The History of Ocean Water and Its Effect on the Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Discussion

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<ul><li><p>The History of Ocean Water and Its Effect on the Chemistry of the Atmosphere: DiscussionAuthor(s): H. C. Urey and Heinrich D. HollandSource: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,Vol. 53, No. 6 (Jun. 15, 1965), p. 1183Published by: National Academy of SciencesStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/72884 .Accessed: 06/05/2014 07:18</p><p>Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms &amp; Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p> .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.</p><p> .</p><p>National Academy of Sciences is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access toProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.</p><p>http://www.jstor.org </p><p>This content downloaded from 130.132.123.28 on Tue, 6 May 2014 07:18:30 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=nashttp://www.jstor.org/stable/72884?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p></li><li><p>VOL. 53, 1965 N. A. S. SYMPOSIUM: B. COMMONER 1183 </p><p>Siever, R., K. C. Beck, and R. A. Berner, "Composi.tion of interstitial waters of modern sedi- ments," J. Geol., 73, 39-73 (1965). </p><p>Sillen, L. G., "The physical chemistry of sea water," in Oceanography, ed. Mary Sears (Wash- ington, D.C.: A.A.A.S., 1961), pp. 549-581. </p><p>Turekian, K. K., "The geochemistry of the Atlantic Ocean Basin," Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 26, 312-330 (1964). </p><p>Wasserburg, G. J., "Comments on the outgassing of the earth," in The Origin and Evolution of the Atmospheres and Oceans, ed. P. J. Brancazio and A. G. W. Cameron (New York: John Wiley, 1964), chap. 4. </p><p>Whitehouse, U. G., and R. S. McCarter, "Diagenetic modification of clay mineral types in arti- ficial sea water," in Clays and Clay Minerals, Proceedings of the 5th National Conference, NAS- NRC Publication 566 (Washington, D.C.: NAS-NRC, 1958), pp. 81-119. </p><p>(Discussion of Dr. Holland's paper) </p><p>DR. UREY: Chloride is not a volatile but a soluble ... [inaudible] ........... FROM THE FLOOR: Would you repeat the comment? DR. HOLLAND: First, Dr. Urey objects to the use of the term volatile for </p><p>chloride. Secondly, he feels the major part of the chloride comes from the interior together with sodium. </p><p>On the first point, I think it is really a matter of semantics. Rubey classed chlo- ride together with the excess volatiles as one of those things that is present on the surface of the earth in quantities very much larger than can be expected from the weathering of rock. </p><p>The second question is very difficult to answer right now. I have racked my brain trying to think of some way to differentiate between chloride that has come out of volcanoes versus what has come out of hydrothermal solutions. I don't know that the distinction is particularly important in terms of the problem at hand, but it would be very nice to know. If you know some way to distinguish the two, I would like to know. </p><p>DR. UREY: iMy only argument was that while the hydrides of the halogens, i.e., HC1, HBr, HF, etc., are gaseous, in terrestrial surroundings they form salts, i.e., CaC12, NaBr, MgF2, etc. It is interesting that the soluble ones are concen- trated at the surface of the earth, whereas the insoluble fluorides are not. </p><p>I don't think this is a matter of semantics. I think it is a matter of purely chem- ical characteristics. </p><p>BIOCHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION </p><p>BY BARRY COMMONER </p><p>WASHINGTON UTNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI </p><p>The Problem.--There is a close mutual interaction between the evolution of the atmosphere and the early evolution of life. This paper is intended to analyze this interaction relative to its least understood sector: the emergence of the first living systems from the primitive environment. </p><p>VOL. 53, 1965 N. A. S. SYMPOSIUM: B. COMMONER 1183 </p><p>Siever, R., K. C. Beck, and R. A. Berner, "Composi.tion of interstitial waters of modern sedi- ments," J. Geol., 73, 39-73 (1965). </p><p>Sillen, L. G., "The physical chemistry of sea water," in Oceanography, ed. Mary Sears (Wash- ington, D.C.: A.A.A.S., 1961), pp. 549-581. </p><p>Turekian, K. K., "The geochemistry of the Atlantic Ocean Basin," Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 26, 312-330 (1964). </p><p>Wasserburg, G. J., "Comments on the outgassing of the earth," in The Origin and Evolution of the Atmospheres and Oceans, ed. P. J. Brancazio and A. G. W. Cameron (New York: John Wiley, 1964), chap. 4. </p><p>Whitehouse, U. G., and R. S. McCarter, "Diagenetic modification of clay mineral types in arti- ficial sea water," in Clays and Clay Minerals, Proceedings of the 5th National Conference, NAS- NRC Publication 566 (Washington, D.C.: NAS-NRC, 1958), pp. 81-119. </p><p>(Discussion of Dr. Holland's paper) </p><p>DR. UREY: Chloride is not a volatile but a soluble ... [inaudible] ........... FROM THE FLOOR: Would you repeat the comment? DR. HOLLAND: First, Dr. Urey objects to the use of the term volatile for </p><p>chloride. Secondly, he feels the major part of the chloride comes from the interior together with sodium. </p><p>On the first point, I think it is really a matter of semantics. Rubey classed chlo- ride together with the excess volatiles as one of those things that is present on the surface of the earth in quantities very much larger than can be expected from the weathering of rock. </p><p>The second question is very difficult to answer right now. I have racked my brain trying to think of some way to differentiate between chloride that has come out of volcanoes versus what has come out of hydrothermal solutions. I don't know that the distinction is particularly important in terms of the problem at hand, but it would be very nice to know. If you know some way to distinguish the two, I would like to know. </p><p>DR. UREY: iMy only argument was that while the hydrides of the halogens, i.e., HC1, HBr, HF, etc., are gaseous, in terrestrial surroundings they form salts, i.e., CaC12, NaBr, MgF2, etc. It is interesting that the soluble ones are concen- trated at the surface of the earth, whereas the insoluble fluorides are not. </p><p>I don't think this is a matter of semantics. I think it is a matter of purely chem- ical characteristics. </p><p>BIOCHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION </p><p>BY BARRY COMMONER </p><p>WASHINGTON UTNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI </p><p>The Problem.--There is a close mutual interaction between the evolution of the atmosphere and the early evolution of life. This paper is intended to analyze this interaction relative to its least understood sector: the emergence of the first living systems from the primitive environment. </p><p>VOL. 53, 1965 N. A. S. SYMPOSIUM: B. COMMONER 1183 </p><p>Siever, R., K. C. Beck, and R. A. Berner, "Composi.tion of interstitial waters of modern sedi- ments," J. Geol., 73, 39-73 (1965). </p><p>Sillen, L. G., "The physical chemistry of sea water," in Oceanography, ed. Mary Sears (Wash- ington, D.C.: A.A.A.S., 1961), pp. 549-581. </p><p>Turekian, K. K., "The geochemistry of the Atlantic Ocean Basin," Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 26, 312-330 (1964). </p><p>Wasserburg, G. J., "Comments on the outgassing of the earth," in The Origin and Evolution of the Atmospheres and Oceans, ed. P. J. Brancazio and A. G. W. Cameron (New York: John Wiley, 1964), chap. 4. </p><p>Whitehouse, U. G., and R. S. McCarter, "Diagenetic modification of clay mineral types in arti- ficial sea water," in Clays and Clay Minerals, Proceedings of the 5th National Conference, NAS- NRC Publication 566 (Washington, D.C.: NAS-NRC, 1958), pp. 81-119. </p><p>(Discussion of Dr. Holland's paper) </p><p>DR. UREY: Chloride is not a volatile but a soluble ... [inaudible] ........... FROM THE FLOOR: Would you repeat the comment? DR. HOLLAND: First, Dr. Urey objects to the use of the term volatile for </p><p>chloride. Secondly, he feels the major part of the chloride comes from the interior together with sodium. </p><p>On the first point, I think it is really a matter of semantics. Rubey classed chlo- ride together with the excess volatiles as one of those things that is present on the surface of the earth in quantities very much larger than can be expected from the weathering of rock. </p><p>The second question is very difficult to answer right now. I have racked my brain trying to think of some way to differentiate between chloride that has come out of volcanoes versus what has come out of hydrothermal solutions. I don't know that the distinction is particularly important in terms of the problem at hand, but it would be very nice to know. If you know some way to distinguish the two, I would like to know. </p><p>DR. UREY: iMy only argument was that while the hydrides of the halogens, i.e., HC1, HBr, HF, etc., are gaseous, in terrestrial surroundings they form salts, i.e., CaC12, NaBr, MgF2, etc. It is interesting that the soluble ones are concen- trated at the surface of the earth, whereas the insoluble fluorides are not. </p><p>I don't think this is a matter of semantics. I think it is a matter of purely chem- ical characteristics. </p><p>BIOCHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND ATMOSPHERIC EVOLUTION </p><p>BY BARRY COMMONER </p><p>WASHINGTON UTNIVERSITY, ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI </p><p>The Problem.--There is a close mutual interaction between the evolution of the atmosphere and the early evolution of life. This paper is intended to analyze this interaction relative to its least understood sector: the emergence of the first living systems from the primitive environment. </p><p>This content downloaded from 130.132.123.28 on Tue, 6 May 2014 07:18:30 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions</p><p>http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp</p><p>Article Contentsp.1183</p><p>Issue Table of ContentsProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 53, No. 6 (Jun. 15, 1965), pp. 1169-1516Volume Information [pp.1499-1516]Front MatterSymposium on the Evolution of the Earth's AtmosphereChairman's Summary Remarks [pp.1169-1172]Chairman's Summary Remarks: Discussion [pp.1172-1173]The History of Ocean Water and Its Effect on the Chemistry of the Atmosphere [pp.1173-1183]The History of Ocean Water and Its Effect on the Chemistry of the Atmosphere: Discussion [p.1183]Biochemical, Biological, and Atmospheric Evolution [pp.1183-1193]Biochemical, Biological, and Atmospheric Evolution: Discussion [pp.1193-1194]Geochemical Aspects of Atmospheric Evolution [pp.1194-1204]Geochemical Aspects of Atmospheric Evolution: Discussion [p.1205]Fossils, Early Life, and Atmospheric History [pp.1205-1213]Fossils, Early Life, and Atmospheric History: Discussion [pp.1213-1215]History of Major Atmospheric Components [pp.1215-1225]History of Major Atmospheric Components: Discussion [pp.1225-1226]</p><p>The Application of Significant Structure Theory to Binary Liquid Mixtures: Ar + N, Ar + O, and O + N [pp.1227-1234]The Relationship between the Densitometric and Dilatometric Volume Changes of Ribonuclease Accompanying a Change in pH [pp.1234-1238]The Optical Detection of Transients in Trypsin- and Chymotrypsin-Catalyzed Reactions [pp.1238-1243]The Application of the Rapid-Flow Sampling Technique to the Chemical Identification of Intermediates in Trypsin-Catalyzed Reactions [pp.1243-1245]Mossbauer Spectroscopy of Heme and Hemin Compounds [pp.1246-1253]Asymptotic Theory of the Free Torsional Oscillations of the Earth [pp.1254-1261]Stability and Asymptotic Fixed-Point Theory [pp.1262-1264]Cluster Sets at Isolated and Nonisolated Singularities [pp.1264-1266]Limits of Infinite Populations under Random Mating [pp.1266-1272]Fixed-Point Theorems for Noncompact Mappings in Hilbert Space [pp.1272-1276]A Sturm-Liouville Theorem for Nonlinear Elliptic Partial Differential Equations [pp.1277-1279]The Actual Mass of Potential Energy, II [pp.1280-1284]On the Nature of the Spectrum of the Time Correlation Function Matrix for Stochastic Processes [pp.1284-1288]On Stability Definitions of Dynamical Systems [pp.1288-1294]Electron Microscopy of Ultraviolet-Irradiated Parts of Chromosomes [pp.1294-1302]Kinetinlike Factors in the Root Exudate of Sunflowers [pp.1302-1307]Evidence for the Localization of Plastocyanin in the Electron-Transport Chain of Photosynthesis [pp.1307-1315]Microclimatic and Vegetational Contrasts within a Subalpine Valley [pp.1315-1319]Carrier-Mediated Cation Transport in Barley Roots: Kinetic Evidence for a Spectrum of Active Sites [pp.1320-1324]Primary and Secondary Mutations at the Incompatibility Loci in Schizophyllum [pp.1324-1332]Orientation of the Histidine Operon in the Salmonella typhimurium Linkage Map [pp.1332-1335]Information Transfer in Salmonella typhimurium [pp.1335-1340]Evidence Bearing on the Coincidence of Exchange and DNA Replication in the Oocyte of Drosophila melanogaster [pp.1340-1346]Studies on Microbial RNA, III. Formation of Submethylated sRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [pp.1346-1352]Inhibition of Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis by Actinomycin D [pp.1353-1360]Synthesis of Collagen by Mammalian Cell Lines of Fibroblastic and Nonfibroblastic Origin [pp.1360-1365]Pharmacological Support for Man on Long Space Flights [pp.1365-1369]Autoradiographic Localization of the Acetylcholine-Stimulated Synthesis of Phosphatidylinositol in the Superior Cervical Ganglion [pp.1369-1376]Relation between Adenosinetriphosphate Activity and Sarcomere Length in Stretched Glycerol-Extracted Frog Skeletal Muscle [pp.1377-1384]Theory of the Flow of Action Currents in Isolated Myelinated Nerve Fibers, II [pp.1384-1391]The Effects of Intromission Frequency on Successful Pregnancy in the Female Rat [pp.1392-1395]The Mechanism of Action of Aldolases, XI. Activation by Aromatic Sulfhydryl Reagents and -Elimination of Selected Thiol Groups [pp.1395-1403]Amino Acid Sequence Studies with Bence-Jones Proteins [pp.1403-1409]Paths of Carbon in Gluconeogenesis and Lipogenesis: The Role of Mitochondria in Supplying Precursors of Phosphoenolpyruvate [pp.1410-1415]Surface Features of the 50S Ribosomal Component of Escherichia coli [pp.1415-1420]Photoreduction of Ferredoxin and its Use in Carbon Dioxide Fixation by a Subcellular System from a Photosynthetic Bacterium [pp.1420-1425]Polynucleotides, VI. Interaction between Polyguanylic Acid and Polycytidylic Acid [pp.1425-1430]The Chemical Nature of Photoreactivable Lesions in DNA [pp.1430-1436]Polyribosome Dissociation and Formation in Intact Reticulocytes with Conservation of Messenger Ribonucleic Acid [pp.1437-1443]Studies on the Role of Protein Synthesis in the Regulation of Corticosterone Production by Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in vivo [pp.1443-1450]Replication of Double-Strand Nucleic Acids [pp.1451-1455]Existence of Two Phenylalanyl-sRNA Synthetases in Neurospora crassa [pp.1456-1462]Interspecies Aminoacyl-sRNA Formation: Fractionation of...</p></li></ul>

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