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TheUniversity of Chicago Pressgratefully acknowledges a subventionfrom theNational Science Foundationin partial support of thecostsof production of thisvolume,ContentsPart 1A Guide to the Interpretation of BoneAccumulations in Afrcan CavesPart 2Fossil Assemblages fromthe Sterkfontein ValleyCaves:Analysis and InterpretationAcknowledgments ixl. Introduction 32. Parts of theSkeleton:Survival andDisappearance 113. Food Remainsof Primitive People inSouthem African Caves 304. Food Remains of Camivores in AfricanCaves 565. Porcupines asBone Collectors in AfricanCaves 1096. TheContribution of Owls 1187. SomeCompressional Effects onBonesPreserved in Cave Breccia 1348. Sumrnary: Bone Accumulations inSouthem African Caves-A Search forInterpretive Criteria 1389. TheFossil Animals 14710. Sterkfontein 19011. Swartkrans 22012. Kromdraai 24813. A Note on Taung andMakapansgat 26214. WhoWere theHunters and Who TheHunted? 266Appendix: Tables 275References 347Index 363viiAcknowledgmentsPaleontological workis usuallytime-consuming, and thisproject hasbeco noexcepton. Inmy particular circum-stances 1 have beco abletocomplete it onlythrough pro-longedmisuse of timeintended forrecreation: thepersonwhohasborne thebrunt of thismisuse is my wife Laura.whohassupported me beyond measurewith her particu-lar blend of loyalty and laughter. Our four children,Rosemary, Virginia, Timothy, and Conrad, have allhelpedme in many ways, from sorting innumerable bonestosurveying thecaves they carne from. In addition, Vir-giniahas drawn many ofthe diagrams and charts thatiIIustratethetext.TIteinvestigaton describedinthisbookhasbeco, forme, anadventure of themind, promptedbytheimagina-tiveconcepts o Professor R. A. Dart. 00 thisadventuremy elmost dailycompanion has been Dr. Elisabeth Vrba,who has freely givenme thebenefits ofher lucid mind andunbounded enlhusiasm. She had also added a good deal tothe significanceof this bookthroughthe resultsof herownresearch.AttheTransvaal Museum I wouldnot havebeen ableto remain scientifically active without the help of Mrs. M.C, Erasmus, whohas willinglyshouldered much of whal Iwould normally have been expected to do.Other museum cotleagues have alsoaided mein manyways, particularly Mrs. Elizabeth Voigt, whohelped withthe analysis of bone accumulations during the early stagesof theproject and is now continuing her studies of faunalremainsfromarchaeologcal sites. Dr. Atan Kemphasaidedme wthresearch in the Kruger National Park, andthe companionshipof Mr. O. P. M. Prozeskywas ap-preciated during fieldwork in Soulh-Wesl Mrica. Ms. Im-ogen Chesselet has prepared many of the drawings in thisbook; Mrs. Ronel Goodehastrackedmanyobscureli-brary references forme, and Mrs. EIsaKirsten typed themanuscript withpatience and precision.For seven yearsmy field team at Swartkrans has beensupervisedbyMr. GeorgeMoenda, andthe servicesoCMr. Absalom Lebelo andMr. Jack Sepeng havenot geneunnoticed.TheSwartkrans sitewasacquired by theUniversity oftheWitwatersrand in1968 and, sincethen, theBoard ofControl ofthe Bemard Pricelnsttute for PalaeontologicalResearchhas generouslyaUowedme tocontinuemyin-vestigations there. 1am muchindebted to Professor S. H.Haughton and Professor S. P. Jackson for their interest inthiswork.Inthe AnatornyDepartment of the Universityof theWitwatersrand Professor P. V. Tobas remains anesteemedcolleague and warmfriend, and he and Mr.Alun Hughes have been my companions during manydaysoffruitful discussionsat thecaves. Onsorne suchoccasions wehave been joinedbyDr. James Kitching,Mr. Brian andDr. JudyMaguire, andDr. Tim Partridge. 1havebenefited greatIyfromtheexperience andkindnessofthese people.It would not have been possible to initiate tbe re-search described in this book without thepersonal interestof Mrs. Lita Osmundsen and the generosity of theWenner-GrenFoundation. The symposiumthis founda-tionsponsored in Austria during 1976helped to crystallizethe newscienceof taphonomy and to chart its futurecourse. Myappreciationis due to fellowtaphonomistsDr. AndrewHill, Dr. KayBehrensmeyer, andDr. AlanWalker for their active guidance in thisventure.On geological aspects of this project 1 have had thebenefit of Professor Karl Butzer's wide experienceandcritical appraisal. My research has been thebetter for 11.I have alsoappreciatedthewisecounsel of Professor F.ClarkHowell and the fruitful cooperationof ProfessorRichardKlein. AttheSouth AfricanMuseum, Dr. BrellHendeyhasgenerouslyhelpedme in avariety of ways.It is a pleasure loacknowledge thehelp andhospitalityof Mr. AttilaPort andhiswifeKarenduringproductiveperiods offieldwork in Soulh-Wesl Africa. I amalsograteful to Mr. C. K. Cooke, who wasmy companion andguide during manyhappy days spent in Rhodesian caves.Col. J. Scott has generouslyallowedme access to hisUitkornst naturereservewheresomany of myobserva-tions havebeenmade.Manythanks aredue tothefollowingfriendsandcol-leagues without whose helpthe workdescribedinthisbookwouldnot havebeen completed: thelateProfessorW. W. Bishop, Professor C. S. Churcher, Dr. R. 1.Clarke, Mr. C. G. Coetzee, Professor H. B. S. Cooke , Dr.O. H. S. Davts, Professor H. J. Deacon, Mrs. J. Deacon,Dr. N. J. Dippenaar, Mr. W. du Plessis, Professor L.Freedman, Dr. C. E. Gow, Professor R. F. Holloway,Professor G. L1. Isaac. Professor T. Jenkins, Or. M. O.Leakey, Mr. R. E. F. Leakey, Professor A. E. Mann,ProfessorR. J. Mason, ProfessorH. McHenry, Mr. M.G. L. Milis, Dr. U. deV. Pienaar, Dr. I. L. Raulenbach,Professor J. T. Robinson, Dr. B. H. Sandelowsky, Dr. M.K. Seely, Miss V.SCOll, Professor J. D. Skinner, Mr. F.ixx Acknowledgmentsvanden Broek, Dr. W. E. Wendt, ProfessorM. H. Wol-poff, andProfessor A. Zihlmann.Finallymythanksmust gotothe Board of Trustees ofthe Transvaal Museum,under chairmanship of ProfessorF. C. Bloff the University Research Divisin of theCouncil forScientific and Industrial Research, headed byMr. W. J. Weideman, and the National MonumentsCouncil fortheir sympathetic support of myresearch.Drawings initialed 1. M. C. were done by Imagen Ches-selet. AHphotographs are by the author except thoseotherwise acknowledged in the legends.Part 1A Guide to the Interpretation of BoneAccumulations in African Caves1 IntroductionThisis a detectivestory,butarather oddone. Thecluesarebones, andtheairo of theinvestigation is lo establishcauses of death, buttheevidences ancientandnowit-nessessurvivetorelatetheirexperiences. More normaldetectivestories often show sorneconfident andefficientinspector systematically unraveling the evidence, withtheprofessional expertise of Scotland Yardal hiselbow:in this case theinvestigator is a zoologist who found him-self in ao uncharted field where guidelines were few and iIldefined. What was needcd was sornekind of paleodetec-tive ' shandbook-aguideto the interpretationof bonyc1ues foundin African caves. PartJ ofthis book forms therudiments of such a guide , and in Part 2 evidence fromthecaves of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, andKromdraai is pre-sented andinterpreted in terms ofthe guide's entena.Thetitleof thisbook, TheHurers or theHunted?, hasbeenused befare, in the same contexto After attending theThird Pan-African Congress 00 Prehistory atLivingstonein July 1955, S. L. Washbumvisitedthe Wankie GameReservetostudybaboons. Hereit wasnot onlybaboonsthat c1aimedhisattention; healsomadeobservations00bonesleft byavarietyofcamivores, hisinterest havingbcen sparked by an extremely provoeative paper de-liveredat theLivngstoneeongress. It was called "TheMakapansgat Australopithecine Osteodontokeratic Cul-ture,"andin it R. A. Dart (1957a) drew sorne remarkableconclusions about early hominid behavior. Fromananalysis o more than7,000 bones fromMakapansgat,Dart concludedtheatthecollecton representedfoodre-mainsof Australopthecus, who hadapparentlybeenahighly effectivehunter,capable of killing theJargestandmostdangerous animals of thetimes. Theunusuallyhighproportion of cranial remains among the fossilswas takento indicate that australopithecines had been headhunters,sometimes practicing their art on their ownkind.Lookingat the remains ofkillsinthe Wankie GameReserve,Washbum pondered Dart's far-reaching cIairns.HeobservedIhal many ofthekillsretainedtheirskullslongafterotherpartshad disappeared; could it be thathyenas had takensuch residual remains to the caves?That theaustralopithecineshadin fact beenthehunted ,rather thanthe hunters?Suchasuggestionhadalreadybeen made by K. P. Oakley (I954a,b) of the BrtishMuseumafter his studytour of fossil sites insouthernfrica. From[he point ofviewofunderstandingearlyman, the question was significant, as Washbum explainedin his paper .Australopithecines: The Hunters or theHunted?"(1957, p. 612):Thctaste for meat is one o themaincharacteristicsdistinguishingmanfromthe apes,andthishabitchanges thewholeway o Iife. Hunting involves co-operation within thegrnup,divisin of labor. sharingfoodby adult males, wider interests, a great expansinof territory,and theuse of tools. It is therefore impcr-tantto date thebeginning of hunting in order tointer-pret the origin ofhuman behaviour. Did roan taketo thegrasslands because hewasa hunter, or did hebecomecamivorous long after leaving the forests? The answerstothesequestionsmayIe in theearlest australo-pithecine deposits, those atMakapan and Sterkfontein.Washbum wasnotthe only delegate at theLivingstonecongress to bestirredby Dart'schallengingc1aims. Insubsequent vears 1foHowed the development of his thesisconceming "thepredatorytransitionfromapetoman"with great interest and in 1965 returned from Rhodesia tothe TransvaaJ Museumspecificallyto pursue the tapiefurther. My intention was toanalyze boneaccumulationsfromthe other australopithecne sites of Sterkfontein,Swartkrans, andKromdraai and lo seeif theycouldshedmore light on man's predatory beginnings. It soon becameapparent that interpreting these collections wouldbe pos-sibleonlyafteragooddeal ofbackgroundresearchonbone-accumulatingagencies inAfricancaves. Sorneofthiswork had nowbeen doneandis reported on