The Holocaust Genocide of European Jews and others: the systematic extermination of millions of European Jews, Slavs, intellectuals, homosexual people,

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> The Holocaust Genocide of European Jews and others: the systematic extermination of millions of European Jews, Slavs, intellectuals, homosexual people, and political dissidents by the Nazis and their allies during World War II. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Adolph Hitler Among his goals was the removal of the non-aryans in particular the Jews </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Holocaust is Nazi Germanys systematic murder of European Jews </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The numbers 6 million Jews - 2/3 of the European Jewish population had been massacred. 5-6 million others also died in captivity </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> By the 1880s Anti-semitism had come to mean hostility towards Jews. When the Nazi party took over in 1933, anti-semitism became the official policy of the nation. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Nuremberg Laws 1935 Stripped Jews of citizenship. Forbid marriage between Jews and non- Jews. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Nuremberg Laws Dismissed Jewish employees and managers Jews were marked with a red letter J All Jewish women were given the middle name of Sarah, men were given the middle name of Israel. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Concentration Camps Places where POWs were confined, under harsh conditions. They soon held many other undesirable people, including the homeless, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses, people with mental and physical disabilities and gypsies. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Organized attacks on Jews begin in early 1938. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Where can they go? 1933-1937 Jews seek to escape Germany They go to Palestine, Latin America and the U.S. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Roosevelt calls for a conference He wants to discuss the growing numbers of Jews. The conference fails to deal with the situation. U.S. does not ease its immigration laws. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> With the invasion of Poland in 1939, 2 million Jews are put under German control. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> The Warsaw Ghetto Jews were rounded up and confined in the Warsaw Ghetto It was sealed off by a wall and topped with barbed wire (when possible) Hunger, overcrowding and lack of sanitation brought on disease. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Einsatzgruppers Or mobile killing units were sent to Poland in 1939. They murdered upper- class citizens, intellectuals, priests and influential Jews. In 1941 they were sent to eliminate Communist political leaders in the Soviet Union Digging their own graves before execution. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Hitler Accepts mass murder by firing squad as appropriate for a war zone but not for nations already conquered. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> January 1942- The Wannsee Conference Germany plans for the Final solution to the Jewish Question The plan called for special concentration camps, where genocide or deliberate destruction, of Europes Jewish population was to be carried out. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 1941 Nazis experiment to find out the most efficient way of killing people. They chose a poison gas to be administered in special chambers, disguised as showers on the first day 2300 Jews were killed. </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Death Camps They exist only for mass murder Jews were transported to the extermination centers. Most of them did not know where they were going when they boarded the trains. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> From The Auschwitz Album, the only photographic documentation of the entire extermination process at Auschwitz. An SS has just sent the woman with the infant to join those being sent to the crematoria; her hair is covered in the tradition of the Orthodox Jewish wife. A man is standing between the columns missing his pants and one shoe; this was a common occurrence in the overcrowded boxcars </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Gas Chambers The elderly most women and children and those who looked weak were put into gas chambers and killed. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Crematoria Guards had prisoners take the dead bodies to a crematoria, where the bodies were burned in huge ovens. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Men and women who escaped immediate death had their heads shaved and a registration number tattooed on their arms. Their barracks had no bathrooms or beds. There food was usually a soup made of rotten vegetables. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Some Jewish resistance April 1943- 700 Jews armed with pistols and homemade bombs, hold out against 2000 Germans with tanks. Most escape attempts failed, but a few people managed to bring word of the death camps to the outside world. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> U.S. response We show little interest in the Holocaust during the war years. Immigrant quotas were not raised existing quotas for Jews were not filled. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> FDR creates the War Refugee Board Try to help people threatened by the Nazis </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Oskar Schindler Employs 1300 Jews in Poland and Czechoslovakia. These jobs saved them from being shipped to the gas chamber. </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> As allied armies advanced in late 1944, the Nazis abandoned concentration camps outside of Germany and moved prisoners to German soil. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> May 1945 As Germany collapsed, American troops are able to witness the horrors of the Holocaust. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Nuremberg Trials Allies place 24 leading Nazis on trial for crimes against humanity At the Nuremberg trials, 12 received death sentences. </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> An important principle is established... Individuals were responsible for their own actions. No longer could you say that you were following orders. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Numbers to know Poland lost the most Jews during the Holocaust 88-91% of the Jewish Polish population was lost Lithuania and Greece lost the second most in terms of percentages. Italy lost the least amount of Jews. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Depressing but important information 11 question quiz coming up. All fill-in-the-blanks </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Standards Analyze the causes of WWII including: a. Appeasement b. Axis expansion c. The role of the allies </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Analyze the consequences of WWII including: a. Atomic weapons b. Civilian and military loses c. The Holocaust and its impact d. Refugees and poverty e. The United Nations </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Analyze the results of political, economic and social oppression and the violation of human rights including: a. The exploitation of indigenous people b. the Holocaust and other acts of genocide </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Analyze how governments and other groups have used propaganda to influence public opinion and behavior </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Detect bias and propaganda in primary and secondary sources of information </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Develop and present a research project including: a. Collection of data b. Narrowing and refining a topic c. Construction and support of a thesis </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Analyze the impact of U.S. participation in WWII, with emphasis on the change from isolationism to international involvement including the reaction to the attack on Pearl Harbor. </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Analyze the impact of the U.S. participation in WWII with emphasis on a. Events on the home front to support the war effort, including industrial mobilization, women and minorities in the workforce b. The internment of Japanese- Americans </li> </ul>