The History of the English Language “a brief overview”

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Slide 1 The History of the English Language a brief overview Slide 2 The History To ask yourselves: Where did English come from? Where did English come from? What are its origins and its timeline of development? What are its origins and its timeline of development? What kind of language is it? What kind of language is it? Slide 3 Family of Languages INDO-EUROPEAN FAMILY OF LANGUAGES Latin: Italian, French, Spanish Germanic: German, Swedish, Icelandic, Dutch, English! Others: Slavic, Baltic, Celtic, Greek Indo-Iranian: Farsi, Hindi, Sanskrit Slide 4 The History Real story of English begins around 500 A.D. when West Germanic invaders began coming into Britain from southern Denmark and western present-day Netherlands. Real story of English begins around 500 A.D. when West Germanic invaders began coming into Britain from southern Denmark and western present-day Netherlands. These people were the Anglos, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians and they spoke Anglo-Saxon or Old English (similar to modern Frisian spoken by 400,000 people today). These people were the Anglos, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians and they spoke Anglo-Saxon or Old English (similar to modern Frisian spoken by 400,000 people today). Slide 5 Slide 6 The History The original inhabitants of Britain, the Celts, as a result of invasions, were pushed into the western and northern areas of the island of Britain and into Ireland, modern France where they became todays Irish, Welsh, Scots and all speak a similar form of Gaelic. Slide 7 The Vikings Beginning around 850 A.D. West Germanic invaders brought with them their North Germanic influence. Beginning around 850 A.D. West Germanic invaders brought with them their North Germanic influence. Today, Old English is used in our vocabulary and is descended from OE, it is some of the most important that we use: the, water, book, him, her, these and those are all descended from OE. Today, Old English is used in our vocabulary and is descended from OE, it is some of the most important that we use: the, water, book, him, her, these and those are all descended from OE. Slide 8 Norman Conquest 1066 A.D. a pivotal moment for the language with the Norman Conquest 1066 A.D. a pivotal moment for the language with the Norman Conquest Anglo-Saxons of England were conquered by the French-speaking William, Duke of Normandy. Anglo-Saxons of England were conquered by the French-speaking William, Duke of Normandy. Old English Middle English Old English Middle English Foreign aristocracy speak French while lower class speak their native English Foreign aristocracy speak French while lower class speak their native English Slide 9 Norman Conquest Slide 10 French Influence Latin-based vocabulary began to mix with English Latin-based vocabulary began to mix with English 2 words with one meaning: beef, pork and veal from the French speaking lord and English speaking commoner used cow, pig, and calf 2 words with one meaning: beef, pork and veal from the French speaking lord and English speaking commoner used cow, pig, and calf Indict, jury, verdict, crime replaced firen and uncle replaced eam. (French replaced) Indict, jury, verdict, crime replaced firen and uncle replaced eam. (French replaced) Gentleman (French joined English) Gentleman (French joined English) Slide 11 French Influence Vocabulary: what resulted in a double set of English and Latin-based French words like doom and judgement, get and obtain. Vocabulary: what resulted in a double set of English and Latin-based French words like doom and judgement, get and obtain. Flexibility, richness Flexibility, richness Use interchangeably Use interchangeably Slide 12 The 1300s Black Plague + Black Plague + Intermarriage + Intermarriage + Growth of laboring and merchant classes + Growth of laboring and merchant classes + = division and distinction between French and English ended Chaucers Canterbury Tales (noble and commoner) Chaucers Canterbury Tales (noble and commoner) Middle English from 1100-1500 Middle English from 1100-1500 Slide 13 Early Modern English 1500-1800 linked to Renaissance, William Shakespeare 1500-1800 linked to Renaissance, William Shakespeare Revival of scholarship brought into language many Greek and classical Latin words Revival of scholarship brought into language many Greek and classical Latin words Age of Exploration and Discovery Age of Exploration and Discovery Slide 14 Late Modern English 1800 to present has been characterized by 2 historical events: 1800 to present has been characterized by 2 historical events: 1) the rise of technology 1) the rise of technology 2) the growth of the British Empire and its eventual overshadowing of American influence in the world 2) the growth of the British Empire and its eventual overshadowing of American influence in the world

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