the holocaust project - ark boulton academy 9 holocaust project...آ the holocaust happened during...
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Cedars Upper School Year 9 History
The Holocaust Project
Key Term Definitions – provide a definition below. Look up the word if you are unsure…
Add five more words of your own below with definitions. You might want to come back and do this once you’ve found out more about the Holocaust.
The Holocaust happened during the Second World War between the years 1939 - 1945. However, the seeds for the events began much, much earlier. As you probably now understand, major events are often the result of several causes that often overlap, connect and influence each other. The key reasons for the Holocaust are outlined in the boxes below and explained in the subsequent sources (next slide). Task: For each of the sources on the next page, decide which reason/s it supports and explain why in the table.
1. Historical scapegoating
2. Impact of WW1
3. Nation building
4. Hitler’s experiences
5. Other reasons
Source Reason /s Explanation of choice
A Scapegoating Jewish people were seen as different and often forced out of their homelands by invaders. This caused them to be scapegoated as groups would blame them for problems as they weren’t liked by the majority.
B Nation Building
The poster shows Germany being rebuilt by Aryans. Aryans were…
H A cartoon showing a Jew (based on stereotype) leading away an innocent Aryan girl. The Nazis
promoted the idea that the Jews were trying to corrupt their
young girls and breed with them to destroy their Aryan race.
In 1939 there were eight million Jews living in Europe. Between 1939 and 1945 six million Jewish men, women and children were murdered in the parts of Europe controlled by the Nazis. This attempt to wipe out the Jewish population is usually known as the Holocaust, although some Jews object to this term as it means ‘sacrifice’. Some Jews prefer to use the term ‘Churban’ which means ‘destruction’. Hundreds of thousands of gypsies, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses, disabled people, political opponents and prisoners of war were also victims of this mass murder. Different methods of killing were used. Over a million people were killed in their own towns and villages, or in ghettos, where they were deliberately starved of food or shot. The rest were transported by train across Europe to extermination camps. The most well-known of these camps was Auschwitz in Poland. At least four million people were sent to Auschwitz. Only around 60,000 survived.
For hundreds of years, Christian Europe had regarded the Jews as ‘Christ-killers’ as they were blamed for the death of Jesus Christ. At one time or another, Jews have been driven out of almost every European country, including Britain. In 1275, Jews in Britain were forced to wear a yellow badge and 269 of them were hanged in the Tower of London in 1287. The deep prejudice against the Jews was still strong in the twentieth century, especially in Germany, Poland and the Ukraine, where the Jewish population was large. After the First World War, hundreds of Jews were murdered. In Germany, the Jews were blamed for losing World War One. Prejudice for the Jews increased during the economic depression which followed the war. Many Germans were poor and unemployed and wanted someone to blame. They turned on the Jews, many of whom were rich and owned successful businesses.
Task: Answer the comprehension questions below: 1. When did the Holocaust take place? Answer: 2. Why might some Jews not like the term ‘Holocaust’? Answer: 3. What was one of the reasons for Jews being killed after WW1 in Germany? Answer: 4. Which other groups were targeted during the Holocaust? Answer: 5. What was the original name of Hitler’s Nazi party? Answer:
During the 1920s, a new organised group in Germany started preaching hatred towards Jews. This was Hitler’s Nazi Party, who were originally known as the German Workers Party, and then the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP).
In 1933, Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. This made him the second most powerful person in Germany. It did not take long for Hitler to put his hatred of Jews into practice. During 1933, 36 Jews were murdered. Thousands were sent to concentration camps such as Dachau, the first Nazi concentration camp. Placards appeared outside shops and cafes and beside roads leading to towns and villages, reading ‘Jews not wanted’. By the end of 1933, over 35,000 Jews had fled from Germany. Jews were also being attacked, and similar actions were being taken against them in Poland, Romania and Hungary.
From 1933, Jews found that persecution rapidly increased against them.
In your end of unit assessment (yes, you still have to write assessments), you’ll be asked the following question (slides 14/15): Write a narrative account analysing the key stages of persecution towards the Jews in Nazi Germany (8). Slides 6-12 will help you prepare for this assessment.
The Boycott, April 1933
Watch the YouTube clip: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B
On April 1, 1933,8 weeks after Hitler became Chancellor of Germany, he ordered a boycott of Jewish shops, banks, offices and department stores. Task: Answer the questions: Why do you think the Nazi’s boycotted Jewish shops? Answer:
What was the boycott teaching non-Jewish Germans about the Jews? Answer:
* In April 1933, after the second set of elections, the SA (Nazi Party army known as Stormtroopers) set about terrorising individual Jews, damaging synagogues and organising boycotts outside Jewish businesses. Homes and shops were
painted with the Star of David to let everyone know they were Jewish. * This put Hitler in a difficult position: should he support the SA then he would be seen as a brutish thug – this could lead
to him being removed from government. If he sympathised with the Jews, he would be seen as weakening his stance against the Jews, who he hated, and he’d lose the support of the Nazis.
* He decided on a nationwide boycott of Jewish businesses and professions. * Hitler justified his tactics to the moderate and conservative right by suggesting that he was simply responding and
reacting to Jewish propaganda in the foreign press. * Reactions to the boycott were mixed.
* Some cities saw violence, others nothing. * The general German public were apathetic (disinterested) and continued to shop freely.
On 2nd August 1934, President Hindenburg died and Hitler took over control of Germany. This terrified many Jewish people, but many didn’t think he would go as far as mass violence or mass murder. The majority of Jews were not in a position to be able to leave their homes to flee abroad. Many countries in Europe were also anti-Semitic and didn’t want to take in Jewish refugees. In September 1935, the Nazis released their most direct laws discriminating the Jews, these were known as the Nuremburg Laws. The Nuremburg Laws stated;
Jews were no longer considered German citizens.
Jews couldn’t marry non-Jews or have sexual relations
Jews couldn’t employ German women in their
Jews are forbidden from flying the
Reich and national flag.
In 1933, Jewish businessman Oskar Danker and his girlfriend, a Christian woman, were forced to carry
signs discouraging Jewish-German integration. Intimate relationships between “true Germans” and
Jews were outlawed by 1935.
This diagram shows how Jewish blood could spread to the pure blooded Aryan race if Jews and non-Jews were to have relationships and children. Hitler was
obsessed with racial purity and the German race remaining ‘pure’. He believed the Jews had ‘dirty
Task: Imagine you are a Jew living in Nazi Germany in 1935. You have just read about the Nuremburg Laws for the first time in a newspaper. Use the space below to explain how you feel. Answer:
Many lesser known laws were introduced in Germany to persecute the Jews.
Task: Answer the questions below:
1 Which law surprises you the most? Answer:
2 Which law do you think caused the most anger? Answer:
3 Which law do you think is the saddest? Answer:
4 Which law would you struggle with the most if you lived in Nazi Germany and why? Answer:
Kristallnacht, November 1938
What caused Kristallnacht to happen? The attacks were retaliation for the assassination of the Nazi German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a seventeen-year-old German-born Polish Jew living in Paris.
What happened during Kristallnacht? 91 Jews killed, 1400 synagogues and Jewish cemeteries destroyed, 7500 Jewish store fronts shattered, 30,000 Jews arrested and taken to concentration camps.
Task: Watch the