the great wall of china, . 1400 the great wall of china, a.d. 1400 you are a guard on the great wall
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The Great Wall of China, A.D. 1400 You are a guard on the Great Wall charged with protecting Ming China. Suddenly, a flurry of Mongol fireballs shatters the peaceful morning. A Mongol attack is beginning.
How will you repel the attack?
The Chinese built a signal fire on top of the nearest watchtower to warn of a Mongol attack.
What is another way the Chinese might have warned each other of an attack?
The Chinese constructed the wall on the tops of hills and mountains to make it even more difficult to overcome.
Why might building the wall on mountain peaks make it more difficult to attack?
China Builds an Empire
Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asia
To make rockets, the Chinese stuffed gunpowder into bamboo tubes. Sometimes they mixed stones, lead pellets, and broken pottery with the gunpowder.
What might be some of the advantages of a rocket in warfare?
7 China Builds an Empire
Before You Read: K-W-L The K-W-L approach will help you recall prior knowledge and develop a plan for learning new information. Consider the following questions as you read this chapter: • What do you already know about China? • Study the map and time line on these pages. What do they
tell you about China’s lands and its people? • What do you want to learn about China?
Big Ideas About Ancient China Belief Systems People adopt new beliefs that give meaning to life. Belief systems, such as Confucianism and Daoism, arose in ancient China. The Buddhist religion also became widely practiced. These belief systems had a powerful effect on Chinese society and government.
300s Buddhism flourishes in China
and spreads to Korea. (sculpture of Buddha)
618 Li Yuan founds Tang Dynasty.
(Tang horse sculpture)
610 Muhammad begins
preaching Islam.! (Qur’an)
• Interactive Maps • Interactive Visuals • Starting with a Story
• WebQuest • Homework Helper • Research Links • Internet Activities
• Quizzes • Maps • Test Practice • Current Events
Go to ClassZone.com for
The Mongol Empire
G r and Canal
Xi Jiang (West R.)
Gongga Shan 24,790 ft. (7,556 m)
Kongur Mt. 25,325 ft. (7,719 m)
Kunlu n Shan
H I M A L A Y A S
PLATEAU OF TIBET
N o r t h C h i n a P l a i n
G O B I
D E S E
Yel low Sea
E a s t
C h i n a
S e a
S o u t h
C h i n a
S e a
K A Z A K H S TA N
R U S S I A
L A O S
T H A I L A N D
M YA N M A R
I N D I A
C H I N A
M O N G O L I A
100°E90°E80°E70°E 120°E110°E 130°E 140°E
Tropic of Canc
Physical Geography of Present-Day China
(4,000 m) (2,000 m) (1,000 m)
(200 m) (0 m)
Below sea level
13,100 ft. 6,600 ft. 3,280 ft.
650 ft. 0 ft.
0 250 500 kilometers
250 500 miles
960 Song Dynasty is established. (Song vase)
1095 European Christians
begin First Crusade to capture the Holy Land.
1325 The Aztecs build
Tenochtitlán. (Aztec ornament)
1405–1433 Zheng He makes several voyages.
Background: In the past, you may have learned about the Han Dynasty, which ruled China from 206 B.C. to A.D. 220. As you may recall, China often had conflicts with enemy invaders from the northwest. One group of those invaders was the Xiongnu (shyung•noo).
When the Han Dynasty fell, China broke apart into smaller kingdoms. The lack of a strong central government to organize defenses put China in greater danger from invaders. As you read the following story, imagine you are living during those dangerous times.
Soldiers on horseback were a favorite subject of Han artists.
YY ou are a Chinese merchant in A.D. 311. You’re very proud of the citywhere you live—Luoyang (lwoh•yahng). Your grandfather toldyou that the city used to be the Han capital. It still has palaces and temples. Students from all over the country flock to the university there. Hundreds of thousands of people live in Luoyang. The walled city has survived tough times, such as peasant revolts, civil wars, and even the fall of a dynasty.
Since the Han Dynasty fell, Luoyang has had many different governments. Some of your friends wonder who is going to rule your city next, but you’re too busy to worry about it. You tell your friends, “Rulers come and go, but merchants and farmers make sure that life goes on.” Most of the time, you go about your daily work and never think about the government at all.
Today, while you are selling porcelain in the market, you hear pounding hooves and shrill screams down the street. A man shouts, “Xiongnu!” Your heart leaps in terror. The Xiongnu are fierce nomadic warriors on horseback who have attacked China many times in the past. Now they have broken through the city’s walls!
WHISH! An arrow flies by your head. You duck under the table holding your porcelain. Delicate teapots and bowls crash to the ground and shatter. Quickly, you crawl away and run down an alley until you see an outhouse. You crawl into the sewage pit and hide there all night. The stench is terrible.
The next day, you learn that the Xiongnu have killed thousands of people and destroyed your beautiful city. It looks like a garbage dump. Instead of riding away, the Xiongnu have decided to stay and start a new dynasty.
What do you think will happen to China now?
Starting with a Story
1. READING: Plot The first stage of the plot of a story is the exposition. In it, characters and setting are introduced and background information is provided. With a partner, identify the information provided in the exposition to this story. As you read other stories in this book, note how the expostion is used to “set the scene.”
2. WRITING: Response to Literature How do you predict the story will continue? Write a paragraph describing what Xiongnu rulers might be like.
Government The Han Dynasty, China’s strong central government, fell in A.D. 220. A period of conflict followed.
Belief Systems China went through major changes in its belief systems.
Government In 589, the Sui Dynasty reunified China. In 618, the Tang Dynasty took over China.
TAKING NOTES Reading Skill: Understanding Cause and Effect Following causes and effects will help you understand why events occurred. In Lesson 1, look for the effects of each event listed in the chart. Record the effects on a chart of your own.
! Han Watchtower The Han often placed pottery models of buildings, like the military watchtower above, in tombs. These models provided the deceased with shelter and protection in the afterlife.
Causes Effects The Han Dynasty falls.
Buddhism becomes widely practiced.
The Sui and Tang dynasties reunify China.
Skillbuilder Handbook, page R26
212 • Chapter 7
plagued afflicted, troubled, or annoyed (page 213)
Many people died from the hunger that plagued the region.
efficient acting with as little wasted effort as possible (page 214)
While the new workers were slow, the experienced workers were efficient.
harmony an agreement in feeling (page 215)
He enjoyed the beauty of nature and felt in harmony with it.
complex having many connected parts (page 218)
The government started small and simple, but it became more complex.
Words to Know Understanding the following words will help you read this lesson:
Reunifying China Build on What You Know What words would you use to describe the country of China? Does your list include the words huge and powerful? In this chapter, you will learn that China was a huge and powerful country 1,500 years ago.
Fall of the Han Dynasty ESSENTIAL QUESTION What happened after the Han Dynasty fell in A.D. 220?
The Han Dynasty, founded in 206 B.C.B.C., was a period of progress and prosperity for China. In time, however, political struggles, social problems, and a widening gap between rich and poor weakened the Han Dynasty. It fell in A.D.A.D. 220.
Conflict and Chaos A time of great disorder followed. Various kingdoms fought among themselves. Invading nomads from the north crossed the Mongolian Plateau into northern China. (A nomadnomad