers will be more positive about associating with a similar physically

    attractive sports celebrity endorser and will evaluate his/her behaviour more

    favourably, resulting in the consumer wanting to try and/or recommend the

    product endorsed by the celebrity.

    H1b: Consumers will be more positive about associating with a similar physically

    attractive sports non-celebrity endorser and will evaluate his/her behaviour

    more favourably, resulting in the consumer wanting to try and/or recommend

    the product endorsed by the non-celebrity.

    The next two hypotheses concern the effect of value priorities on the perceived attractiveness

    of celebrity endorsers. We use Schwartz value domains to operationalize value priorities.

    Following Schwartz (1992), value type scores are calculated by averaging the value type

    scores comprising each value domain. We expect that the perceived attractiveness of sport

    celebrity endorsers will be related to a respondents value priorities (i.e., that people with

    similar values will be perceived to be more attractive).

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    We test a sport celebrity endorser who has been chosen because of his/her appearance,

    behaviour and context suggest that he/she endorses hedonism, stimulation and self-direction

    (openness to change values). Thus, we expect that perceptions of a sports celebrity endorsers

    physical attractiveness and similarity will vary according to the match-up of consumer

    value priorities and the perceived value priorities of the sports celebrity endorser. If this is

    true then people who place higher priority on openness to change values will perceive the

    sports celebrity endorser to be more physically attractive and similar (and vice versa).

    H2a: The importance of resultant openness to change will be related to the

    perceived physical attractiveness of a sports celebrity endorser when the

    sports celebrity endorser is perceived to endorse openness to change values.

    Resultant self-enhancement will not be related to perceived physical

    attractiveness in this case.

    H2b: The perceived similarity of a sports non-celebrity endorser will be related

    positively to resultant openness to change when the sports non-celebrity

    endorser is perceived to endorse openness to change values. Resultant self-

    enhancement will not be related to perceived similarity in this case.

    The next two hypotheses look at consumer involvement in the product category advertised.

    We use Zaichkowsys PII (Personal Involvement Inventory) as a basis for this section of our

    study. Zaichkowsky uses a 10-point scale to show that one does not necessarily have to be

    involved with the product category to be involved with an ad for any product. Other non-

    product aspects of the ad (e.g., music, scenery, or message) may raise the level of

    involvement with the ad because of their relevance to the viewer. The peripheral route to

    persuasion may be at play when the viewer has more involvement with the ad than with the

    product category.

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    H3a: Consumers will be more involved in the product category advertised featuring

    a sports celebrity endorser, resulting in the desire to try and/or recommend the

    product endorsed by the celebrity.

    H3b: Consumers will be more involved in the product category advertised featuring

    a non-celebrity endorser, resulting in the desire to try and/or recommend the

    product endorsed by the non-celebrity.

    The last two sets of hypothesis look at consumer optimum stimulation levels (OSLs) in

    relation to the outcome of the ad (try and/or recommend the product). We will use

    Steenkamp and Baumgartners (1995) shortened version of the Change Seeker Index (CSI) to

    measure OSL (7-item form of the CSI derived from Garlington and Shimotas 95-item CSI).

    H4a: Consumer optimum stimulation levels (OSLs) are peaked by the use of

    sports celebrity endorsers in specific product category ads and achieve the

    outcome can associate with product category and as a result increase the

    intent to try and/or recommend the product.

    H4b: Consumer optimum stimulation levels are peaked by the use of similar

    looking sports non-celebrity endorsers in specific product category ads and

    achieve the outcome can associate with product category and as a result

    increase the intent to try and/or recommend the product.

    Covariates In order to control for spurious effects and to obtain a more precise test of our hypotheses, we

    added appropriate covariates in the regression analyses (McCarty & Shrum, 1993). Age,

    gender and involvement were included in all tests.

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    3. The Research Procedure 3.1 Method Sample and instrument The sample consisted of 190 South Africans of all ages and of mixed race and gender. The

    web-based questionnaire was activated for a week and was accessible by all computer users

    at the GSB as well as the GSB Alumni. The web-based questionnaire is attached at Appendix

    A. The questionnaire consisted of 66 questions along with 3 requests for additional

    information. The first 29 questions made up Schwartz value scale (the Portrait Values

    Questionnaire) and thus the PVQ scale.

    Questions 30 to 36 inclusive, measured Optimum Stimulation Levels (OSL) using

    Steenkamp and Baumgartners (1995) shortened version of the Change Seeker Index (7-item

    form of the CSI derived from Garlington and Shimotas 95-item CSI). An advertisement was

    then shown, depicting a South African celebrity sportsman in action. A notional new energy

    drink product, along with a persuasive caption was included to complete the ad. Rugby and

    soccer were the two sports represented in our research so the celebrity sportsman was either a

    rugby star or a soccer star and the second ad showed a sports non-celebrity playing the sport

    NOT represented first (ie. if a rugby star was shown first, a weekend soccer non-celebrity

    was shown next).

    Questions 37 to 46 measured involvement in the sport shown in the first ad and used

    Zaichkowsys PII (Personal Involvement Inventory) to achieve this. The 5 important

    questions from Q.47 to Q.51 were designed to measure outcome, in other words whether or

    not the respondent was likely to purchase the product and/or recommend it to others. The

    next ad was then shown and as indicated earlier, it showed a sport non-celebrity playing the

    sport (ie. soccer or rugby) NOT shown first but endorsing the same product. Questions 52 to

    66, which related to the second ad were exactly the same as Questions 37 to 51 and enabled

    us to draw comparisons between responses to the two ads. The ads were programmed to

    appear at random but were coded so that we knew which of the two possible combinations

    each respondent had seen. The final 3 questions pertained to age, race and gender.

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    There are two important points to highlight at this stage: First, only 99 of the 190 responses

    could be retained for our statistical analysis because a large number of the questionnaires

    were either not completed correctly or were submitted incomplete. Of these 99, 46 saw the

    rugby celebrity and the soccer non-celebrity while 53 saw the soccer celebrity and the rugby

    non-celebrity. Thus, we are testing two populations both of which consist of people who saw

    two different ads: a rugby ad and a soccer ad (but in the different order as explained above).

    We have monitored this to control for the effects of multiple sports and we have checked the

    sample sizes for the regressions to ensure that they include the correct number of

    respondents. Second, for confidentiality reasons, the ads included in the Questionnaire at

    Appendix 1 show the two sports non-celebrities used. As stressed before, a real time

    respondent would always have seen a sports celebrity first.

    3.2 Measures Measures used were as follows: Personal Values: Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ), developed by Schwartz, Lehman and

    Roccas (1999), to access the value priorities, using textual portraits of 29 different people.

    Each portrait describes a person to whom certain goals, aspirations and wishes all

    expressive of the same single value type are important. For each portrait, respondents

    answer: How much like you is this person? They check one of six boxes labelled: very

    much like me, like me, somewhat like me, a little like me, not like me, not like me at all

    (Steenkamp & Burgess, 2001).

    Optimum Stimulation Level (OSL): Change Seeker Index (CSI) is a preferred instrument to

    measure OSL, first developed by Garlington and Shimota (1964) (95-item), and later

    revised by Steenkamp and Baumgartner (1995) to a shortened 7-item form of the CSI. CSI is

    typically rated on a 5-point Likert Scale.

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    Involvement in product category advertised: Personal Involvement Inventory (PII),

    developed by Zaichkowsky (1985). Zaichkowsky uses a 10-point scale (formally a 20-point

    scale) to show that one does not necessarily have to be involved with the product category to

    be involved with an ad for any product. Other non-product aspects of the ad (e.g., music,

    scenery, or message) may raise the level of involvement with the ad because of their

    relevance to the viewer.

    The peripheral route to persuasion may be at play when the viewer has more involvement

    with the ad than with the product category. Unlike the Wells (1964) scale, which was

    explicitly developed for print ads the Leavitt (1970) and Schlinger (1979) scales for

    television ads, the PII is a broader measure for all types of advertisements. The scale scores

    now range from 10 to 70, with 10 being the anchor for low involvement and 70 being the

    anchor for high involvement and 40 being the midpoint of the scale (Zaichkowsky, 1994).

    3.3 Ad Stimulus Sports magazines such as Sports Illustrated often show advertisements, which use South

    African sporting celebrities to endorse a product. These ads generally depict the sports person

    in action and then elaborate on the product being promoted. We have used this method in the

    design of our simple advertisements. The ad below (Figure 2) displays the weekend rugby

    player and promotes 99 Sportsade (a notional product) with a picture and a caption. There

    were four action photos (2 rugby and 2 soccer) but the product and caption were the same

    throughout. Each photo was labelled to ensure the respondent knew who was in the photo (ie.

    celebrity soccer or rugby and weekend soccer or rugby).

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    Figure 2: Ad from the web based questionnaire.

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    4. Findings, Results and Analysis 4.1 Reliability and Validity 4.1.1 Reliability and Validity of PVQ Scale

    We used the configural verification approach that Schwartz (1992; 1994) recommends (c.f.,

    Borg & Shye, 1993; Davison, 1983) to test the reliability and validity of the Schwartz

    Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) Version 3 (Schwartz et al., 2001). Values data lack the

    pure factorial structure required for confirmatory analysis or reliability checks using

    Cronbachs alpha. As noted earlier in the literature review (Figure 1), the hypothesized

    circumplex structure of the values data requires that every variable be related to all other

    variables in the circumplex, by definition. This results in a set of nomological relations that

    can be tested by using Similarity Structure Analysis (SSA), a nonmetric multidimensional

    scaling technique developed by Louis Guttman (also called smallest space analysis, see Borg

    & Shye, 1993; Guttman, 1968).

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    Figure 3: Similarity Structure Analysis of PVQ Pearson Product-Moment Correlations SSA produces a multi-dimensional map of the value relations (see Figure 3). The fit of the

    map is tested through observation of the stress statistic, a measure of fit, which is less than

    0.15 when the model fits the data well. The results of a test for a four dimensional structure

    (i.e., as implied by the four higher order value domains) were very good with stress equal to

    .1125.

    Figure 3 plots the coordinates of the first two-dimensions. Regions were defined according

    to the configural verification approach, drawing boundaries from a conveniently defined

    central point and along the periphery of regions where this was indicated. Boundaries may

    be drawn in any manner, as long as they do not reverse direction back to the central point

    (see Schwartz 1992). Lines may be straight or bent.

    The major tenets of the theory emerge as expected. The value types emerge within their

    expected value domains, with the exception of security values, which was expected (see

    below). The value domains emerge in opposition, as expected. Self-transcendence values

    emerge in opposition to self-enhancement. Openness to change values emerge in opposition

    to conservation values.

    The hypothesised structure emerges with the following small exceptions.

    1. The security region does not emerge as a contiguous region. However, the items that

    measure security do emerge within the other conservation regions (conformity and

    tradition). This is consistent with the theory but nevertheless an unusual result in

    African research, as security generally emerges with self-transcendence values

    (Schwartz et al., 2001).

    2. Hedonism and Achievement values emerge in reverse order.

    3. Four items emerge in regions other than the intended region.

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    Schwartz (1992) indicates that such small differences are consistent with the theory of value

    contents and structure and the results are consistent with previous research. The chance of

    the resulting structure arising purely by chance is less than .01. Thus, we conclude that these

    results are consistent with the theory and previous research findings and conclude that the

    values data is reliable and valid.

    4.1.2 Reliability and Validity of Shortened CSI Scale

    The reliability of the Shortened CSI scale was verified using Crohbach's alpha. The results

    of the test were excellent. Coefficient alpha, which varies in the range of 0 to 1, exceeded

    .84. According to Malhotra, scales that attain a coefficient of .70 are generally considered to

    be reliable. Item-to-total correlations exceeded .60 with the exception of items 1 and 2 of the

    scale. As Table 2 shows, deleting item 2 would affect coefficient alpha, and thus scale

    reliability, adversely. Further investigation showed that no substantial benefit would accrue

    from the deletion of item 1. Table 3 shows the means and standard deviations for each

    question which were integrated into the calculations for results shown in table 2. The results

    indicated that skewness (-.61) or kurtosis (.76) were well within acceptable bounds.

    Table 2: Summary for Scale.

    Summary for scale: Mean=28.0303 Std.Dv.=4.06693 Valid N:99

    Mean if

    deleted

    Variance if

    deleted

    Std dev if

    deleted

    Item to total

    correlations

    Sqd

    multiple R

    Alpha if

    deleted

    Q 30 23.78788 13.76308 3.709863 0.422929 0.309698 0.843092

    Q 31 23.94950 12.71462 3.565757 0.541216 0.317493 0.828125

    Q 32 24.10101 12.07061 3.474278 0.600327 0.464259 0.819482

    Q 33 23.97980 11.57535 3.402256 0.709787 0.584027 0.801361

    Q 34 24.32323 11.73390 3.425479 0.653904 0.505144 0.810629

    Q 35 23.84848 12.91644 3.593945 0.660481 0.524954 0.814579

    Q 36 24.19192 11.65004 3.413215 0.608763 0.456707 0.819176

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    Table 3: Means and Standard Deviations (final. celebrity.sta).

    Means and Standard Deviations (final. celebrity.sta)

    MEAN ST__DEV_

    Q 30 4.242424 0.686471

    Q 31 4.080808 0.791237

    Q 32 3.929293 0.860144

    Q 33 4.050505 0.849655

    Q 34 3.707071 0.871926

    Q 35 4.181818 0.644658

    Q 36 3.838384 0.933581

    4.2 Results of Regression Analyses

    In this section, we test our hypotheses using multiple linear regressions.

    4.2.1 Effects of Age and gender on psychosocial characteristics

    The tests summarized in Table 1 below show the impact that age and gender have on some of

    the covariates used in our study. The level of involvement and OSL are affected by a

    respondents age and gender. As with other studies, gender has been found to be an

    antecedent of attractiveness, similarity, and value priorities and was included in all tests

    (Byrne et al., Chaiken, 1979).

    Table 1: Effects of Age and Gender on Psychosocial Characteristics

    Predictor Variables Involvement

    Optimum Stimulation

    Level

    Resultant Openness to

    ChangeResultant Self-Enhancement

    Age 1.195 d -0.789 d 0.026 d -0.079 d

    Gender (male) 2.692 d 0.970 d 0.279 d 0.292Intercept 38.443 29.748 0.589 -0.865R2 0.012 d 0.051 d 0.028 d 0.161Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients. a p

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    For tables 2 through to 5, the results are reported for two different groups within our sample

    of 99, who were selected at random. Group 1 (N=46) on completing the on-line questionnaire

    viewed an ad with a celebrity rugby player and non-celebrity soccer player, and Group 2

    (N=53) viewed an ad with a celebrity soccer player and non-celebrity rugby player.

    4.2.2 Attractiveness, similarity and celebrity/non-celebrity endorser

    evaluations

    The results for both sub-groups (Tables 2(a) and (b)) in our sample support H1a and H1b.

    Consumers are likely upon viewing an ad with a physically attractive celebrity (H1a) or non-

    celebrity (H1b) be willing to associate with them, and would therefore be more likely to be

    convinced to try the product advertised as well as recommend it to others. Similarity was not

    related to either dependant variable for both H1a and H1b, and this can perhaps be attributed to

    the fact that the sample was mostly made up of respondents with an ethnic background

    similar to the people portrayed in the advertisements. Burgess and Blackwell (2001) also

    found that viewers of a print ad were more likely to want to associate with a similar looking,

    attractive non-celebrity endorser. This assertion is validated by the results of this study using

    a celebrity and non-celebrity endorser.

    New Product (Group 1 - N=46)

    Predictor VariablesCelebrity Non-

    celebrityCelebrity Non-

    celebrityPhysical attractiveness 0.345 a -0.065 b 0.409 c -0.074 c

    Similarity -0.003 0.207 b 0.133 c 0.079Involvement 0.012 0.010 c 0.006 d 0.018 c

    Age -0.085 d -0.030 -0.004 0.028 d

    Gender (male) 0.347 b 0.330 0.021 a 0.263 d

    Intercept 1.140 1.670 0.583 1.253R2 0.310 d 0.185 d 0.360 d 0.188 d

    Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients (B's). a p

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    4.2.3 Value priorities and celebrity/non-celebrity endorser evaluations

    The results support H2a and H2b (Tables 3(a) and (b)). Resultant openness to change (ROC)

    values comes out significant in three out of the four models tested, which suggests an

    acceptable fit. The importance of resultant openness to change is related to the perceived

    physical attractiveness of a sports celebrity/non-celebrity endorser when the sports

    celebrity/non-celebrity endorser is perceived to endorse openness to change values, and

    therefore consumers will be more likely to want to try the product endorsed by this

    celebrity/non-celebrity (H2a). Likewise, the perceived similarity of a sports celebrity endorser

    is related positively to resultant openness to change when the sports celebrity endorser is

    perceived to endorse openness to change values, which results in consumers being more

    likely to try the new product and recommend it to others (H2b).

    New Product(Group 2 - N=53)

    Predictor VariablesCelebrity Non-

    celebrityCelebrity Non-

    celebrityPhysical attractiveness 0.268 a 0.470 b 0.117 c 0.151 c

    Similarity 0.141 0.112 b 0.076 c 0.245Involvement -0.012 -0.008 c -0.008 d -0.006 c

    Age -0.338 d -0.345 -0.289 -0.340 d

    Gender (male) 0.170 b 0.046 0.045 a -0.055 d

    Intercept 2.844 2.551 2.966 2.689R2 0.209 d 0.272 d 0.111 d 0.165 d

    Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients (B's). a p

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    (Group 1 - N=46)

    Predictor Variables Celebrity Non-celebrity Celebrity Non-celebrity

    Resultant openness to change 0.510 a 0.485 b 0.205 a 0.229 b

    Resultant self-enhancement -0.125 c -0.021 -0.100 c -0.030PVQ scale mean rating 0.576 d 0.958 0.656 d 1.004Involvement 0.026 c 0.021 d 0.019 c 0.024 d

    Age -0.077 c 0.029 c -0.019 c 0.049 c

    Gender (male) 0.257 0.378 0.284 0.346Intercept -1.199 -2.578 -1.387 -3.039R2 0.359 d 0.355 d 0.224 d 0.335 d

    Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients (B's). a p

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    4.2.4 Optimum stimulation level, involvement in the product category and

    celebrity/non-celebrity endorser evaluations

    The results support H3a and H3 (Tables 4(a) and (b)). Consumers who viewed the ad with a

    celebrity/non-celebrity endorser in a specific sport are likely to be more involved in the

    product category advertised and ultimately, would be more likely to try and recommend the

    product to others. H4a and H4b are not supported by the results, which would imply that

    consumers would not be more or less stimulated (OSL) if a non-celebrity endorser appears in

    the ad. Consumer optimum stimulation levels on intention to try or recommend the new

    product are not significant in our results. This therefore implies that the use of celebrity/non-

    celebrity endorsers in the ads has no impact on consumer optimum stimulation levels.

    New Product(Group 1 - N=46)

    Predictor VariablesCelebrity Non-

    celebrityCelebrity Non-

    celebrityOptimum stimulation 0.036 a 0.024 b 0.019 c 0.015 c

    Involvement 0.023 0.016 c 0.020 d 0.020 c

    Age -0.035 d 0.021 0.240 0.061 d

    Gender (male) 0.400 b 0.521 0.239 a 0.331 d

    Intercept 0.355 0.860 0.638 0.623R2 0.310 d 0.229 d 0.149 d 0.184 d

    Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients (B's). a p

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    Tables 5(a) and (b) show the results of the models including all covariates in our study. PVQ

    scale mean rating and involvement are significant in three of the four tests we ran for group

    one, which means that perceived value priorities of the celebrity/non-celebrity and the level

    of involvement in the product category are key to determining whether or not a consumer

    viewing the ad will try and/or recommend the new product advertised. For group two, PVQ

    scale mean rating and age emerge in two of the four tests run as key determinants of whether

    or not a consumer on viewing the ads will try and/or recommend the new product to others.

    New Product(Group 2 - N=53)

    Predictor VariablesCelebrity Non-

    celebrityCelebrity Non-

    celebrityOptimum stimulation -0.010 a -0.019 b -0.019 c -0.028 c

    Involvement 0.000 0.013 c -0.002 d 0.011 c

    Age -0.279 d -0.261 -0.265 -0.251 d

    Gender (male) 0.068 b 0.093 0.027 a 0.050 d

    Intercept 3.532 3.131 3.662 3.253R2 0.083 d 0.111 d 0.085 d 0.107 d

    Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients (B's). a p

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    (Group 1 - N=46)

    Predictor Variables Celebrity Non-celebrity Celebrity Noncelebrity

    Physical attractiveness 0.361 a -0.069 b 0.409 a -0.056 b

    Similarity -0.069 a 0.063 b 0.101 a -0.016 b

    Resultant openness to change 0.618 a 0.642 b 0.289 a 0.364 b

    Resultant self-enhancement -0.085 c -0.015 -0.045 c -0.032PVQ scale mean rating 0.278 d 1.095 0.192 d 1.112 d

    Optimum stimulation level -0.014 d -0.053 -0.011 d 0.024 d

    Involvement 0.021 c 0.019 d 0.009 c -0.719 d

    Age -0.098 c -0.033 c -0.014 c 0.009 c

    Gender (male) 0.099 0.267 -0.075 0.318Intercept -0.161 -1.340 -0.101 -2.182R2 0.482 d 0.389 d 0.402 d 0.361 d

    Reported are unstandardized regression coefficients (B's). a p

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    5. Discussion

    In essence this study replicates an in-press South African Journal of Business Management

    article by Burgess and Blackwell (2001). It extends that study further by examining the role

    of involvement and manipulating the celebrity/non-celebrity characteristic and sport

    portrayed in advertising stimuli. The Burgess and Blackwell article was limited to one ad

    while this study enabled each respondent to view two ads. Both of the ads displayed,

    endorsed the same product but showed a different sport, they also each showed either a sports

    celebrity or a non-celebrity. This use of additional covariates increased the scope of the

    analysis and allowed for a more precise test of the hypotheses. In this section we briefly

    discuss the results of the study and suggest some implications for research.

    It is important to highlight that there were also limitations to this study. The first of these was

    time; the web-based questionnaire could only be enabled for a period of a week because of

    time and resource implications. Thus, there was only a limited period of time available before

    we needed to capture the data required to begin our regression analyses. The second

    limitation was that of geography and access. Only South Africans with access to the Internet

    were included in the universe, so this study is limited in its representativeness. It can be

    argued that South Africa has strong population diversity but given that only GSB personnel

    and GSB alumni were approached along with a sprinkling of others, there was little diversity

    in the sample population. With the above limitations in mind, this study essentially

    researches a convenience sample.

    The study yields similar results to that of Burgess and Blackwell (2001) and our regression

    analyses show that involvement along with physical attractiveness and value priorities

    emerged as important influences on both sports celebrity and non-celebrity endorsers. This

    finding will not amaze advertising practitioners but the fact that these findings substantiate

    those identified in previous studies is important. Unlike the paper by Burgess and Blackwell

    (2001), similarity did not emerge as an important influence, this is explained in due course.

    Our study revealed that a respondents optimum stimulation level was influenced by age and

    gender. Younger males (i.e. between 20 and 40) experienced higher OSLs when viewing the

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    ads probably because many of them are still play rugby and/or soccer or have a keen interest

    in these sports.

    Our discovery that consumers are likely, upon viewing an ad with a physically attractive

    celebrity or non-celebrity, to be willing to associate with them, and therefore to be more

    likely to try the product advertised as well as recommend it to others, is important. It

    endorses the widely held view that ads in magazines like Sports Illustrated, which show

    sports celebrities in action with a product for promotion, have a high impact on the consumer

    audience.

    Similarity was not related to the consumers intention to try or recommend a product, and this

    can perhaps be attributed to the fact that the sample was mostly made up of respondents with

    an ethnic background similar to the people portrayed in the advertisements. Burgess and

    Blackwell (2001) also found that viewers of a print ad were more likely to want to associate

    with a similar looking, attractive non-celebrity endorser. This assertion is validated by the

    results of this study using a celebrity and non-celebrity endorser.

    The importance of resultant openness to change is related to the perceived physical

    attractiveness of a sports celebrity/non-celebrity endorser when that person is perceived to

    endorse openness to change values, and therefore consumers will be more likely to want to

    try the product endorsed. Likewise, the perceived similarity of a sports celebrity endorser is

    related positively to resultant openness to change when the sports celebrity endorser is

    perceived to endorse openness to change values. This results in consumers being more likely

    to try a new product and recommend it to others. We conclude from this that openness to

    change values are important and this is relevant to advertising practitioners because our

    research shows that in South Africa (a country synonymous with change), people are aware

    of the significance of flexibility and openness to change and furthermore, view it as

    important when evaluating ads.

    Consumers who viewed the ad with a celebrity/non-celebrity endorser in a specific sport with

    which they identify, are likely to be more involved in the product category advertised and

    ultimately, would be more likely to try and/or recommend the product to others. Our results

    imply that consumers would not be more or less stimulated (OSL) if a non-celebrity endorser

    appears in the ad instead of a sports celebrity. This therefore implies that the use of

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    celebrity/non-celebrity endorsers in the ads has no impact on consumer optimum stimulation

    levels and is significant information, particularly for sports advertising practitioners. Perceived value priorities of the celebrity/non-celebrity and the level of involvement in the

    product category are key factors to determining whether or not a consumer viewing an ad

    will try and/or recommend the new product advertised. This confirms that values and

    involvement are vital triggers in the sports advertising process.

    Having identified the limitations of this study we close by drawing the essential findings

    identified above, to the attention of researchers and advertising practitioners. There is

    undoubtedly a need for additional research but we hope that this paper serves as a foundation

    for further investigation in the area of sports marketing.

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    6. Appendices 6.1 Appendix A

    ADVERTISING STUDY

    Thank you for taking the time to answer this questionnaire. This is a sports marketing related questionnaire consisting of 60 questions and asking for some personal details. It should take you about 10 minutes to complete.

    Section 1

    Instructions: In each question please select the relevant option to show how much the person is like you according to the following scales - A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    1. It is important to you to be polite to other people all the time. You believe you should always show respect to your parents and to older people.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    2. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to you. You like to do things in your own original way.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    3. Being very successful is important to you. You like to stand out and to impress other people.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    4. You think it is important to do things the way you learned from your family. You want to follow their customs and traditions.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    5. You think it is important that every person in the world should be treated equally. You want justice for everybody, even for people you don't know.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    6. You like surprises and are always looking for new things to do. You think it is important to do lots of different things in your life.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    7. The safety of your country is very important to you. You want your country to be safe from its enemies.

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    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    8. You always want to help people who are close to you. It's very important to you to care for the people you know and like.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    9. You like to be in charge and tell others what to do. You want people to do what you say.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    10. You really want to enjoy life. Having a good time is very important to you.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    11. You like to make your own decisions about what you do. It is important to you to be free to plan and to choose your activities for yourself.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    12. You think it is important not to ask for more than what you have. You believe that people should be satisfied with what they have.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    13. It's important to you to be rich. You want to have a lot of money and expensive things.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    14. You look for adventures and like to take risks. You want to have an exciting life.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    15. Honesty is very important to you. You believe you must be honest in any situation and always tell the truth.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    16. It is important to you that everything is clean and in order. You really don't want things to be a mess.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    17. You look for every chance you can to have fun. It is important to you to do things that give you pleasure.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

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    18. You strongly believe that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to you.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    19. You believe that people should do what they are told. You think people should follow the rules at all times, even when no one is watching.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    20. You like people to know that you can do well. You are ambitious and ready to work hard to get ahead.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    21. Your family's safety is extremely important to you. You would do anything to make sure your family is always safe.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    22. It's important to you to listen to people who are different to you. Even when you disagree with them, you still want to understand them and to get along with them.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    23. You don't like to boast or draw attention to the things you do. You want to be modest.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    24. You think it's important to be interested in things. You are curious and try to understand everything.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    25. It is important to you to fit in and do things the way other people do. You think you should do what others expect of you.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    26. You think everyone should work to get people in the world to live together peacefully. Peace everywhere in the world is important to you.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    27. It is very important to you to show your abilities. You want people to admire what you do.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    28. It is important to you that your friends can always trust you. You want to be loyal to them and always look out for their interests.

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    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    29. Being religious is important to you. You try hard to follow your religious beliefs.

    A lot like me; Like me; Somewhat like me; A little Like me; Not at all like me.

    Section 2

    Please select your answer by clicking the space to the left of the word.

    30. I like to continue doing the same old things rather than trying new and different things.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    31. I like to experience novelty and change in my daily routine.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    32. I like a job that offers change, variety, and travel, even if it involves some danger.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    33. I am continually seeking new ideas and experiences.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    34. I like continually changing activities.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    35. When things get boring, I like to find some new and unfamiliar experiences.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    36. I prefer a routine way of life to an unpredictable one full of change

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

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    Section 3

    Now, we ask you some questions about the sport appearing in the advertisement above and then about the person in the advertisement. First, we present you with some words which may describe how you feel about this sport. Each set of words are opposites. If you feel that neither word describes how you feel very well, then you would click an option somewhere in the middle of the scale. If you feel that the sport is of utmost importance, then you would click the option nearest the word "important". If you thought it was very important, then your answer would be one or two options away from the word important. If you thought this sport is neither important or unimportant, you would check near the middle, and so on. If you thought it was of utmost unimportance, you would click the option nearest the word "unimportant".

    In this way, we ask you to compare each set of words. Choose an extreme point nearest the word if you feel extremely that way about the sport depicted. Choose a point toward the middle of the scale to reflect less intense feelings about the sport. 37. important unimportant 38. boring interesting 39. relevant irrelevant 40. exciting unexciting 41. means nothing means a lot 42. appealing unappealing 43. fascinating mundane 44. worthless valuable 45. involving un-involving 46. not needed needed 47. I actively participate in the sport advertised above, either as a fan, player or administrator.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    48. The person in the ad is physically attractive.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    49. The person in the ad is similar to my friends or me.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    50. I would definitely try this product.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    51. I would definitely recommend this product to my friends.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

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    Section 4

    Please complete these questions in the same way as you did in the section above. 52. important unimportant 53. boring interesting 54. relevant irrelevant 55. exciting unexciting 56. means nothing means a lot 57. appealing unappealing 58. fascinating mundane 59. worthless valuable 60. involving un-involving 61. not needed needed

    62. I actively participate in the sport advertised above, either as a fan, player or administrator.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    63. The person in the ad is physically attractive.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    64. The person in the ad is similar to my friends or me.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    65. I would definitely try this product.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

    66. I would definitely recommend this product to my friends.

    Completely false, False, Not sure, True, Completely true.

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    Additional Information:

    Gender: Male / Female

    Age: Please select...

    Ethnicity: Please select...

    Thanks very much for your time.

    Submit

    23

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    6.2 Appendix B

    CONFIDENTIALITY AND USE OF INFORMATION FROM RESEARCH PROJECTS

    I understand that confidentiality and high ethical standards are important prerequisites for my participation in this research project as a student of the Graduate School of Business engaged in examining a study that involves the use of the agreed sportsman. I undertake to abide by the following: 1. To keep confidential, information gained about the use of this sportsman in a notional advertisement where he is endorsing a product and the impact of that endorsement is compared to that of a non-sports celebrity endorser. 2. To provide a copy of the final report to Craig Livingstone, agent for the agreed sportsman. I acknowledge that these obligations continue after completion of the MBA course work.

    SIGNATURE: NAME: DATE:

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    CONFIDENTIALITY AND USE OF INFORMATION FROM RESEARCH PROJECTS

    I understand that confidentiality and high ethical standards are important prerequisites for my participation in this research project as a student of the Graduate School of Business engaged in examining a study that involves the use of the agreed sportsman. I undertake to abide by the following: 1. To keep confidential, information gained about the use of this sportsman in advertisements where he is endorsing a product and the impact of that endorsement is compared to that of a non-sports celebrity endorser. 2. To provide a copy of the final report to Warwick Sport and media (Pty) Ltd. I acknowledge that these obligations continue after completion of the MBA course work.

    SIGNATURE: NAME: DATE:

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    7. References

    1. Brooks, Christine M. and Kellee Harris (1998), Celebrity Endorsement: An Overview of the Key Theoretical Issues, Sports Marketing Quarterly, 7 (2), 35.

    2. Dyson, Amy and T. Douglas - (Illinois State University) (1999), The State of

    Celebrity Endorsements, The Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing, 1-3.

    3. Dyson, Amy and T. Douglas - (Illinois State University) (1999), The State of Celebrity Endorsements, The Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing, 1-3.

    4. Consumer Needs and Motivation, Chapter 4, Marketing Course, Missouri.

    http://business.missouri.edu/Degrees/Courses/marketing/winter99/Bailey/Chapter04NeedsandMotivation/tsld011.htm

    5. Burgess, S.M. and R.D Blackwell (2000), Attractiveness, Values, and Evaluations of Non-celebrities in Print Ads, An Exploratory Study, 5.

    6. Rokeach, M. R. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.

    7. Steenkamp, J.E.M., & Baumgartner, H. (1992). The role of optimum stimulation level

    in exploratory consumer behaviour. Journal of Consumer Research, 19, 434-448. 8. Charles Atkin and Martin Block (1983). Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsers.

    Journal of Advertising Research, 23 (February/March): 57-61. 9. Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne (1994), The Personal Involvement Inventory (PII):

    Reduction, Revision and Application to Advertising, Journal of Advertising, 13 (4), 61.

    10. Friedman, H. and Friedman, L. (1979) "Endorser Effectiveness by Product Type",

    Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. I9, No.5, pp. 63-71.

    11. Wilson, Elizabeth J. and Daniel L. Sherrell (1993), Source Effects In Communication and Persuasion Research: A Meta-Analysis of Effect Size, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 21 (2), 107-108.

    12. Kelman, HC (1961). Processes of opinion change. Public Opinion Quarterly, 22,

    pp.27-78.

    13. Woodside, Arch G. and J. William Davenport, Jr. (1974), "The Effect of Salesman Similarity and Expertise on Customer Purchasing Behavior," Journal of Marketing Research, 11 (May), 198-202.

    14. Malhotra, Naresh (2000) Marketing Research 3rd edition, New Jersey, USA:

    Prentice Hall.

    http://business.missouri.edu/Degrees/Courses/marketing/winter99/Bailey/Chapter04NeedsandMotivation/tsld011.htmhttp://business.missouri.edu/Degrees/Courses/marketing/winter99/Bailey/Chapter04NeedsandMotivation/tsld011.htm

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    15. Stayman, Douglas M., and David A. Aaker (1988 December), "Are All The Effects Of Ad-induced Feelings Mediated By A Subscript Ad?," Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 368-373.

    16. Dyson, Amy and T. Douglas - (Illinois State University) (1999), The State of Celebrity Endorsements, The Cyber Journal of Sport Marketing, 1-3.

    17. Burgess, S.M. and R.D Blackwell (2000), Attractiveness, Values, and Evaluations of

    Non-celebrities in Print Ads, An Exploratory Study, 4-5.

    18. Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne (1994), The Personal Involvement Inventory (PII): Reduction, Revision and Application to Advertising, Journal of Advertising, 13 (4), 61-62.

    19. Steenkamp, E. M and S.M. Burgess (2001), Optimum Stimulation Level and

    Exploratory Consumer Behaviour in an Emerging Consumer Market, 10.

    20. Kepler, G (1992), Introduction to the Factorial Design Research Design and Analysis, Edition, 186-201.

    21. Borg, I., & Shye, S. (1993). Facet Theory: The Method and its Application. Newbury

    Park, California: Sage.

    22. Davison, M. L. (1983). Multidimensional Scaling. New York: Wiley.

    23. Guttman, L. (1968). A General Nonmetric Technique for Finding the Smallest

    Coordinate Space for a Configuration of Points. Psychometrika, 33(4), 469-506.

    24. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the Content and Structure of Values:

    Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries. Advances in

    Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 1-49.

    25. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Are There Universal Aspects in the Content and Structure of

    Human Values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19-45.

    26. Schwartz, S. H., Lehmann, A., Melech, G., Burgess, S. M., Harris, M., & Owens, V.

    (2001). Extending the Cross-Cultural Validity of the Theory of Basic Human Values

    with a Different Method of Measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,

    32(5), 519-542.

    The impact of sports celebrity/non-celebrity endorsement on consumer ad evaluationI. PREFACEII. ABSTRACTIII. KEYWORDS:IV. GLOSSARY OF TERMSTable of Contents1. Area of Study1.1 Background1.2 Introduction

    2. Literature Review2.1 Individual differences2.2 Celebrity2.3 Outcome2.4 Problem Statement and hypotheses/propositions

    3. The Research Procedure3.1 Method3.2 Measures3.3 Ad Stimulus

    4. Findings, Results and Analysis4.1 Reliability and Validity4.2 Results of Regression Analyses

    5. Discussion6.1 Appendix A6.2 Appendix B

    6. Appendices6.1 Appendix A6.2 Appendix B

    7. References

    bm: