The highlights of the 175th anniversary of King's College London (2004)
Post on 14-Apr-2017
175th anniversary of Kings College London a year of events & celebrations
The Strand today
In 1829 Kings College London was founded with the help of some powerful friends. King George IV graciously granted the fledgling college a royal
charter, in order to help distinguish it from the godless college in Gower Street (later University College London). The Duke of Wellington (then Prime Minister) rose early one morning in March to fight the only duel of his life to defend his role in the Colleges establishment. Seven years later, when the University of London was established, Kings became one of its two founding colleges.
KIngs and Its hIstory
KIngs and Its peopLe175 years of research & teaching
It would be impossible to imagine 21st century life without the advances made by Kings people over the years.
If this sounds far-fetched, consider our reliance on the following:
surgery: without Joseph Listers invention of antiseptic surgery, modern aseptic surgical techniques could not have evolved tV, radio, radar, mobile telephones: hard to imagine without James Clerk Maxwells discovery of the nature of electro-magnetic waveselectric supply: John Daniells constant-cell battery was the first reliable source of electricitydna: the discovery of the structure of DNA, in large part due to the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkinstelecommunications: Charles Wheatstones development of wireless telegraphy and Edward Appletons discovery of the atmospheric layers which carry radio signals were the key to the development of modern telecomm-unications and the development of radarhealthcare: Florence Nightingales vision for nursing and development of the first professional nurse training laid the foundations for the delivery of modern healthcare
In addition, Kings people have made a vital contribution to many other areas of modern life: from the development of higher education for all, human rights and international law to contemporary music and literature.
a leading international universityKings today is a leading international university institution in the heart of London, with over 19,000 students and more than 5,000 staff in ten schools of study. In the course of its history the College has grown and developed through many mergers. In 1983 Kings and its School of Medicine were reunited. In 1985 Kings merged with Chelsea College and with Queen Elizabeth College. In 1997 the College was joined with the Institute of Psychiatry, and in 1998 with the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guys and St Thomass Hospitals (UMDS).
an education for womenKings was among the first higher education institutions to provide education for women and to offer evening classes, and it was a pioneer of modular degrees. The alumni of Kings and its associated institutions include Nobel Peace Laureate former Archbishop Desmond Tutu; writers such as Anita Brookner, Arthur C Clarke, Thomas Hardy, Susan Hill, Susan Howatch, John Keats, Hanif Kureishi and Somerset Maughan; musicians including John Eliot Gardiner, Ian Shaw and Michael Nyman; scientists such as Rosalind Franklin and James Clerk Maxwell; many distinguished industrialists and politicians.
Joseph Lister, the father of antiseptic surgery, Professor of Surgery at Kings from 1877 to 1893
Florence nightingale established the first professional school of nursing at St Thomas Hospital in 1860
Charles Wheatstone, Professor of Experimental Philosophy at Kings from 1834, was a pioneer of wireless telegraphy
edward appleton Wheatstone Professor of Physics at Kings from 1924 to 1936, was one of seven scientists from Kings and its associated institutions who have won the Nobel Prize
John Frederic daniell developed the first reliable source of electricity in 1836
rosalind Franklin took the famous photo 51 of DNA at Kings in May 1952
James Clerk Maxwell, Professor of Natural Philosophy at Kings from 1860 to 1865
emmeline Jean hansen co-discovered how muscles work in 1954, first woman from Kings to become a fellow of the Royal Society
Maurice Wilkins received the Nobel Prize for his work on the structure of DNA in 1962
The Strand in 1831
John Keats Thomas Hardy
thursday 22 January 2004
Speaker: desmond tutu former Archbishop of Cape Town and Nobel Prize winner
Theme: Citizenship in post-Conflict society
One of Kings most distinguished alumni, the Most
Reverend Desmond Tutu, former Archbishop of Cape
Town and winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace, opened
the celebrations for the anniversary year with a
The Commemoration Oration celebrates Kings as
a place of learning, commemorates the vision of its
founders and benefactors and marks the achievements of
the Colleges staff and students in the arts and sciences.
Once an annual celebration at Kings, the tradition of the
Commemoration Oration was revived in 2004 to mark the
opening of the Colleges 175th anniversary year.
Commemoration Oration: a celebratory event
a Christian priest first and foremost, Desmond Tutu is regarded as one of the great civil rights campaigners
and statesmen for his leadership in the fight against the South African apartheid system.
An alumnus and Fellow of the College, Tutu says: Kings gave me the opportunity to prove to myself and to the world that ability has nothing to do with such biological insignificances as skin colour. This confidence has stayed with me throughout my life.
After returning to South Africa, Tutu went on to become Archbishop of Cape Town in 1986. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his work as General Secretary of the South African Council of Churches to end apartheid.
Tutu retired as Archbishop in 1996 but continued to work in one of his most challenging roles yet, as the Chairman of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, where he presided over the traumatic revelation of the secrets of apartheid.
Tutus the Student Union night-club at Kings is named after him.
CoMMeMoratIon at KIngs
the first Commemoration Week at Kings was held in December 1920, and the tradition continued until the 1980s as a celebration of the corporate
life of the College. In July 1920 the Secretary of the Union Society (later the Students Union) proposed to the Council and Delegacy (the governing bodies of the College) that there should be a week-long programme of events to celebrate the foundation of the College, and the origins of the Week point to a joint undertaking by the College authorities, the students and the Old Students Association to demonstrate the reviving vigour of student life in the aftermath of the First World War. The 1920 Week consisted of a service in Chapel, an oration, a dinner, a dance, a reunion organised by the Old Students Association, a play and a students supper.
Fruit and vegetable ammunitionFrom 1921 a regular challenge was issued to University College to do battle on the sports field, and this became the occasion for a tradition of inter-college rivalry involving the parading of mascots and the exchange of rotten fruit (Covent Garden, then a fruit and vegetable market, provided ammunition too tempting to be resisted by the Kings warriors).
oratorsThe first-ever Kings Commemoration (or
Foundation) Orator, in December 1920,
was the author and poet g K Chesterton, of Father Brown fame.
Subsequent speakers have considered
matters academic and spiritual, philosophical
and political, national and international. Many
have been highly distinguished, including:
C s Lewis authorClement attlee former Prime Minister Viscount Montgomery World War II Generalsir harold Wilson former Prime Ministerhrh the duke of edinburghgilbert Murray first President League of Nations
andr Maurois authorJulian huxley first Director-General UNESCO
The College mascot, Reggie the Lion, being carried onto the playing fields in 1935 for the Commemoration Games with University College London.
Fougasse (Kings alumnus Kenneth Bird) designed the dancing Reggie version for a centenary edition of the Kings College Review
The Most Reverend Desmond Tutu
Kings gave me the opportunity to prove to myself and to the world that ability has nothing to do with such biological insignificances as skin colour. this confidence has stayed with me throughout my life
without forgiveness there is no future, but without confession there can be no forgiveness
Publication of Anniversary book
Kings College London: In the service of society by Dr Christine Kenyon Jones traces the story of Kings and its constituent institutions
through the many distinguished and larger-than-life individuals who have brought the College to prominence in the last 175 years. This heavily-illustrated 150-page book includes a foreword by the Princess Royal and striking pictures showing Kings in the past and as it is now. It is essential reading for anyone interested in the history of Kings and associated institutions such as the medical and dental schools of Guys and St Thomas Hospitals, Chelsea and Queen Elizabeth Colleges, and the Institute of Psychiatry.
the authorDr Christine Kenyon Jones is Writer in the Department of External Relations at Kings. She was Director of Public Relations for the College from 1991 to 1999. She completed her PhD at Kings in 1999 and has also taught in the Department of English.
In the beginning: the early history of Kings College London
this exhibition explained the early history of Kings College London and set it in its historical London context. The exhibition was
on display from 11 February to 10 March in the Weston Room, Maughan Library, Chancery Lane for members of the College and their accompanying guests. The exhibition is also captured online at: www.kcl.ac.uk/archives
This caricature of 1828 shows the rivalry between the University of London (later University College London) and Kings College London
Kings College London: In the service of society
publication date: 10 February 2004
price per copy: 20 plus postage and packaging
order a copy www.kcl.ac.uk/175/booking.php
Kings people who changed the world: talks by authors
Wednesday 4 February
Joseph Lister: the father of antiseptic surgerythomas dormandy talked about
Joseph Lister, who features in
his book Moments of truth: Four
Creators of Modern Medicine
(Chichester: John Wiley, 2003).
Lister (1827-1912) was Professor
of Clinical Surgery at Kings from
1877 to1893. Dormandy records how he recognised the
cause of hospital sepsis and devised a way to combat it,
which opened the way to modern surgery. He describes
Lister as a great Victorian... high-minded, hard-working
and compassionate but not without human weaknesses.
Wednesday 11 February
James Clerk Maxwell: the man who changed everythingbasil Mahon talked about one
of historys greatest physicists,
James Clerk Maxwell, who is
the subject of his biography the
Man Who Changed everything
(Chichester: John Wiley, 2003).
Maxwell completed some of
his greatest work while he was Professor of Natural
Philosophy at Kings from 1860 to1865.
Wednesday 18 February
rosalind Franklin: the dark lady of dnabrenda Maddox talked about her
biography of Rosalind Franklin
whose famous photo 51 of DNA,
taken at Kings in May 1952,
provided the key to its double
helix structure. Franklin died at
the age of 37 in 1958, four years
before Maurice Wilkins of Kings, and Francis Crick and
James Watson of Cambridge, received the Nobel Prize for
their work on DNA.
Wednesday 25 February
Florence nightingale: romance and realityMark bostridges biography of
Florence Nightingale describes
how she became a legend in her
lifetime as the heroine of the
Crimean War. Today she belongs
to that select band of historical
characters who are instantly
recognisable. But how much does her image as the Lady
with the Lamp obscure her real achievements, including
her attempt to professionalise nursing?
a short series of talks was held by authors who had
recently written about people from Kings whose
pioneering work and discoveries have had immense
influence on our lives today.
tuesday 20 april 2004
are we citizens of the world?Speakers include:
Michael Clarke Director, International Policy
Institute, Kings College London
sir nicholas young Chief Executive,
the British Red Cross
st. thomas hospital
thursday 13 May 2004
does the nhs treat its patients as citizens?Speakers include:
sir Ian Kennedy Shadow Chair, Commission
for Healthcare Audit and Inspection
Lord sutherland President, the Royal Society
tuesday 12 october 2004
are scientists good citizens?Speakers include:
phil James Chair of the International Obesity
trevor Jones Deputy Chairman of the Council,
Kings College London
Wednesday 10 March 2004
Citizenship in an age of insecuritySpeakers include:
sir Lawrence Freedman Vice-Principal
(Research), Kings College London
Conor gearty Professor of Human Rights
Law, LSE professor W philip t James Cbe Md dsc FrCp rse chairs the International Obesity Task Force and is Vice
President of the International Union of Nutritional
Sciences. He is an advisor to the EU and WHO.
professor trevor M Jones Cbe FKC is Director General of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical
Industry, a Visiting Professor at Kings College London
and Deputy Chairman of the College Council.
Citizenship: a series of symposia
Kings is dedicated to the advancement of
knowledge, learning and understanding in the
service of society.
In keeping with this mission statement
this series of events explored the question of
good citizenship, which demands new answers
in the context of modern globalisation and
the pluralism of contemporary society.
these symposia explored and examine what,
nowadays, constitutes our notion of the
good citizen. the issue is a timely one: not
only are the boundaries and the demands
of citizenship becoming increasingly blurred
and complex, but also governments and their
agencies require the universities and schools
to teach citizenship as a subject.
this series was expressly designed to
cross disciplinary boundaries between
humanities and sciences, and to bring
together academics, professionals and the
general public in productive discussion and
professor sir Lawrence Freedman KCMg Cbe Fba FKC is Vice-Principal (Research) and Professor of War Studies at Kings College London. He is one of the
countrys foremost defence experts and was appointed
Official Historian of the Falklands Campaign in 1997.
professor Conor gearty is Rausing Director of the Centre for the Study of Human Rights and Professor of
Human Rights Law at the LSE. He is also a member of
Matrix Chambers. He taught at Kings College from 1991
professor Michael Clarke is the Director of the International Policy Institute at Kings College London.
He is a Specialist Advisor to the House of Commons
sir nicholas young is Chief Executive of the British Red Cross and Vice President of Macmillan Cancer
Relief. He was knighted in 2000 for services tozcancer
professor sir Ian Kennedy Fba is Shadow Chairman of the new Commission for Healthcare Audit and
Inspection. He is a member of the Advisory Committee
on Medical Countermeasureszand of the CJD Therapy
the right honourable Lord sutherland of houndwood Kt Fba Frse FKC is President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and Chairman of Universities
Scotland. He was Principal and Vice-Chancellor at the
University of Edinburgh; Vice-Chancellor of the University
of London; Principal of Kings College London and Vice-
Chairman of the Committee of Vice-Chancellors.
exhibition: the duke of Wellington and Kings College London
this exhibition from the College Archives included material on the Dukes influential role in the founding of Kings College and examples
of campaign medals for the Battle of Waterloo (1815) which led to the final defeat of Napoleon.
Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington, was born in Dublin in 1769. He made his name as a military commander in India between 1797 and 1805, and then in the Peninsular War in Portugal and Spain (1809-1814). When Napoleon escaped from Elba Wellington hastened from the Congress of Vienna to command the allied forces at the Battle of Waterloo, where the French were routed on 18 June 1815. He had entered politics as an MP in 1806, and returned to political office in 1818, becoming Prime Minister in 1827. He died in 1852.
Kings Colledge [sic] to wit a practical essay by T Jones (1829)
The Duke of Wellington (right) fought his only duel on behalf of Kings on 21 March 1829, after being publicly challenged by the Earl of Winchilsea over his simultaneous support for the establishment of the Anglican College and the Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill in 1829. The Earl accused the Duke of insidious designs for the infringement of our liberties and the introduction of popery into every department of state. The duel was bloodless and the Earl later apologised.
Fanfare of trumpets Napoleonic Association
Band of the Scots Guards
The Duke of Wellington in old age by a pupil at Kings College School
Celebrating global partnerships
This one-day symposium was a celebration and promotion
of international partnership in higher education. Kings
College London has enjoyed a wide range of international
links since its foundation.
educational and research challenges across the world
educating the healthcare workforce of the future the importance of international research
collaboration Forging new partnerships and learning from
experience the ethical challenges for scientists and health
professionals in higher education
sir graeme Catto Vice Principal, Kings College London
and President of the General Medical Council
sir Cyril Chantler Chairman Great Ormond Street
david Cornblath Director, Neurology EMG Laboratory,
John Hopkins University, USA
Michael gibbons Secretary General of the Association of
Jonathan glover Professor of Medical Law and Ethics,
Kings College London
adrian hayday Kay Glendinning Professor of
Immunobiology, Kings College London
Mike Johns Director, Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences
Center, Emory University, USA
roger Jones Director, Centre for Caribbean Health,
Kings College London
stephen parker Deputy Vice Chancellor and Vice
President, Monash University, Australia
Mark Walport Director, The Wellcome Trust
student scholarshipsTwo special international scholarships were made available
for the 175th anniversary to promote exchanges with our
partner institutions. One student each from Geography and
Biomedical Sciences had the opportunity to experience
student life abroad. Their placements were split between
Singapore University and Monash University in Australia
during the academic year of 2004-2005 to enrich their
syMposIuM: gLobaL partnershIps In the eduCatIon oF sCIenCe and heaLth
the Film Festival alumni in Word and Image presented
the work and achievements of a selection of Kings most
famous alumni, whose words, music and vision have
inspired these films.
Alumni in word & image: film festival
Jude (UK 1996,
dir. Michael Winterbottom)
thomas hardy, author of
Jude the Obscure.
Thomas Hardy studied French at
Kings from 1859-1860.
Some of his most famous novels have been made into
films. A stonemason, Jude, tricked into an unsatisfactory
marriage, tirelessly pursues a cousin he loves. Jude
and his cousin live out of wedlock, and are rejected by
an unforgiving society leaving them to struggle in abject
poverty with disastrous consequences.
Michael Collins (UK/USA 1996, dir. Neil Jordan)
Michael Collins, subject of film.
Michael Collins, Sinn Fein leader,
was a student in the Kings
Civil Service Department.
The rise and fall of one of the
most controversial figures in
Irelands struggle for independence is chronicled in this
biographical drama. The Lion of Ireland, Michael Collins
led the IRA against British rule and founded the free
Republic of Eire in 1921.
20 october (tbc)
2001: a space odyssey (UK/USA, 1968
dir. Stanley Kubrick)
KCL alumnus: arthur C. Clarke,
author of The Sentinel,
(basis of storyline).
Arthur C Clarke graduated in
Mathematics and Physics from
Kings in 1948 and wrote The Sentinel which would form
the basis of Stanley Kubricks 1968 landmark epic 2001:
A Space Odyssey. This film represented a break from
the narrative convention to tell four tangentially related
stories about mans destiny, reflected in the conquest of
space. Featuring some of the most stunning visual effects
to appear on screen before or since, a genuine sense
of wonder at the beauty and the vastness of space is
Wittgenstein (UK, 1993, dir. Derek Jarman)
derek Jarman, director of film.
Derek Jarman read English and
History of Art at Kings in the
early 1960s. He directed this
dramatisation of the life and
ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein
(1889-1951). Wittgenstein is also linked to the Guys,
Kings & St Thomas School of Medicine of Kings College
London, having been a porter at Guys during the second
3 november (tbc)
My beautiful Laundrette (UK, 1985,
dir. Stephen Frears)
KCL alumnus: hanif
Kureishi, author of My
Hanif Kureishi graduated
in philosophy from Kings
in 1977 and wrote the story that inspired this film.
Set within the Asian community in London during
the Thatcherite years, My Beautiful Laundrette is a
multi-layered portrait of the immigrant experience
the piano (Australia/NZ/France 1993, dir. Jane
composer of soundtrack.
Michael Nyman studied for
his MMus at Kings in 1970.
The central character is
mute, and communicates through the eponymous
piano. The story of the relationship between the
three main characters unfolds like a Greek tragedy,
with a chorus of Maori tribesman and a savage
natural backdrop. This film was widely acclaimed for
the musical score.
Arthur C Clarke Hanif Kureishi
Westminster Abbey Service of Thanksgiving
service of thanksgivingWestminster abbey
tuesday 19 october 2004
a service of thanksgiving was held in Westminster abbey
to mark the foundation of Kings and to celebrate the
175 years of the Colleges existence. the award of a
royal Charter from King george IV in august 1829 aimed
to distinguish Kings from university College London
which had no religious basis. Many of the major players
in the Colleges foundation were bishops and prominent
clergymen, including Charles Manners-sutton, the
archbishop of Canterbury, Charles blomfield, the bishop of
London and george doyly, the rector of Lambeth.
Today Kings includes staff and students of all beliefs
and backgrounds, and the service celebrated our life
Both the 100th and 150th anniversaries of the College
were celebrated with services at Westminster Abbey and
the 175th anniversary year continues the tradition.
the event included:
a sermon given by the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Most Revd Dr Rowan Williams
readings and prayers given by members of the College community
music, hymns and anthems sung by the Chapel Choir of Kings College London
production of anniversary Music CdadVent FroM KIngsA CD commemorating the Colleges 175th anniversary was released in May 2004. The year 2004 also marks the 40th anniversary of the founding of the Music Department, and it is therefore fitting that the two most prominent performing groups within the College, the Kings College London Chapel Choir (conducted by the Head of Music and College Organist, David Trendell) and the viol consort Phantasm (directed by the Thurston Dart Professor of Performance Studies, Laurence Dreyfus), joined forces to record a disc of Music for Advent, reflecting the popularity of the annual Advent Carol Services. The CD included fantasias by the seventeenth-century English composer, Michael East, and two verse anthems by his contemporary Orlando Gibbons, as well as music by Byrd, Warlock and George Benjamin, Henry Purcell Professor of Composition at KCL.
The chapel of Westminster Abbey facing east
The west end of Westminster Abbey by night
Detail of carving over the west door of the Abbey
Kings College London Chapel Choir
Deans YardKings College London was founded in 1829 and now has over 13,800 undergraduate students and nearly 5,700 postgraduates in nine schools of study. It is one of the uKs leading universities and is a member of the
russell group: a coalition of the uKs major research-based universities. Kings is in the top group of uK institutions for research earnings, with income from grants and contracts of 100 million, and has an annual turnover of more than 348 million.
In 2004 it was agreed that the College would celebrate its 175th anniversary and to this end an anniversary programme was developed and organised by the Public Relations Office that encompassed:
Formal Celebratory eventsAt the beginning of the year the Commemoration Oration by Archbishop Desmond Tutu was a revival of a Kings tradition and attracted over 800 attendees (and considerable media interest), necessitating video relays to the Chapel and two lecture theatres.
At the end of 2004 a Service of Thanksgiving was held at Westminster Abbey, attended by the Chancellor, HRH the Princess Royal, with a sermon by the Archbishop of Canterbury.
historical eventsA series of lunchtime talks, Kings People Who Changed The World, on leading Kings figures by distinguished biographers proved extremely popular with 80-110 people attending each session.
Exhibitions of historical material were produced by the Archives Department, both in situ and on the web.
Fun eventsBeating Retreat involved 150 performers and was attended by over 600 people. The evening included a recreation of the Duke of Wellingtons duel at the foundation of Kings and a spectacular firework display (all sponsored).
The Alumni Weekend in June attracted over 800 people to an event that included a boat race, a debate and a ball.
At the beginning of the year, over 400 Kings staff and students took part in anniversary ice skating sessions at Somerset House, which is next to the Strand Campus.
An anniversary Film Festival, Alumni In Word and Image, took place in October.
symposiaIn addition to annual College lectures, a series of symposia over the year exploring the notion of Citizenship were addressed by a number of distinguished speakers.
An anniversary Student Debate considered the future of university funding.
A symposium entitled Global Partnerships for Science and Health was held at the Guys hospital campus on 23 June and attracted over 160 delegates from sixteen countries, including a large number of senior staff from other universities at the level of chancellor and dean.
The Dental Institute also organised a major event entitled Global Perspectives of the GKT Dental Institute as part of the celebrations.
Local partnershipsA Staff Volunteering Week was organised by the Widening Participation Office in June, during which staff gave their time to work in the local community.
At a different level, the Colleges close involvement with Somerset House over the 1604 Celebrations afforded the opportunity to highlight the Colleges anniversary to neighbours and to a very wide public audience.
The overriding principle of the year was that events should be open to all, and free. The theme of much of the year emphasised the Colleges work in the service of society, which was echoed in the title of the new College history which was published at the beginning of the year.
This overview of activity is by no means comprehensive, and does not include special lectures, or musical events (or the College Choir anniversary CD) that have come under the 175 umbrella. Overall, the 175th Anniversary provided a focus for a large number and range of people to learn more about the College and its achievements over the past 175 years.
Beating Retreat by the Band of the Scots Guards and the
Napoleonic Association was a seated outdoor performance
celebrating the founding of Kings College London. The
centrepiece was a performance by the Band of the Scots
Guards of Wellingtons Victory by Ludwig van Beethoven,
complete with sound, lighting effects and fireworks. This piece
was written for the Duke of Wellington and dedicated to King
George IV both directly involved in the foundation of Kings
College London. The Duke of Wellington was Prime Minister in
1829, the year the College was founded, and he chaired a public
meeting in 1828 which resolved upon the foundation of the
College and raised funds for the project.
The story of the foundation of the College included a
re-enactment of the duel that the Duke of Wellington fought in
support of his role as founder of Kings. To convey something of
the background of the Duke of Wellingtons life as commander
of the allied troops who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo, the
event featured a re-enactment of a battle by members of the
More than 150 performers recreated scenes and music
from 175 years ago, providing the audience with an opportunity
to sample the atmosphere of the era when the College was
great hall (and courtyard)
Friday 30 april 2004