The Great Pyramid of Egypt- Monument of Prophecy

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  • The Great Pyramid of Egypt- Monument of Prophecy Compiled by Glen W. Chapman- July 2001

    First from the book The Great Pyramid Decoded by Raymond Capt ,1978 Herodotus informs us that the construction of the Great Pyramid commenced only when a

    sufficient force of skilled masons was available. He wrote, "They worked to the number of one hundred thousand men at a time, each party three months." It took 20 years labor although some records add 10 years for cutting stone and preparing the site. Herodotus continues: "This pyramid was first built in the form of a flight of steps. After the workmen had completed the pyramid in this form, (probably by means of four ramps, one on each side increasing in height around the pyramid as the pyramid heightened they raised other stones (casing stones) by means of machines, made of short beams, from the ground of the first tier of steps; and after the stone was placed there it was raised to the second tier by another machine; for there were as many machines as there was tiers of steps; or perhaps the same machine, if it was easily moved was raised from one tier to the other, as it was required for lifting the stones." Herodotus also states that Cheops never used the Great Pyramid as a tomb, but was buried elsewhere, namely "in a subterranean region on a island there surrounded by the waters of the Nile." This is confirmed by the historian Diodorus Siculus who says Cheops was buried "in an abscure place." An additional archaeological confirmation has recently been discovered in an inscription on a scarab found by the Egyptologist Abdul Moneim Abu Bakr which speaks of the "Southern Tomb of Khufu." The Southern Tomb is obviously not a pyramid, which would not conform to Diodorus' description "an obscure place." In historical times many well-known visitors left records of their descriptions of the Great Pyramid, but perhaps the first modern traveler who carefully and successfully examined the Pyramid was Nicholas Shaw in 1721. He was soon followed by others including John Greaves, Professor of Astronomy at Oxford University. Greaves began the first truly scientific study and investigation of the Great Pyramid, thoroughly exploring the structure. In 1737 he published his "Pyramidographia" giving the results of his laborious observations and measurements. In 1798, the French defeated the Ottoman Turks at the "Battle of the Pyramids" and Napoleon became master of Egypt. At this time, the engineers of Napoleon's army explored the Pyramid. While making measurements they uncovered much valuable information.

    It was they who discovered the corner sockets, peculiar to no other pyramid, and also the relationship of the Pyramid's structure and dimensions to astronomical science. In 1817, Caviglia, a bold, but illiterate and fanciful seaman, became intrigued by the mystery of the Great Pyramid. He became convinced that there were still undiscovered passages in the interior of the Pyramid. Giving up the sea he settled down to explore the Pyramid and other neighboring monuments. Although Caviglia never found any "secret" passages, his efforts in cleaning out the known passage system elicited new facts regarding the interior of the Pyramid. Colonel Howard Vyse, in 1830, was the next to make significant progress in lifting the veil of mystery from the Great Pyramid. With the help of a hundred hired laborors, he cleaned the passages of the Pyramid, then made measurements and observations. Colonel Vyse succeeded in interesting Sir John Hershal, the great English astronomer, who became convinced that the Pyramid, in its design and construction, evidenced a wonderful knowledge of astronomy, applied mathematics and other scientific information, predating our recorded knowledge by several thousand years. Mr. Robert Menzies, of Leith, Scotland, is given credit for being the first to attract general attention to the assertion that the Great Pyramid was a treasury of Divinely given wisdom embodying chronological, meteorological, astronomical, mathematical, historical and Biblical truth. He also contended that this storehouse of wisdom remained sealed by Divine appointment, to be revealed to those now living; to whom these truths would bear witness, at a time when they would be most needed.

  • Later, John Taylor, a London publisher, gifted mathematician and amateur astronomer, began a study of the measurements of the Pyramid in order to analyze the results from a mathematician's point of view. His conclusion was that the architect of the Great Pyramid was not an Egyptian, either by race or religion. He believed it would be found, eventually, that the measurements and contours of the structures' passage system, and its chambers, were intended to indicate and symbolize a prophetic and historical record, especially in relationship to Biblical revelation. It remained, however, for Professor Piazzi Smyth, Astronomer for Scotland, to lift investigation and study of the Pyramid into the realm of applied science. With his wife, this astronomer spent many months in the great pyramid making accurate scientific measurements.

    Situated ten miles to the southwest of Cairo, the capital of Egypt, the Great Pyramid stands on the northern edge of the Giza (Gizeh) Plateau, 198 feet above sea level, in the eastern extremity of the Libyan section of the Great Sahara Desert. The Great Pyramid was placed in the exact center of all the land area of the world. Lines drawn through the north-south and east-west axis of the Pyramid divide equally the earth's terrain. The north-south axis (31deg 9' meridian east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (29deg 58' 51" north), the longest land parallel. That the Architect knew where to find the poles of the earth is evidenced by the high degree of accuracy in orienting the building true north. Modern man's best effort, the Paris Observatory, is six minutes of a degree off true north. The Great Pyramid today is only off three minutes and that after 4200 years, due mainly to subsidence. Such near perfect orientation is exceedingly hard to secure, even with modern astronomical equipment, and seemingly impossible without it. If the knowledge of the magnetic needle was known it would have been of little value. It points to the magnetic north, not to the true north. The celestial pole is a point, usually a star, through which the polar axis of the earth would pass were it projected to the star sphere.

    Isaiah 19: 19-20 "In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar (Hebrew "Matstsebah" correctly translated means monument) at the border there of to the Lord. And it shall be for a sign, and for a witness unto the Lord of Hosts in the land of Egypt." Since the full official name of the Pyramid, the Great Pyramid of Giza, means, in English, the Great Pyramid of the Border, the answer to the apparently contradictory definition of Isaiah is found in the Great Pyramid. The only spot on the face of the earth that completely answers this description, both geometrically and geographically, is the precise place where the Great Pyramid actually stands.

    The Great Pyramid is the largest building in the world and covers slightly over 13 acres. It contains nearly 90,000,000 cubic feet of masonry, enough to build 30 Empire State buildings. With the exception of the comparatively small space occupied by the passages and chambers, the Great Pyramid is a solid mass of masonry having a huge square base and four tapering sides that rise to a small platform at the apex. The. corners of the base are marked by socket stones sunk into the solid rock. The original side length is 755 34 feet and the height up to the top, as the builders left it unfinished, is 454 and1/2 feet. The height as planned by the builders and as evidenced from the Architect's original design is 485 feet, equal to a 48-story modern skyscraper. The top piece, or capstone, was never set, having been re3ected by the builders. It should be pointed out that the capstone (Head Stone) is also the chief cornerstone, since all the four corners of the building converge in that one stone at the top. Thus it alone, of all the stones in the structure, is the only one that is over all the four corners. In its original state, shining in the sun, and so reflecting its rays, the Great Pyramid was supposed to be visible from the moon as a brilliant star on earth. This phenomenon was caused by the smooth highly polished limestone blocks of which the Pyramid was originally covered.

  • These blocks, called casing stones, covered the four sides. Each side having an area of five and one quarter acres, acted as gigantic mirrors, reflecting great beams of light that could be seen for many miles around.

    The great earthquake of the 13th century C.E. shook the structure, cracked its face and dislodged some of the casing stones. These loose stones gave an idea to builders in the nearby cities. They began to use the Pyramid as a quarry, with the result that in a few centuries all but a few casing stones, hidden by sand, were stripped from the face, leaving the core masonry as we see it today, exposed to erosion by the elements. The core masonry is composed largely of coarse limestone (nummulitic), mostly from the Giza Plateau itself, on which the Pyramid is built. The number of these yellow limestone blocks was estimated at about 2,300,000 by Sir Flinders Petrie, Egyptologist. They average approximately two and one half tons each, but many are considerably heavier. The few casing stones found "in situ" by Colonel Howard Vyse, Egyptologist, in 1837, made it possible to determine the original baseline of the structure and also the exact angle of its sloping sides. The casing stones consist of dense, white, marble-like limestone and exhibit an amount of accuracy in fitting that equals the most modern optician's work. The joints, with an area of some 35 square feet each, are not thicker than aluminum foil; yet they include, between the polished surfaces, an extraordinarily thin film of white cement. Colonel H. Vyse, speaking of the the cement says, "...such is the tenacity of this cement.. .that a fragment of a stone that has been destroyed remains firmly fixed in its original alignment, notwithstanding the lapse of time and the violence to which it has been exposed." Modern chemists have analyzed this cement but have been unable to compound one of such fineness and tenacity as that exhibited in the Great Pyramid. Petrie in his account of these stones records, "The mean thickness of the joints is one-fiftieth part of an inch; and the mean variation of the cutting of the stone from a straight line, and from the true square, is but one-hundredth part of an inch in the length of 75 inches up the face." That they were able to maintain these tolerances despite the area and the weight of the stone to be moved-some 16 to 20 tons each-is seemingly almost impossible. This feat was duplicated in all the casing stones, which were estimated to have numbered approximately 144,000. Today, the Pyramid, at a distance, looks like a great rock pile. Nearer at hand, it is seen that the stones, composing the structure, which are roughly cut, are laid in even courses, one upon another. These courses fprm a series of gigantic steps, sloping back from the base on a~ four sides, to a level platform at the top. TRANSPORTING THE STONE

    How the ancient Egyptians moved the stone from the quarries to the Pyramid being built has been the subject of much speculation. As we know, the Great Pyramid used millions of tons of stone, most of which were in 2and 1/2 ton blocks. This was no easy undertaking, yet the Egyptians managed to accomplish this task.

    If we look at a map of ancient Egypt we will see how they did it. The Great Pyramid, as well as all of the other pyramids, lie near the Nile River. Most of the stone quarries of Egypt are also located near and up the river from the pyramids. The obvious solution was to carry the stone in boats down the Nile. Several quarry sites have been, by petrological identification, found to be the source of the stone used in the construction of the Great Pyramid. One site, near the Great Pyramid provided a poorer-quality limestone; Tura, a site farther up the Nile produced a better limestone; and the red (pink) granite came from the Aswan quarries even farther up the Nile. The most logical type of boat used to convey the stone down the Nile was the large flat-bottomed barges, illustrations of which are found on wall sculptures and paintings. Rowers on each side provided the main means of moving the boats, but to take advantage of any wind which

  • might arise, a large square sail was attached to a single mast in the center of the boat. At the rear of the boat was a large paddle-shaped rudder which the helmsmen used to steer the boat. To get the stones from the quarries to the river which was in some cases nearly a mile away, sledges were used. The stones were first levered onto the sledge, probably from a ledge or ramp above it, then tied firmly on with ropes. Ropes were then attached to the front of the sledge and held by a gang of men who pulled the sledge. Water or some other liquid was poured on the ground to help the sledge slide along. In areas where sand had to be traversed, a bed of logs could have been laid and rollers placed under the sledge as it was pulled, using the house-mover's technique of continually taking the rollers from back to front as they came out from under the sledge. The number of men needed to pull the sledge depended on the number and weight of the stones it carried, and as labor was plentiful this was no problem to the Egyptians. Using a tested ratio of 16 men to a ton, most of the core masonry (average 2-1/2 tons each) would have needed less than 50 men pulling over hard ground; using the roller technique, the number of pullers could be reduced considerably. Moving the stone from the boats to the Pyramid site would have been a more difficult task because unlike the quarries usually above the river banks (allowing gravity to assist in the pulling of the sledges)the pyramids were uphill from the river docking sites. However, each pyramid had a causeway connecting it to the Nile. This was just a road cut out of the rock with walls on either side and a roof, except for the two earliest which did not have a roof. The causeways were intended to serve eventually as a road for the funeral procession when it traveled from the river to the pyramid. It would be built at the same time that the pyramid site was being prepared. Prior to the causeway being roofed over, it could be used as a road for the sledges bringing the stone from the boats to the building site. Such a causeway or road to the Great Pyramid from the Nile River is still traceable. It terminated on the East side of the Pyramid. Herodotus states that before the Pyramid building was begun they spent ten years in preparing the site, during which time they constructed a road "for the transport of the stones from the Nile. ..the length of the road amounts to five stadia (1017 yds.), its breadth is ten fathoms (60 ft.), and its height, at the highest Places, is eight fathoms (48 ft.), and it is constructed entirely of Polished stone with figures engraved on it." An amazing, scientifically engineered feature of the Great pyramid, distinguishing it from a~ the other pyramids, is found in the wonderfully devised corner-sockets. All who know anything of modern engineering are aware of the ingenious devices by which shocks, stresses and strains caused by expansion and contraction of the materials of which the structures are composed are compensated for. These devices consist of roller-bearings, expansion joints, or ball and socket arrangements which care for these stresses and strains without communicating them to the main structure. Excavators, removing the debris about the base of the Great Pyramid, found mortises, some eight by fifteen feet in size, cut into the natural rock, at each of the four corners. Into these mortises were placed heavy, carefully chiseled rocks, anchoring the four sloping corner-edges of the structure. These anchorage-blocks were so placed as to allow a space between the sides of the mortises and the corner stones, thus allowing expansion caused by changes of temperature or earthquakes, serving the purpose of ball and socket joints.

    These corner-sockets and casing-stones, still remaining in place make possible the reconstruction of the Pyramid as originally completed. This reconstruction of design is absolutely essential i~ restoring original dimensions and measurements upon which the interpretation of the Great Pyramid's passage-system is based However, difficult this may seem to the reader, these details are easily determined by skilled engineer or architect, having these few stones remaining in place, from which to determine exact measurements and angles. These socket-bedded corner-stones demonstrate that over four thousand years ago the builders of the Great Pyramid understood the workings of natural laws and also knew how to allow for

  • their effects They also give evidence of the foresight and engineering skill on the part of the Pyramid's Architect, which characterizes every detail of the edifice, and awaken the admiration and wonder of all engineers-> and scientists who have visited the structure. INTERIOR The only true entrance to the Great Pyramid from the outside is located on the north side of the Pyramid 286.1 inches east of the north-south axis and at a point about fifty feet (perpendicularly) above the base-level of the structure. Its swivel stone door was constructed and hung so perfectly that it was indistinguishable from the other casing stones. There are two systems of passages and chambers in the interior of the Great Pyramid - a downward system and an upward system. The upward system embraces two great series: (1) an ascending series made up of the Ascending Passage, Grand Gallery, King's Chamber Passage, and the King's Chamber itself; and (2) a horizontal series comprising the Queen's Chamber Passage and the Queen's Chamber.

  • The Ascending Passage, which slopes upward at the same angle that the Descending Passage slopes downward, meets the roof of the Descending Passage vertically over a point in the floor 1170 P. (pyramid) inches from the original opening. (Pyramid inches are the units of measurement in the structural design of the Great Pyramid .) The Ascending Passage however is blocked by the granite plug I only 14and 1/2 inches from the entrance. This granite plug is 15 feet long I and is composed of three blocks of red granite, cut square and tapered and tightly wedged in the passage, allowing no play. Therefore, it can be concluded that they were placed there during the construction of the passageway itself, before the structure reached a higher level. Above this plug, the Ascending Passage has the same width and height as the Descending Passage. This low Ascending Passage continues for 1485 inches and ends, abruptly, where it opens into the Grand Gallery, a magnificent chamber, extending at the same angle, far up into the interior of the Pyramid.

    Originally covered over by the floor stones of the Grand Gallery is a long horizontal passage starting from the lower end of the Grand Gallery and terminating in the Queen's Chamber, beautifully constructed in limestone. The floor of this Chamber rests on the 25th course of masonry, from the base, of the Pyramid and is approximately 19 feet long and 17 feet wide. The height of the north and south walls is nearly 15 feet. The east and west walls are1 gabled, the apexes extending about 5 feet above the level ot the top of the north and south walls and about 20 feet above the floor of the Chamber. It is recorded that the Queen's Chamber originally contained an' empty coffer. Some of the limestone fragments now filling the many holes and corners of the chamber, caused by excavations, may possibly have come from the coffer. The Grand Gallery, sloping upward at the same gradient as the Ascending Passage, has two ramps, one on each side, running its full length. On the top surface of each ramp, at regular distances, oblong holes are cut vertically down - against the side walls. There I are 28 such nitches on each ramp, however one on the west ramp is missing due to the forced opening from the Grotto to the Grand Gallery. Having a length of 156 feet and a height of over 28 feet, the Grand Gallery exhibits the greatest and finest example of corbelled I architecture extant. Seven feet wide,above the side ramps, the four I walls rise, by means of seven overhanging courses of masonry, to a ceiling width of three and one half feet, the same as that of the floor. The projected masonry, averaging three inches beyond the course On which it rests, forms a corbel vault of unparalleled dimensions.

    The Kings Chamber Passage ends in the King's Chamber, a spacious room of polished red granite approximately 34 feet long, 17 feet wide, and 19 feet high. Its roof is constructed of 43 massive beams, each 27 feet long and weighing from 50 to 70 tons; the beams are set joist-wise in five cushioned tiers and extend five feet beyond the walls. Above these are 24 great limestone rafters, forming a gabled roof.

    Above the roof of the King's Chamber are found a series of 5 cavities. These areas are appropriately termed "relieving chambers" by Egyptologists since the spaces have successfully prevented the collapse of the King's Chamber from the tremendous weight of the superincumbent masonry above the chamber area, amounting to several millions of tons. One other feature should be noted. While the stones which supported the ends of the granite ceiling beams of the King's Chamber and of the lower Chambers of Construction are of granite, the upper supporting stones are limestone's. This allows the upper supporting stones to take up any shock or subsidence caused by the great weight above them, by crushing, thus precluding any movement and subsidence from being communicated to the chamber's beneath. The King's Chamber has two ventilators, one in the north wall, the other directly opposite in the south wall. Two air-channels' were also found in the Queen's Chamber although they were not originally pierced through to the surface of the masonry. Each of the ventilator shafts were cut

  • through each separate stone and laid throughout their slanting length out to the surface of the structure. These afforded a supply of fresh air to those parts of the Pyramid. COFFER Although the Queen's Chamber is known to have had an empty sarcophagus, the sarcophagus, or Coffer, found today, in the western end of the King's Chamber, is the only movable object in the Great Pyramid. It is of a type used in Egypt at the time the Pyramid was built, but is neither inscribed nor decorated as was the custom of the day. When discovered, it was found empty. The top is grooved around its inner top edges as though to receive a lid, but there is no evidence that the Coffer ever had a lid. These facts, together with the venting of the chamber by the ventilators, would seem to indicate that it was not intended to be a tomb. That it never was used as a tomb is confirmed by the statements of the classical historians, Herodotus and Diodorus, that Cheops (Khufu) was buried elsewhere. Since the Coffer is too large to pass through the low passages leading into the King's Chamber, it had to have been placed in the chamber before the chamber was closed and the passages sealed. The Coffer is formed from a single piece of red Aswan granite and exhibits an amazing feat of workmanship. It was hollowed out as a carpenter might hollow out a block of wood with an auger. The spiral markings on the inner sides can still be discerned. Engineers have estimated that to accomplish this feat it would require an overhead pressure of from one to two tons and the bits would have to have been a very hard and tough material, likely some precious stone. Geometrically the Coffer is 89.80568 inches long, 38.69848 inches wide and 41.21319 inches high in its exterior measurements. The sum of the length, width and height of the Coffer is equal to 1/5 of the sum of the length, width and height of the King's Chamber itself. The sides are close to 6 inches thick and the bottom 7 inches. The cubic volume of the walls and bottom of the Coffer is approximately equal to the contents it could hold. This capacity is equal to four British quarters, the established measure of wheat. Measures of capacity are the sources of measures of weight and a capacity and the Avoirdupois pound. The Pyramid's Coffer appears to have furnished the standard of all measures of capacity to the earliest Greek nations as well as the Hebrew. It is interesting to note that the English speaking nations use a system of weights and measures more closely related to this early standard.

    The capacity of the Coffer is also equal to that of the Ark of the Covenant in the Biblical Tabernacle and the measure of the Molten Sea of Solomon's Temple was exactly fifty times this capacity and also equal to the measure of the King's Chamber itself. There is also noted a correspondency between the King's Chamber and the Holy of Holies and between the Ante-Chamber and the place called Holy in the Bible Tabernacle. These significant correspondencies seem to suggest that the designers of each must have had a common source of inspiration. In its original position, the Coffer sat midway between the north and the south walls of the King's Chamber with its sides parallel to the respective sides of the Chamber and its axis coinciding with the Pyramid's own north-south axis. That is to say that the Coffer's axis, which was due north and south, would be geometrically 286.1 inches west of the axis of the passage system. GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION An ancient treatise on Masonry (The legend of the Craft) states that all sciences are founded upon one science and that science is Geometry. Few persons, not conversant with geometry, recognize the great usefulness of geometrical reasoning, or realize how much it enters into modern technology, especially engineering. The Great Pyramid is, internally, and externally, geometrical in conception and design. For

  • this reason the problem of the Great pyramid is essentially one to be solved, not by the Egyptologist as such, but by the engineer, since it has been erected on principles easily recognized and understood by the construction engineer. Merely exploring the structure will reveal nothing as regards to its true purpose. A knowledge of geometry and mathematics, therefore, combined with an understanding of their proper application, is essential to a correct understanding of the Great Pyramid and its design. It is not by hieroglyphics nor by sculpture work, but by symbol, measure and angle, that the Great Pyramid of Giza, in the land of Egypt, yields its secret. Scientifically directed surveys have furnished the actual geometric measurements of the Pyramid. From these measurements calculated data was obtained which revealed the Great Pyramid to constitute a geometrical representation, on a vast scale, of mathematical and astronomical knowledge not to be known, again, for over 4500 years. The remarkable manner in which this knowledge is geometrically expressed, relative to certain simple mathematical formulae, surpasses in every way, any similar undertaking of man. The unit of measure employed in the actual construction of the Great Pyramid was the Egyptian Royal Cubit. However, the linear unit predominating in the design of the Pyramid is the Sacred Cubit, which is shown on the Boss in the Ante-Chamber. A scientific examination of the Sacred Cubit found it to bear an exact relationship to the size of the planet on which we live. This Cubit is the exact 10,000,000th part of the distance from the center of the earth to the pole, or semi-axis. According to the results of the latest geodetic research in the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958, the polar radius of the earth, as deduced from observations of the orbits of artificial satellites, is approximately 3949.89 miles.

    The form, arrangement and detail of the Pyramid's exterior, and of its interior passages and chambers, can therefore be built up entirely from the geometry of the year-circle. This fact implies the possession of a knowledge of mathematics, geometry and astronomy, combined with the ability to express them in structural form, far in advance of contemporary knowledge of that time. In the design of the Pyramid is found a unique geometrical symbolism so profound as to transcend anything that human ingenuity might devise. MATHEMATICAL PROPORIIONS Ancient Egypt seems to possess, to a remarkable degree, an advanced knowledge of mathematics and kindred sciences, but they were never able to duplicate the proportionate mathematic system of numbers, found in the design of the Great Pyramid. Having been shown how to build the ideal pyramid, and with the perfect model before them, they could copy it externally. However, all subsequent pyramids show a steadily deteriorating standard of construction. An example of the symmetry of mathematical proportions in the ~ Great Pyramid is found in the measurements of the King's Chamber and Ante-Chamber. Their dimensions show that:

    1. The breadth of the King's Chamber, equals half its length. 2. The height of the King's Chamber, equals half the diagonal of its floor.

    3. The length of the granite portion of the Ante-Chamber floor, is equal to half the breadth of the King's Chamber.

    4. The length of the granite portion of the Ante-Chamber floor, multiplied by 5 (a special Pyramid number), equals the solid cubic diagonal of the King's Chamber.

    5. The length of the granite portion of the Ante-Chamber floor, multiplied by 50, equals the

  • length of the side of a square, the area of which equals the area of a triangle of the shape and size of the Pyramid's right section.

    6. The length of the King's Chamber, multiplied by 25 (a Pyramid cubit), equals an even 100 times the length of the Ante-Chamber's granite floor.

    7. If the length of the granite portion of the Ante-Chamber floor be multiplied by an even 100, and this length be taken to express the diameter of a circle, the arc of that circle will be found to equal the arc of the square base of the Pyramid.

    8. The height of the Ante-Chamber, multiplied by an even 100, equals the base side length, plus the vertical height, of the Pyramid.

    9. The Ante-Chamber length, multiplied by 50, equals the vertical height of the Pyramid.

    Who Was the Architect The Great Pyramid, which has stood at the border of the great Sahara Desert as a silent witness for more than 4,000 years, now speaks in modern scientific terms. Erected at a time when humanity had more crude ideas of this universe and even of our own earth, this "witness" could not be understood before this present scientific age. The perfect accuracy of all the various geodetic and astronomical statistics which man was unable to ascertain until modern times, after the development of trigonometrical knowledge and the invention of modern appliances, is evidence of Divine Revelation. Regardless of who is found to have supervised its construction, the Architect of the Great Pyramid stands revealed as none other than Almighty God, the Creator of the Universe. Notwithstanding the fact that no nation of antiquity on earth possessed the knowledge revealed by the design of the Great Pyramid or understood it, some may reject its Divine Inspiration. God, seemingly, anticipated man's need for additional evidential value of the Pyramid's Divine testimony and gave a line of proof which cannot be anticipated or counterfeited. God appointed the test, which we are to apply, in Isaiah 46: 9-10: "I am God, and there is none like Me, declaring the end from the beginning." If it can be shown that the design of the Great Pyramid embodies a prophetic chronology, then we have the very evidence which God Himself has declared shall be proof that the design is from Him. A suggestion for looking for this prophetic message in the Great Pyramid was revealed in the translation of an ancient Arabic writing, the Akbar Ezzeman M.S., which states that the Great Pyramid contains "the wisdom and acquirements in the different arts and sciences.. .the sciences of arithmetic and geometry, that they might remain as records for the benefit of those who could afterwards comprehend them.. the positions of the stars and their cycles; together with the history and chronicle of the time past (and) of that which is to come." The factual evidence that the Great Pyramid contains a prophetic chronology can be demonstrated from the actual passage lengths, lengths being proportionate to the respective ages which they represent. PROOF OF DIVINE AUTHORSHIP In establishing a prophetic chronology it is necessary to have a starting point. Several unique factors determine this starting point. First, the Descending Passage, starting from the outside north slope of the Pyramid, has at a distance of about 40 feet from the entrance, straight knife-edge lines cut from roof to floor, one

  • on each side and exactly opposite each other. Their appearance on the otherwise perfectly smooth walls of the passage certainly suggests that they are intended as a clear zero line or datum line from which to take measurements. They are called the "Scored Lines." Second, the Descending Passage is found to be in exact alignment with the true north. In response to a question if the North Star ever shone directly down the Descending Passage, Sir John Herschel, the famous Astronomer Royal of England, ascertained in 1840 that only in the 22nd century B.C. did the then North Star or Pole Star, known as Draconis (Dragon Star), so shine. No other Pole Star in history has ever been in that exact position. Sir John also found that at the very same time, the beautiful and much admired little stellar cluster, the Pleiades or "Seven Sisters," in the constellation of Taurus (the Bull), was in alignment with the Scored Lines. (The Pleiades or Seven Stars are referred to in the Book of Job (38:31) "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pie jades. or loose the bands of Orion?" Also in Amos (5:8) "Seek him that maketh the seven Stars and Orion. "Alcyone, the principal star of the cluster is classified as Tarui by astronomers.) The date at which the Dragon Star and the Pleiades were in those precise positions relative to the Pyramid was the vernal equinox of the year 2141 B.C. This particular year is singled out, by the Pyramid, as the year of reference in respect to chronological measurements. Thus the Pyramid's entire prophetic chronograph is astronomically fixed. Measurements in inches, backward or forward from the Scored Lines, represent the corresponding number of years before or after that astronomically fixed date. To test the accuracy of this starting date was relatively simple. The date, being so far back in history, allows ample testing against known recorded historical events. Putting it to the actual test consisted of measuring the passages and chambers up and down from the Scored Lines, counting one year for each inch.

    The Pyramid is not made of elastic, but of rigid stone, so the measurements cannot be stretched nor shortened. We can only take the dimensions of the passages, just as they were constructed by the ancient builders, and let the results take care of themselves. The distance measuring back up the Descending Passage from the Scored Lines is 482 Pyramid inches, representing 482 years. Counting 482 years back from the datum line of 2141 B.C. brings us to the year 2623 B.C. This was the year that work on the construction of the Great Pyramid began. As the passages of the Pyramid's interior symbolized ages which were then future, this date for the entrance to the Pyramid was most appropriate. Measuring 688 inches beyond the Scored Lines down the Descending Passage to an aperture appearing in the roof, marks the entrance to the Ascending Passage. Progressing 688 years from 2141 B.C. gives the date of 1453 B.C. This was the date of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and their receiving the Divine Law, through Moses, on Mt. Sinai. The institution of the Passover (the first feature of the Law) marked the beginning of the age commonly referred to as the "Dispensation of the Law" (Mosaic Law), a period of time from the Exodus and giving of the Law to man as a way to eternal life and ending at the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Being the first man able to keep the Law inviolate, He fulfilled it, thus ending that dispensation. This period of time has been considered, by most Bible chronologists, as being 1485 years. As the date for the Exodus was 1453 B.C. and that for the Crucifixion was A.D. 33, the interval between them is inflexible 1485 years.

    Measuring up the Ascending Passage at the given scale of an inch to a year, we find the length is 1485 inches and therefore the end of the passage marks precisely the date A.D. 33 (Spring). (For the sake of any who may not be used to chronological reckoning, the rule for ascertaining the A.D. date required is to deduct the figures of the B.C. date from the total period and add 1,

  • thus 1485 - 1453 + 1 = A.D. .33). This period of time, being rigidly fixed as 1485 years so far as the Pyramid evidence is concerned, clearly shows that the Ascending Passage represents the Law Dispensation period.

    Between a point where the floor level of the Queen's Chamber intersects with the floor of the Ascending Passage and the upper end of the Ascending Passage, a geometric triangle is formed. The north end of its base marks the date September 29, 2 B.C. and the apex marks the date April 3, A.D. 33. Archaeological findings have recently established September 29, 2 B.C. as the birth of Christ and April 3, A.D. 33 as the precise day of His Crucifixion. The base length of 30.043 Pyramid inches converted to years and projected on the slope of the Ascending Passage marks October 14, A.D. 29 which is the date of His baptism, exactly 3 and1/2 years before His death on Calvary.

    The amazing and conclusive result of applying the inch-years scale produced the PROOF OF DIVINE REVELATION. Erected over 2600 years before the Crucifixion of Christ and even 1000 years before the first books of the Bible were written, the Great Pyramid is found to contain in its design a prophetic chronology, recorded centuries before the actual events took place and also long before any of the Biblical prophecies, concerning Christ were uttered. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ - His birth, His baptism, His life, His death, His resurrection and ascension - is the central theme of the Great Pyramid, as well as of the Bible. THE CHRIST ANGLE The Great Pyramid's chronological representation depends upon the angle of the slope of the Passage System. This angle (260 18' 9.7") is called the "Christ Angle" and forms the "Christ Triangle" This angle of slope, when taken as a "rhumb line" (not a great circle arc) bearing north of true east, describes, from the Great Pyramid, a direct route that passes successively over Israel's crossing of the Red Sea(Sea of Reeds),through Bethlehem, and over Israel's crossing of the Jordan. The two crossings define the beginning and ending of the children of Israel's "wanderings," after coming out of Egypt. The distance from the Great Pyramid to Bethlehem, along the great circle arc, is 2139 Pyramid furlongs (1 Pyramid furlong = 8000 Pyramid inches). If we start from the Pyramids astronomically fixed datum year 2141 B.C. and apply the scale of a furlong to a year, we obtain not only the place where Jesus was born, Bethlehem, but also the exact time when He was born, considering 2139 years after 2141 B.C. marks the date, 2 B.C.

  • Hidden Chambers in the Great Pyramid ( From Publication Time Spirals Vol 1 No. 1 ) It is a tragic fact that, because of man's ignorance in the past, a great quantity of knowledge preserved by the Great Pyramid of Giza, in Egypt, has been lost to us today. In the fifth century B.C., the Greek historian Herodotus, while a student of the Egyptian mysteries at the great school of Annu or On situated within sight of the Giza monuments, reported that inscriptions of strange characters were to be found on the Pyramid's outer surfaces. The Coptic, Al Masudi, in the tenth century A.D., wrote: "Of the Pyramids, their surfaces exhibit all kinds of inscriptions written in the characters of ancient nations which no longer exist. No one knows what this writing is or what it signifies." Two centuries later, in the year 1l79, the Arab historian Abd el Latif recorded that these Pyramid inscriptions were so numerous they could have filled "more than ten thousand written pages." Ibn Abd Alhokim preserved the ancient legend that, "the builder of the pyramids engraved upon them al~ things that were told him by his wise men, all profound science." The Arabic manuscripts of Nakrizi and Tohfat likewise spoke of the Great Pyramid conveying knowledge of both history and astronomy, not only on its outer surfaces, but also in its measurements. Finally, in the early fourteenth century, two European chroniclers who traveled to Egypt, took note of the same sight: William of Baldensel told how the outer casing stones of the Pyramid were covered by strange symbols arranged in careful rows; and Sir John Mandeville, writing in 1330, described how: "Above the corners without were many scriptures of diverse languages. Some men say they were written by the Great Lords of long ago." In 1356, after an earthquake leveled Cairo, the Arabs robbed the Pyramid of almost all of its casing stones, and rebuilt their mosques and fortresses with them. So that the words of a

  • foreign and "pagan" tongue should not defile their holy places of worship or abode, the Arabs made sure to remove al~ traces of the writing from the stone facings, as they cut them into smaller pieces, and reshaped them for their own architectural purposes. Fortunately, there are other records and legends which claim that, despite what has been lost, the ancient knowledge may yet be rediscovered inside the Pyramid. In about A.D. 390, the Roman Ammianius Marcellinus noted: inscriptions which the ancients asserted were in the walls of certain underground galleries in the pyramids were intended to prevent the ancient wisdom from being lost in the Flood. Abou Balkh, in 870, preserved the same tradition, as did most later Arab writers. The most detailed tradition recounted, however, was by Ibn Abd Alhokim, and it can still be read today in the Akbar Ezzeman Manuscript, kept at Oxford. John Greaves, in 1646, offered this translation of the tradition in his work The Enduring Mystery: "He which built the Pyramid was Saurid Ibn Salhouk, who lived three hundred years before the flood. The occasion of this was because he saw in his sleep, that the whole earth was turned over, with the inhabitants of it, the men lying upon their faces, and the stars falling down and striking one another, with terrible noise, and being troublewith this, he concealed it. Then after he saw the first stars falling to the earth, in the similitude of white fowl, and they snatched men up, and they carried them between two great mountains, and these mountains closed upon them, and the shining stars were made dark. Andmhe awakened with great fear, and assembled the chief Priests of all the provinces, a hundred and thirty priests, the chief of them called Aclimun. He related the whole matter to them, and they took the altitude of the stars, and made their prognostication, and they foretoldof the deluge. The king said will it come to our country? They answered yes, and will destroy it. And there remained a certain number of years to come, and he commanded in the mean space to build the Pyramid. And he built in the Pyramid thirty rooms, filled with stores of riches, and utensils, and with signatures made of precious stones, and with instruments of iron, and vessels of earth and with arms which rust not, and with glass which might be bended and yet not broken , and with strange spells, and with several kinds of akakirs, single and double, and with deadly poisons, and with other things besides. He made also diverse celestial spheres, and stars, and what they severely operate, in their aspects; and the perfumes which are to be used to them, and the books which treat of these matters. He put also the commentaries of the Priests, in chests of black marble, and with every Priest a book, in which were the wonders of his profession, an~ of his actions, and of his nature, and what was done in his time, and what is, and what shall be, from the beginning of time, to the end of it." It was intriguing traditions such as this which led Caliph Abdul Al Mamoun to plan and execute his forced entrance into the Great Pyramid in the year 820. But he only found three empty chambers, while Alhokim recorded there were at least thirty, perhaps even more. That more chambers exist does not seem unreasonable, especially when we realize that--given the area of the known chamber spaces, and comparing it with the total volume of the Pyramid and its foundation-there is still room enough for 3,700 more chambers the size of the King's Chamber. The question is, where do we start looking for these hidden rooms? Interestingly, Herodotus received from Egyptian sources of the fifth century B.C. the story that a chamber does indeed exist at such a subterranean level. Herodotus further recorded that the chamber consists of an "island surrounded by waters from the Nile, introduced through an artificial duct." Since the ancient Nile flowed at a depth approximately 170 feet below the Great Pyramid's base, then the presence of Nile waters in the hidden chamber would suggest the underground compartment is either at this depth, or possibly below it. If the chamber is below the water level, then its architect installed within it an ingenious safeguard system. The chamber, being sealed, probably possesses an air pocket the pressure of which prevents the chamber from being

  • completely filled with water. If someone attempted to enter the chamber from above, however, the air pocket would be released--and the chamber would immediately be flooded. Anyone wanting to enter and keep the chamber intact would have to excavate up from below it, and in a manner that would prevent flooding taking place. This of course would call for feats of engineer- ing of an advanced order.

    Herodotus also wrote that the Egyptians regarded this subterranean chamber as the tomb of the mysterious builder and architect of the Pyramid. Arabian storytellers in the days of Al Mamoun told how this secret chamber contained a corpse wearing a breastplate of gold, and at his side was an emerald vase a foot in diameter, with a pearl embedded in it "that shone with a light like the light of day," and perpetually illuminated the entire chamber. There was also nearby a sword seven spans long, and the vestments of a king twelve spanslong. And on the lid of the king's sarcophagus are the words: "I am he who built this Pyramid in one thousand days."

    One day after a rainstorm in 1880, Gharles Piazzi Smyth, who spent many years exploring and measuring the Great Pyramid, noted something peculiar as he walked through piles of stone chips and splinters scattered around the base of the structure, which were left over from where the Pyramid was built. Toward the top of one heap, located directly in front of, but at a distance from, the north entranceway into the Pyramid, Smyth found a large number of pieces of green and white diorite. He described it as being a 'compact, very hard, crypto crystalline formation, whitish, speckled with black and greenish- black. The diorite material is not native to the Giza area, and must have been brought to the location from a considerable distance. What is more, the number of the diorite chips, and their occurrence near the top and in the furthest pile of cast-off debris from the Pyramid's construction strongly suggest that the diorite was used quite extensively, and in a position near the top portion of the Pyramid. However, in not one of the known chambers inside the structure does the material occur. This observation led Smyth to write: "I was compelled to gaze up at the Pyramid with its vast bulk, and believe that there is another chamber still undiscovered there, one which will prove to be the most wondrous room of the whole monument

  • UNUSUAL ITEMS FOUND IN THE GREAT PYRAMID Since the1800's several very interesting items have been found in the great pyramid of Giza. In the history article on our web site, we mentioned a discovery made by Colonel Vyse in 1836. He discovered and removed a flat iron plate about 12" by 4" and 1/8" thick from a joint in the masonry at the point where the southern airshaft from the King's chamber exits the pyramid. Engineers agree that this plate was left in the joint during the building of the pyramid and could not have been inserted afterwards. What happened to this plate and has it been tested? Colonel Vyse sent the plate to the British Museum. The plate was examined by the famous Sir Flinders Petrie in 1881. He felt it was genuine and stated "no reasonable doubt can therefore exist about its being a really genuine piece". In 1989 it was subjected to scientific analysis. The tests were done by Dr. Jones in the mineral resources engineering department at Imperial College and Dr. El Gayer in the department of petroleum and mining at the Suez University. They utilized both chemical and optical tests. One hypothesis was that the metal may have come from a meteorite. It have been well documented that primitive and stone age peoples have used meteorite iron for implements, etc. They were able to make crude iron implements from the meteorite iron well before the iron age. In fact, wrapped in King Tut's mummy was a dagger made of meteorite iron. How do we know if the iron is from a meteorite or made by man? We can determine this from the iron's nickel content. Meteorite iron has a higher value than the iron found on earth. The analysis of the metal plate yielded the following: "the iron plate from Giza is clearly not of meteoritic origin, since it contains only a trace of nickel". Further analysis revealed that it had traces of gold on its surface, maybe once gold plated. Drs. Jones and Gayer concluded the following: "It is concluded, on the basis of the present investigation, that the iron plate is very ancient. Furthermore, the metallurgical evidence supports the archeological evidence which suggests that the plate was incorporated within the pyramid at the time that structure was being built.[] As we mentioned, the finding of this iron plate may cause us to change the date of the iron age by 2000 years. Also how is this metal plate related to the door with copper handles that was discovered in the airshaft of the Queen's chamber? Drs. Jones and Gayer thought this plate might be a fragment from a larger piece which fitted over the mouth of the air shaft.

    Exploring Airshaft With Robot

    In 1993, Rudolf Gantenbrink from Germany used a miniature robot with a camera to explore the airshafts leading out of the King's and Queen's chamber. The airshafts from the King's chamber were found to exit to the outside of the pyramid. Where the Queen's chamber airshafts leads to has not been found. It was not known if they reached the surface of the pyramid or ended somewhere else. The cost of this robot was about 1/4 of a million dollars.

    Using this robot, Gantenbrink positioned the small robot in the small airshaft of the southern end of the Queen's chamber, and moved it up the airshaft. The airshafts are only about 9 inches square thus the need for a miniature robot with a camera. As the robot proceeded deeper and deeper into the airshaft, it finally came to the end of its journey. It had traveled about 200 feet into the shaft. It had made an amazing discovery. It did not lead to the outside. The camera was being monitored in the queen's chamber by Gantenbrink. This is what he saw. There at the end of the shaft, he was looking at a small door complete with copper

  • handles. He also noticed that there was a little gap under the door. It was too small for the robot to go under or for the camera to look under. This was an incredible discovery to say the least. Was a hidden chamber in the Great Pyramid of Giza finally found?

    Report of Toth or Hermes from the Ancient Papyrus Virgin of the World According to Isis, chief among the early teachers, and most wise and knowledgeable of the gods, was Toth, known to the Greek as Hermes. Long before the first pharoahs, he ruled Egypt with Osiris, acting as his prime minister. In Egyptian religion, Toth was remembered as the inventor of writing, geometry, astronomy, medicine, surgery, art and music. We find these significant words spoken by Toth-Hermes in the first person: The sacred symbols of the cosmic elements, the secrets of Osiris, were hid away carefully. Hermes, before his return to Heaven, invoked a spell on them, and spoke these words: O holy books, which have been made by my immortal hands, by incorruptions magic spell remain free from decay throughout eternity and incorrupt by time. Become unseeable, unfindable, from everyone whose foot shall tread the plains of this land, until old Heaven shall bring forth instruments for you, whom the Creator shall call His souls. Thus spoke he, and laying spells on them by means of his own works, he shut them safe away in their rooms. And long has been the time since they were hid away. The "Virgin of the World' papyrus also contains a prophecy by Toth-Hermes that is directly linked with the knowledge he hid away. He predicted that one day: "Men will seek out the inner nature of space, where no man can walk and they shall chase up into the heights, desiring to observe thee nature of the motions in the Heaven. But these shall be but small things. For them nothing. more remains than the remotest realms of Earth. Then they shall search and find out the Night, the farthest Night of all." During the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties, the Egyptians appear to have taken a keen interest in their past, for Egyptian artists of the period made detailed engravings of early monuments as they once looked. As one example, a temple existed near the Sphinx in remote antiquity, but during the New Kingdom was completely buried, because the foundations of another temple--that of Amenhotep II were built over it. Despite this, the Egyptian artists somehow knew about the earlier temple, and accurately reconstructed its appearance. One modern researcher commented: "This indicates how well we can rely upon the ancient records, and shows that the Egyptians knew more about the history of their ancient monuments than we usually give them credit for." Several New Kingdom stone engravings depict the Sphinx as it once looked, and again, what the ancient pictures portray has been confirmed by modern archaeology. The artists showed the Sphinx wearing a crown, and before its chest stood a colossal statue of a man. On top of the Sphinx's head, investigators recently discovered a deep, square hole filled in, which they now believe once held the tongue of an attached crown. And on the Sphinx's chest is a large, uneven vertical projection--all that remains of a large statue, its features having been eroded away long ago by blowing sand. What is fascinating is that several of the ancient engravings show the Sphinx resting on top of a high pedestal, and within the pedestal are doors leading into a series of rooms. One ancient artist, in order to make sure his viewers knew his subject matter was the Sphinx at Giza, and not other sphinx statues found through out Egypt, drew in the Pyramids in perspective in the background--a technique very rarely seen in Egyptian art. There

  • sits the Sphinx, with crown and statueand there, below the surface beneath it, is a door surmounted by a cornice, leading into a room, about to be entered into by a priest and a scribe. ( From Forgotten Ages- a Journal Exploring Ancient Mysteries. Report 3, Spring, 1978 ) Some interesting Pictures

    Aerial Picture of the Great Pyramid of Giza

    Cross Section of The Great Pyramid of Giza

  • Casing Stone Shown along the Base of the Great Pyramid of Giza

    A View of the Three Pyramids of Giza

    A View of the Sphinx

  • SHEPHERD-PROPHETS

    Consider these facts. The Pyramid was built in Egypt, notorious for its idolatry and polytheism. Yet Pharaoh Cheops became "arrogant towards the gods" during his reign and shut up the temples, cast out the images, and compelled even the priests to labor in the quarries. Herodotus says that the Pyramid was thirty years in building, the first ten years building prepatory works, with crews of 100,000 working on three-month shifts, and that after this thirty year period Cheops reverted to worship of the Egyptian gods. What strange power could cause such a radical thirty year break in the polytheistic habits of the Egyptians?

    Herodotus extensively interviewed an Egyptian priest about the building of the pyramid and he attested that a noted stranger abode in Egypt at the time of Cheops, a shepherd, to whom rather than to Cheops the Egyptians attribute this edifice. The Egyptians call him "Philition" or "Philitis." Josephus also quotes Manetho, an Egyptian priest and scribe, who says there was a period in the Egyptian past when, by peaceable means, some "shepherd kings" had the Egyptian rulers "in their hands." Manetho said that some say they were Arabs. Seiss, with characteristically sound scholarship and reasoning, makes a case that the biblical Job was the Arabian who directed the Pharaoh in the building of the Great Pyramid. Seiss points out that the image of a pyramid is "unquestionably" the subject when God addresses Job out of the whirlwind in Job 38:

    "Then the LORD answered Job from the storm. He said: 2 "Who is this that makes my purpose unclear by saying things that are not true? 3 Be strong like a man! I will ask you questions, and you must answer me. 4 Where were you when I made the earth's foundation? Tell me, if you understand. 5 Who marked off how big it should be? Surely you know! Who stretched a ruler across it? 6 What were the earth's foundations set on, or who put its cornerstone in place 7 while the morning stars sang together and all the angels shouted with joy?"

    Seiss says that since YHWH's object is to convince Job of his incompetency to judge of and understand Him, it is as if the Almighty is saying: You laid the foundations of the great structure in Egypt, but where were you when I laid the foundations of the far greater pyramid of the earth? You laid the measures of the pyramid in Egypt, but who laid the measures of the earth, and stretched the line upon it? You fastened down in sockets the foundations of the pyramid in Egypt, {the Great Pyramid is built on four sockets} but whereupon are the foundations of the earth fastened? You laid the pyramid's completing capstone amid songs and jubilations, but who laid the capstone of the earth when the celestial morning angels sand together, and all the heavenly sons of God shouted for joy?

    In our day the idea of shepherds being special agents of God in the building of a monumental structure would be ludicrous in the extreme. Such is our age. The fault line of commentators referred to above is sharp, because the difference between faith and unbelief is the difference between light and darkness. The Bible says that God revealed to shepherds some of the most important information ever given to humankind:

  • Luke 2:8-15: That night, some shepherds were in the fields nearby watching their sheep. 9 Then an angel of the Lord stood before them. The glory of the Lord was shining around them, and they became very frightened. 10 The angel said to them, "Do not be afraid. I am bringing you good news that will be a great joy to all the people. 11 Today your Savior was born in the town of David. He is Christ, the Lord. 12 This is how you will know him: You will find a baby wrapped in pieces of cloth and lying in a feeding box." 13 Then a very large group of angels from heaven joined the first angel, praising God and saying: 14 "Give glory to God in heaven, and on earth let there be peace among the people who please God." 15 When the angels left them and went back to heaven, the shepherds said to each other, "Let's go to Bethlehem. Let's see this thing that has happened which the Lord has told us about."

    Abraham was also a shepherd, like Job, wealthy with flocks and herds. How is it that he was brought to the attention of the pharaoh of Egypt and the King of Gerar in his travels?18 Was it simply that Sarah, his wife, was so pretty? The Jewish records say that Abraham was learned in the science of astrology and with his elaborate knowledge of the heavens and their meanings he attracted the attention of these kings. We know from the biblical record that God communicated with the shepherd Abraham many times, several times using the "stars" as a teaching vehicle. YHWH Himself directed Abraham's eyes toward the heavens, indirectly corroborating the Jewish oral tradition that says Abraham was a gifted astrologer:19

    Gen 15:5 "And he brought him forth abroad, and said, 'Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them': and he said unto him, 'So shall thy seed be.'"

    The eye of faith sees it as a real and distinct, not vain and imagined, possibility that the Pyramid was directed by shepherds guided by Divine wisdom. Such faith offers a sufficient explanation of what would otherwise be the dilemma posed by the advanced knowledge and technology exhibited by the Pyramid. It is with those who do not accept the Divine authorship of the Pyramid with whom the burden rests for a better explanation.

    THE PLACE OF THE PYRAMID IN THE BIBLE

    There is a biblical reference to the Great Pyramid which is instructive:

    Isa 19:19-20 "At that time there will be an altar for the LORD in the middle of Egypt and a monument to the LORD at the border of Egypt. 20 This will be a sign and a witness to the LORD All-Powerful in the land of Egypt. When the people cry to the LORD for help, he will send someone to save and defend them. He will rescue them from those who hurt them."

    Notice that there is a reference to an "altar" and a "monument" that will be in Egypt. The location of this "altar" and "monument" is sketched in terms which seem to be contradictory; it will be at the "border" of Egypt at the same time it will be in the

  • "middle" of Egypt. The apparent contradiction offers a chance to pinpoint the identity of this "monument" since few candidates would be able to be both the "border" of something, and also its "middle."

    Note the horizontal line below the bottom of the delta quadrant.

    The Pyramid is at the center AND the border of Egypt

    This represents the border between the two countries making up ancient Egypt: Lower Egypt (the delta) and Upper Egypt (the South). The Great Pyramid is at the border of Upper and Lower Egypt. Yet this is also the center of the land of Egypt if the two ancient countries be viewed as one, a single Egypt. Note also that the Pyramid is at the center of the natural quadrant formed by the regular curvature of the delta. It is also at the center of present Egypt in that Cairo is the capital of the country and at the center of its business and cultural life. It is also at the border of ancient Egypt in still another way.

    The Great Pyramid is sometimes called the "Great Pyramid of Gizeh". "Gizeh" means "border', thus indicating in still another way that the Pyramid is associated with a "border". The name "Gizeh" is probably drawn from the fact that anciently the borders of Egypt were considered to extend as far as the watered, green areas all along the Nile. The desert outside this fertile strip was not really part of the country. Thus the division line between fertile strip and desert is the natural "border" of Egypt. It is along this "border" that the Pyramid is situated. Thus by two separate sets of triple confirmation, the Great Pyramid answers the apparent riddle of being at both the border and center of Egypt. To find any other object or concept fulfilling this prophecy's specifications would be extremely unlikely. The Biblical standard of proof, given at Deuteronomy 19:15 and affirmed in the New Testament (at Matt. 18:16 and 2 Corin. 13:1) has been met:

    "One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established." (Deut. 19:15)

    The Pyramid is certainly a "pillar" as the text calls for, and also an "altar" in the sense of being a witness to the Lord. This sense for "altar," as a structure of witness and not for offering sacrifices, is used several times in Scripture, such as this reference in Joshua 22:

  • 26 Therefore we said, Let us now prepare to build us an altar, not for burnt offering, nor for sacrifice: 27 But that it may be a witness between us, and you, and our generations after us,

    An interesting occurrence of gematria also helps pinpoint the Great Pyramid as God's special revelation. Here is the Hebrew of the Pyramid text, Isaiah 19:19, 20:

    The Hebrew of Isaiah 19:19,20

    Gematria is the science of finding meaning in the numerical value of words. In the Hebrew language each individual letter has a numerical value. Thus every word has the numerical value of the sum of the value of its letters. If one adds up the numerical value of all the Hebrew characters in the Great Pyramid text the value is 5449. This is the height in inches of the Great Pyramid!

    THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE PYRAMID

    The Great Pyramid has been called "the Bible in stone" because its passage systems reveal geometrically, in line and symbol, the same profound spiritual truths and plan of salvation specific to the Bible, as will be seen as this study unfolds. And just as there are time prophecies of significance in the Bible, the Pyramid's silent geometry reveals a remarkable chronography, prophetic time in stone.

    The challenge to deciphering the prophetic scale is deciphering what measure of length equals what measure of time. The key to this scale is given in the Pyramid, in the upper horizontal passage system's first ante-chamber, in what is known as "Enoch's circle." Enoch was translated when he was 365 years old. A circle is a symbol of eternity and Enoch thus "entered eternity" at 365. The circle formed in that first antechamber, defined by the floor and the two hanging walls measures 365.25 inches.

    The Pyramid speaks with geometry, not words

    The term "inch" is probably ultimately derived from Enoch's name, for he was bestowed with many secrets of knowledge and filled with the spirit of prophecy. Being a student of mensuration, and probably the pre-eminent "father" of that discipline, it is fitting for the

  • "inch", the basis of the English system of measures, to be a memorial of the prophet Enoch. This is rather like Lincoln finding his place on every American penny. Enoch stands as a symbol for the character and faith which must be obtained by those who would pass through earth's final ordeals and be translated at last when the Messiah returns at the end of this present wicked age. With the scale of an inch for a year, the Pyramid yields its chronography.

    That a linear measure could represent a time period is alluded to by Jesus Himself in the Sermon on the Mount. The Savior asks at Matthew 6:27, "Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?"

    The Greek for "stature" indicates "age-length," not linear length. Jesus is not giving a formula for how to grow a basketball star, of seven-foot-plus stature, but rather is asking, "Which of you by worrying can add one 'cubit' of time to his life-span?" One authority claims that Jesus' association here of a time measure and a linear measure is the only such usage in all of ancient Greek literature. While the point Jesus is making is that worry is fruitless, he is secondarily mixing a metaphor which yields the interesting equation that length can equal age. This simple idea will be plugged into part two of our study of the Pyramid.

    Footnotes

    1 E. Raymond Capt, The Great Pyramid Decoded, (Thousand Oaks, CA: Artisan Sales, 1978), 11.

    2 This is the theory of Manly P. Hall, an enthusiastic student of ancient religions.

    3 Greaves, Pyramidographia, 1644.

    4 I have studied his Dissertation on Cubits in the rare book room of the University of Chicago's Regenstein Library. Newton based some of his work on Greaves measurements. Newton deduced a sacred and profane cubit.

    5 Taylor, The Great Pyramid: Why Was it Built and Who Built it? (1859).

    6 Smith, Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid (1874).

    7 Seiss, A Miracle in Stone (1877).

    8 Skinner, Key to the Hebrew-Egyptian Mystery in the Source of Measures (1875).

    9 Davidson, The Great Pyramid, Its Divine Message (1925).

    10 A series of four books entitled Pyramidology (1957, 1962, 1966, 1972).

    11 Petrie, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh (1883).

    12 Lockyer following the lead of Richard Proctor published The Dawn of Astronomy (1894).

  • 13 Evans, The Mystery of the Pyramids (1979).

    14 Fix, Pyramid Odyssey (1984).

    15 Mendelssohn, The Riddle of the Pyramids (1974).

    16 Toth, Pyramid Prophecies (1979).

    17 Tompkins, Secrets of the Great Pyramid (1971).

    18 Genesis 12 and 19.

    19 There was no "science" of astronomy in our modern sense in ancient times. Those who studied the motions of the heavenly bodies invariably interpreted them with different metaphysical significations. That is, the science of the ancients included the science of interpretation since the natural order was viewed as a vast communication from the Omnipotent. Thus to call Abraham an "astrologer" carried none of today's negative connotation. Abraham was a scientist in the highest and fullest sense of the word, not a scientist in the more empirically limited sense of today's science.

    The Strange Mystery of the Pyramid Entrance

    This element is not yet studied as the rest of the Pyramid. It is in itself a puzzle. Why Egyptians built this entrance in such a position. It is not axial nor in the center of the pyramid i.e why they built the Pyramid with such amazing perfection of dimensions and built the entrance as if the builders failed to fit it in the center of the pyramid. Referring to what the Al Ma'amon's men did, they were supported by Coptic scientists who give help to find their way inside the Pyramid (AL Maqrizi writings). Further more, the original entrance was covered by casing stones as the rest of the Great pyramid, then why Al Ma`mon`s men chosen this point exactly to their way to the Pyramid. If it is the chance only that lead them to this entrance. If we look at Ma`mon`s hole we find that it is located in northern face of the Great Pyramid as the original entrance. Also, it leads to the ascending and descending passage by a semi direct orientation. For sure the Coptic scientists of Al Ma'mon knew what they are doing. It was not randomly work, they left the original entrance for secret and sacred reasons, or explain why they chosen this point exactly. Remember that the ascending passage was closed originally by 3 granite monolithic blocks (Peter Lomsurier) built in with the limestone of the ascending passage walls. These slabs that closed the ascending passage or the so-called the grand gallery were originally built in with the grand gallery itself, and we can see that from their arrangement. That gives us a result that the pyramid was originally closed from the beginning of constructing the grand gallery. The Ma'amon's men destroyed these slabs on their way to the inside of the Pyramid. But what is confusing me that another references said that the great Pyramid was opened through the Greco-Roman Period (more than 1000 years before Al M`amon) as (Ahmed Fakhry- Egyptian Pyramids, in Arabic language and others). If the pyramid was opened through the ages as they said, then why

  • Al Ma'mon made this effort then, and is this entrance. According to what they said the opening is not related to his men, it is done by Greco-Romans or may be by the Egyptians themselves hundreds of years before the Greco-Romans. Could be they mistaken their way inside the Pyramid, for example they may dig in the southern face of the pyramid or may be they dig down the Pyramid to the entrance. But no evidence of another trial in other faces of the pyramid. Refer to pyramids like King Oonas pyramid you will find the entrance from the base of the pyramid down to descending and not ascending passage, and the halls or rooms of the pyramid are located in levels down the ground level. Also the step pyramid in Saqarra have the same design of entrance and rooms. We didn't find entrance of Pyramids located in higher levels like that in other Pyramids. Only pyramids of the Forth Dynasty that have this arrangement. Another puzzle, what is the use of the Egyptian entrance if they built their pyramid with slabs built in with walls to close the grand gallery? And who will use this entrance to enter the Pyramid? Remember that the casing stones of the pyramid was built on 52 degrees of inclination which is impossible to climb up to the entrance located 15 meters higher than ground level? Why they built such an entrance under 3-4 meters casing stones if their aim was to hide it and prevent anybody to enter the Pyramid? They have not to built it at all and it was enough to close the passage by means of lime stones like rest of all levels of the pyramid, then they finalize it by casing stone and no one then will find his way to the pyramid rooms.

    Some Facts About The Great Pyramid of Giza Of all the classically identified "Seven Wonders of the World", can the Great Pyramid once considered by the ancient Greeks as the first of the Seven Wonders, can it be considered the "greatest" for its enduring qualities? After all, it is the only extant classic wonder remaining. The Greek geographer Strabo (circa 64 BC to after 23 AD -- whose later years coincided with the little known early years of Jesus the Nazarene) wrote of the Great Pyramid, "It seems like a building let down from heaven... built without the aid of human hands".

    Situated on the Giza Plateau flanked by the Sphinx (an ancient Egyptian momument constructed in the shape of an Egyptian virgin's head but with the body and tail of a Lion whose recently discovered chamber was opened in September 1996 -- being touted as one of the most significant archaeological finds in Egyptian history) along with other structures, it silently stands almost waiting to be discovered -- this majestic Great Pyramid.

    In The Great Pyramid Decoded, Peter Lemesurier writes, "During the last hundred years or so of its known four thousand year history, the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt -- the first, and last, of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world -- has attracted more than its fair share of cranks and pyramidomaniacs.... And yet, if the claims of the lunatic fringe are sometimes fantastic, the Pyramid itself is even more so. Few would care seriously to dispute that it is easily the most massive

  • building ever known to have been erected on this planet -- having, for example, at least twice the volume and thirty times the mass of New York's Empire State Building. Again, it would be a rash man who undertook to find, even today, a building more accurately aligned to

    the True cardinal points of the compass, masonry more finely jointed, or facing-stones more immaculately dressed.... the skeptic may doubt that many of the Pyramid's stones -- some of them weighing up to seventy tons -- were so finely cut and positioned as to give

    joints of less than a fiftieth of an inch in thickness;

    [An aside NOT by Lemesurier --Try this for an assignment: On a sheet of paper, draw a line one inch long and then divide it cutting it into fifty equal parts. Now try that using 70 ton stones. A bit challenging, right?]

    "...he may scoff at the claim that a fine cement was run into these joints so expertly as to give an even coverage of single areas as big as five feet by seven in the verticle; he may express profound disbelief when it is pointed out to him that the building's now almost totally despoiled original outer casing of polished limestone (all twenty-one acres of it) was levelled and honed to the standard of accuracy normal in modern optical work. But these, as it happens, are facts which anybody may check who cares to.

    "The stones speak for themselves. And we are talking, remember, not of the product of twentieth-century engineering, but of a building whose construction dates from the very edge of prehistory.

    "The sober truth is, of course, that no historian has yet advanced any explanation of the Great Pyramid's construction that is at all convincing. Nobody alive today knows for certain how the Pyramid was erected, how long it was in the building, how its near-perfect alignments were achieved before the invention of the compass, or how its outer casing was jointed and polished with such unsurpassed accuracy, should have been deemed necessary for the construction of a mere tomb and funerary monument to a dead king who in any case apparently never occupied it.

    "And the result? The Great Pyramid -- a building so perfect and yet so enormous that its construction would tax the skills and resources even of today's technology almost to breaking-point. Yet that -- or something very like it -- is offered as a sensible explanation of the project; sensible -- when scarcely a hundred years separate this supreme example of the stonemason's craft from the construction of King Zoser's celebrated step-pyramid at Sakkara, said to be the first large stone building ever raised on earth." -- Peter Lemesurier, (p 3f)

  • Even the Egyptian Book of the Dead (a title generally given to a collection of Egyptian inscriptions and papyri found in tombs or in mummy writings) suggests that the very construction of the Great Pyramid is a message written in stone. In it, descriptions of passage ways and interior chambers are alluded to. For instance, the first decending passage way leading to a dead end and a pit is called "The Descent of Man". When standing at the bottom of this passage and looking upward, you discover that it is directly aligned with the Pole star. Another passage way is "The Hall of Truth in Darkness" (the first upward passage way where to climb it one must stoop due to its narrowness). Of all the pyramids, the Great Pyramid is the only one that has an extensive upper passage way system in it.

    Next, "The Hall of Truth in Light" (an extention of the upward passage way except that it has a raised ceiling) opens as a Grand Gallery. Other interior features include: a Great Step; a lower Queen's chamber; an upper King's chamber with an open tomb which was never used for burial; and, what was once thought were "air" passage ways (two passage ways which actually pinpoint Sirius and Ainitak in the "belt" of the Orion Constellation -- the other two precisely point to Thuban in the Draco Constellation which was the old North Star at the time of the Pyramid's supposed construction and the present North Star). According to the Book of the Dead, downward equals not good; upward = doing good; left (the old word for left = sinister) turn = not good; right turn = doing good.

    In Secrets of the Great Pyramid, Peter Tompkins describes Napoleon's military incursion into Egypt. "On the twenty-fifth of Thermidor (the Revolutionaires' August 12, 1799) the General-in-Chief visited the Pyramid with the Imam Muhammed as his guide; at a certain point Bonaparte asked to be left alone in the King's Chamber, as Alexander the Great was reported to have done before him.

    "Coming out, the general is said to have been very pale and impressed. When an aide asked him in a jocular tone if he had witnessed anything mysterious, Bonaparte replied abruptly that he had no comment, adding in a gentler voice that he never wanted the incident mentioned again.

    "Many years later, when he was emperor, Napoleon continued to refuse to speak of this strange occurrence in the Pyramid, merely hinting that he had received some presage of his destiny. At St. Helena, just before the end, he seems to have been on the point of confiding to Las Cases, but instead shook his head, saying, No. What's the use. You'd never believe me." -- Peter Tompkins, (p 40-41)

  • E. Raymond Capt, in his book, The Great Pyramid Decoded (p 59), points out that there would be "a stone-witness in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a monument at its border... for a sign." A monument in the middle of Egypt bordering between Upper and Lower Egypt (much as if some sort of memorial made of stone was built in the middle of the Dakotas or the Carolinas -- bordering North and South Dakota or North and South Carolina).

    For a sign. What kind of sign? Signs are for giving direction; for pointing out a way. To where?

    An interesting fact about the Great Pyramid: From corner to corner following along its base, each side is actually constructed in a curved line. (Most drawings of the Pyramid will exaggerate this angle.) In spite of that exaggeration, the real angle of the curve, if extended, would draw a circle the exact size of the circumference of the Earth.

    For great PICTURES, check out Mystic Places -- Mysteries of the Unknown, by the Editors of Time-Life Books.

    A newly published book about the Great Pyramid is The Orion Mystery, by R. Bauval and A. Gilbert. There are tremendous photos of the pyramid complex on the Giza plateau. The authors discuss the three stars in the belt of the Orion constellation and the seeming replication of the three principal structures of the Giza complex.

    Additionally, their research suggests that the river Nile and the proximity of several pyramids to it have an unusual correlation to the Milky Way and Orion -- the later being perhaps the most frequently referenced star cluster in ancient literature. Bauval, (pp 105; 222-223)

    For the past two centuries, hundreds of archaeologists have measured and diagrammed every feature of of the Great Pyramid. Some, including Royal Astronomers of Scotland, have even speculated that this Message in Stone is a map or time-line of history.

    Using the sophisticated robotic technology, recent discoveries in March 1993 of what appears to be bronze door hinges in an otherwise unaccessible passage-way of the Pyramid has caused a stir in the scientific community. A problem is that the Bronze Age has historically been assigned a much later date than what is attributed to pyramid construction. It is until our lifetime, the last two decades of the twentieth century, that this secret in the Pyramid had been hidden and impossible to know.

    The Great Pyramid of Giza is enormous; some 2,300,000 blocks which were quarried, dressed, transported and fitted together on site to a fraction of an inch. If as many as 10 blocks (each weighing several

  • tons a piece) were precisely positioned daily, the building would take over 700 years to complete. And all this for an eccentric king who was never even buried in it?

    Measurements of the Great

    Pyramid

    The Great Pyramid of Giza was not called the First Wonder of the World for nothing: for over 4,000 years it was the tallest monument ever built and was

    equalled only in the late 16th century by the highest cathedrals. To this day it is still the largest stone monument in the world. It has been estimated that

    approximately 2,300,000 blocks had been used to build the great pyramid, each averaging 2.5 tons, making a total mass of 5.75 million tons. Most of the stone is limestone quarried locally, but granite blocks from Aswan were also used for the King's chamber: the 5.5 meter long granite beams forming its ceiling weigh between 25 and 40 tons each. Nowadays, the white Turah limestone casing is

    missing as well as the enclosure wall (which was over 8 meter high).

    All measurements are in cubits, with the equivalence in meters between brackets (altitude means height above or depth below surface).

    EXTERNAL MEASUREMENTS Height 280 (146.64) , now approximately 262 (137.2)

    Lengths of sides

    North 439.67(230.25) , south 440.05 (230.25)

    East 439.93 (230.39) , west 439.87 (230.36)

    Now approximately 434 (227.29)

  • Angles of corners

    North east 90 3' 2" , north west 89 59' 58"

    South east 89 56' 27" , south west 90 0' 33"

    Orientation Average deviation of sides from cardinal directions 3' 6" Base is level to within 0.04 (0.021)

    ENTRANCE & PASSAGES Entrance Altitude 32.4 (16.97)

    13.92 (7.29) east from centre axis

    Descending passage

    Total length 200.94 (105.23) , 63.95 (33.49) through masonry and 136.99 (71.74) through bedrock

    Height 2.27 (1.19)

    Width 2 (1.05)

    Angle 26 31' 23"

    Ascending passage

    Start in descending passage 53.87 (28.21) from entrance

    Length 75.02 (39.29)

    Height 2.29 (1.2)

    Width at lower end 1.85 (0.97) , at upper end 2.02 (1.06)

    Angle 26 2' 30"

    Plug blocks There are three of them Start 3.59 (1.88) from beginning of ascending passage

    Original length 9.83 (5.15) , now 9.36 (4.9)

    Well shaft Total length approximately 105 (54.99) Opening at the beginning of the Queen's chamber's passage

  • Opening in descending passage 185.53 (97.16) from entrance

    Width at opening in descending passage 1.49 (0.78)

    There is a small recess just above the surface

    SUBTERRANEAN CHAMBER Entrance passage

    Altitude at northern end -57.28 (-30) , at entrance -57.13 (-29.92)

    Entrance is 13.88 (7.22) east of centre axis

    Length (including antechamber) 16.78 (8.79)

    Height at northern end 1.83 (0.96) , at entrance 1.74 (0.91)

    Width 1.57 (0.82)

    Antechamber Southern end of antechamber 2.67 (1.4) from chamber's entrance

    Length 3.53 (1.85)

    Height 1.99 (1.04)

    Width 3.51 (1.84)

    Chamber Altitude of roof -51.21 (-26.82) The centre of the subterranean chamber is 1.26 (0.66) east of the pyramid's centre axis

    Length along eastern wall 15.81 (8.28) , near western wall 15.98 (8.37)

    Height of main part 7.52 (3.94) , at

  • eastern end 6.8 (3.56) , at western end 0.48 (0.25) , around shaft 9.6 (5.03)

    Width 26.86 (14.07)

    Pit Approximately at the centre of the chamber, near the eastern wall

    Total depth approximately 5 (2.62)

    Southern passage

    Altitude at entrance -59.12 (-30.96) , at southern end -58.83 (-30.81)

    Entrance is 13.82 (7.24) east of centre axis

    Length 31.33 (16.41)

    Height at entrance 1.51 (0.79) , at southern end 1.41 (0.74)

    Width at entrance 1.43 (0.75) , from 1.26 (0.66) to 1.45 (0.76) beyond entrance

    QUEEN'S CHAMBER

    Entrance passage

    Altitude north of step 41.51 (21.74) , 40.48 (21.2) beyond

    Total length 73.92 (38.71) , north of step 63.39 (33.2) , south of step 10.53 (5.51)

    Height north of step 2.25 (1.18) , south of step 3.28 (1.72)

    Width 2.02 (1.06)

    Chamber The centre of the chamber is 9.44 (4.9) east of centre axis and 0.015 (0.0076) north of it

    Length 9.99 (5.23)

    Height on walls 8.96 (4.69) , under apex

  • 11.9 (6.23)

    Width 10.99 (5.75)

    Mean angle of roof 30 26'

    Niche In eastern wall North side of niche 4.7 (2.46) from chamber's entrance

    Depth 1.99 (1.04)

    Height 8.92 (4.67)

    Width at base 3 (1.57) , at top 0.97 (0.51)

    There are four overlappings 0.25 (0.13) wide each

    Northern shaft

    Both shafts are approximately 3 (1.57) above floor

    Distance from eastern wall 5.54 (2.9)

    Height 0.4 (0.21) , width 0.4 (0.21)

    Total length unknown, horizontal length 3.68 (1.93)

    Angle varies from 33 18' to 40 6'

    Southern shaft

    Distance from eastern wall 5.5 (2.88)

    Height 0.4 (0.21) , width 0.4 (0.21)

    Total length 113.5 (59.44), horizontal length 3.74 (1.96)

    109.8 (57.5) at 39 36' 28"

    GRAND GALLERY

  • Length Total length 91.36 (47.84) , to great step 88.05 (46.11)

    Height Height 16.69 (8.74)

    Width Width between walls 4 (2.09) , at top 2 (1.05)

    Ramps There are ramps on the sides each 1 (0.52) wide There are holes on top of the ramps, alternatively long and short: long holes 1.13 (0.59) , short holes 0.99 (0.52)

    Overlappings There are seven overlappings each 0.14 (0.07) wide

    Great step The great step is situated 0.02 (0.01) south of the pyramid's centre axis

    The middle of the grand gallery is 13.79 (7.22) east of the pyramid's centre axis

    KING'S CHAMBER First passage Altitude 82.09 (42.99)

    Length from great step 5.5 (2.88) , from gallery's southern wall 2.98 (1.56)

    Height 2 (1.05)

    Width 2.02 (1.06)

    Antechamber Length 5.63 (2.95) Height 7.24 (3.79)

    Width 3.15 (1.65)

    The eastern , southern and western walls are made of red granite

    There are four slots in the eastern and western walls , the northernmost ones coming down only to the level of the passage roof and holding two blocks of granite

    Second passage

    Length 4.89 (2.56)

    Height 2 (1.05)

  • Width 2.02 (1.06)

    Chamber The centre of the chamber is 4.8 (2.51) east of centre axis The chamber is entirely made of red granite

    Length 10 (5.24)

    Height 11.17 (5.85)

    Width 20 (10.47)

    Northern shaft Both shafts are approximately 2 (1.05) above floor Distance from eastern wall 4.74 (2.48)

    Height 0.27 (0.14) , width 0.4 (0.21)

    Total length 113.61 (59.5), horizontal length 5.02 (2.63) ,

    4 (2.09) at 17, 4 at 25, 4 at 29 30', 6 (3.14) at 34

    and 113.61 (59.5) at 32 36' 8"

    Southern shaft Distance from eastern wall 4.75 (2.49) Height 0.27 (0.14) , width 0.34 (0.18)

    Total length 102.25 (53.55), horizontal length 3.28 (1.72) ,

    4.2 (2.2) at 39 12', 8.3 (4.35) at 54 32' 24"

    and 86.5 (45.3) at 45

    Sarcophagus At the center of the chamber, near the western wall External length 4.35 (2.28) Internal length 3.78 (1.98)

    External height 2 (1.05) Internal depth 1.66 (0.87)

    External width 1.87 (0.98) Internal width 1.3 (0.68)

    Relieving chambers

    There are five of them, the uppermost one having a gabled roof

    Total height approximately 29 (15.19) above the ceiling of the King's chamber

    Lengths and widths are the same as in the King's chamber

    HOW OLD

  • ARE THE PYRAMIDS?

    by

    JOSEPH JOCHMANS

    The controversy raised by John Anthony West and Robert Schoch concerning the true age of the Great Sphinx is now beginning to overcast the other famous monuments which share space on the Giza plateaunamely, the three pyramids that were supposedly built by Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre and Menkhare in the Fourth Dynasty. Were these Pyramids constructed only 4,300 years ago, orlike the Sphinxis there evidence they could be far older, dating instead to perhaps 12,000 years ago?

    Lets begin first with looking at the age of the Great Pyramid. The conservative historians entire case for dating the Great Pyramid to the Fourth Dynasty rests upon two major pieces of evidence. The first is the story of Herodotus, who in 443 B.C. visited Egypt and recounted how Pharaoh Cheops (the Greek name for Khufu) built the Great Pyramid during his reign with 100,000 men in 20 years. However, we now know this story is highly questionable. Even his contemporaries called Herodotus the "Father of Lies." Not only do the construction estimates he gave not work, but Herodotus, as an Initiate in the Egyptian Mystery Schools, was sworn to secrecy regarding the true nature of the Pyramid, and he more than likely copied a fictitious tale about the monument that was then in circulation among the common masses. The Greek historians account stands in sharp contrast to most other Egyptian, Hebrew, Greek, Roman, Hermetic, Coptic and medieval Arabic scholarly sources which agree that the Great Pyramid was not constructed during the time frame of Pharaoh Khufu or Dynastic Egypt, but was the product of the "Age of the Gods" thousands of years earlier.

    The second piece of evidence is the existence of painted hieroglyphic inscriptions found in the air space chambers above the Kings Chamber, which include the name of Pharaoh Khufu. They were supposedly discovered by Col. Richard Howard-Vyse in 1837, when he forced his way up to these chambers using gunpowder. But there are

  • certain facts showing these inscriptions were in actuality forgeries.

    At the time Col. Howard-Vyse began his quest to find chambers above the Kings Chamber, his digging concession from the Egyptian authorities, as well as his financial support, were both running out. It was necessary for him to make a major discovery as soon as possible in order to continue his work. He was hoping that the area above Davisons Chamber (the first air space chamber, discovered by Nathaniel Davison in 1765) would contain a large, hidden room or vault, and was severely disappointed when instead he brought to light only another air space chamber, which was far from the "dramatic discovery" he needed.

    Only two months before, his rival, the Italian explorer Captain Caviglia, had stirred archaeological circles with his find of quarry inscriptions in some of the tombs around the Great Pyramid. These quarry inscriptions took the form of hieroglyphs daubed on the building blocks with a red paint, and had been used by the builders of the Old Kingdom as directions for where the blocks were to be placed. A number of modern researchers now suspect that, in the battle for archaeological oneupman-ship, Col. Howard-Vyse sought to overshadow Caviglia, and gain renewed support for his own projects, with a similar but more spectacular "discovery," by imitating these quarry inscriptions inside the Great Pyramid itself. Forging such inscriptions would have been fairly easy, since the Arabs still use similar red ochre paint, called moghrah, that is indistinguishable from that of the ancients.

    The question has never been answered, why do inscriptions appear only in the air space chambers that Col. Howard- Vyse opened, but none were found in Davisons Chamber, with which the Colonel had nothing to do, discovered earlier, in 1765?

    Serious problems also arise when we examine the nature of the inscriptions themselves. Samuel Birch, a hieroglyph expert of the British Museum, was among the first to analyze the air chamber paintings, and noted a number of peculiarities among them which remain unresolved to this day. These "peculiarities" represent serious mistakes on the part of the forger. Birch noted, for example, that many of the daubings were not hieroglyphic but hieratic. Now hieratic was a form of written shorthand first developed during the Middle Kingdom, or at least a thousand years after the Fourth Dynasty. In one location, directly after a royal cartouche, the title is given, "Mighty in Upper and Lower Egypt," in a form that made its first appearance during the Saitic period of the 6th century B.C., a full 2,000 years after Khufus reign.

    In another place, the hieroglyph symbol for "good, gracious" was used

  • as the number "18," a usage found nowhere else in the entire body of Egyptian literature. In fact, Birch and later Egyptologists such as Carl Richard Lepsius and Sir Flinders Petrie were disturbed at the number of exceptions of usage in the air space chamber, inscriptions found by Col. Howard-Vyse that have absolutely no parallel throughout 4,000 years of hieroglyphic writing.

    In perhaps the most blatant example of forgery, in Col. Howard-Vyses chambers one finds great confusion concerning the appearance of the name Khufu. At the time these chambers were being opened, the Pharaohs cartouche had not yet been fully revealed from other excavations, and there were several possibilities to choose from. As a result, a number of crude hybrid forms appear throughout the air chambers, such as "Khnem-Khuf," "Souphis," "Saufou," etc. The problem with the first example, "Khnem-Khuf," is that we know today that it signifies "brother of Khufu" and refers to Khafre, Khufus eventual successor. For years, this appearance of a second kings name has not been explained, and as Gaston Maspero observed in The Dawn of Civilization: "The existence of the two cartouches of Khufu and Khnem-Khufu on the same monument has caused much embarrassment to Egyptologists."

    Adding to this further is the fact that, where the right hieroglyph name for Khufu does appear, it is spelled wrong. The hieroglyph sources available to Col. Howard-Vyse in 1837, Sir John Gardner Wilkinsons Material Hieroglyphia, and Leon de Labordes Voyage de lArabee Petree, incorrectly depicted the first symbol of Khufus name as an open circle with a dot in the middlethe sign of Ra, the sun godinstead of a solid disk, which is the phonetic sound kh. Col. Howard-Vyse made the fatal error of copying this mistake in the uppermost of the air space chambers, so that, when strictly translated, the name given is Raufu, and not Khufu. Again, nowhere else in all of Egyptian literature, except in the air space chamber inscriptions, is this aberrant spelling for Khufu found.

    This last mistake is the final blow showing that Col. Howard-Vyse and not the original builders of the Great Pyramid was the true source who caused the red-painted markings to be inscribed. And with that the proof that the Great Pyramid was built by Pharaoh Khufu in the Fourth Dynasty also vanishes.

    Actually, we have the testament of Pharaoh Khufu himself that he only did repair work on the Great Pyramid. The Inventory Stele, found in 1857 by Auguste Mariette just to the east of the Pyramid, dates to about 1500 B.C., but according to Maspero and other experts, shows evidence of having been copied from a far older stele contemporaneous with the Fourth Dynasty. In the Stele, Khufu himself tells of his

  • discoveries made while clearing away the sands from the Pyramid and Sphinx. He dedicated the account to Isis, who he called the "Mistress of the Western Mountain," "Mistress of the Pyramid," and identified the Pyramid itself as the "House of Isis."

    The Stele describes how Pharaoh Khufu, "gave to her (Isis) an offering anew, and he built again (to restore, renovate, reconstruct) her temple of stone." From there, the Pharaoh inspected the Sphinx, according to the text, and related the story of how in his time both the monument and a nearby sycamore tree had been struck by lightning. The bolt had knocked off part of the headdress of the Sphinx, which Khufu carefully restored. Egyptologist Selim Hassan, who dug out the Sphinx from the surrounding sands in the 1930's, observed there is indeed evidence that portions of the Sphinx were damaged by lightning, and the mark of ancient repairs is very apparent. Also, he noted, sycamore trees once grew to the south of the monument, which had been dated to a great age.

    The Stele then ends with the story of how Khufu built small pyramids for himself and his daughters, wife and family, next to the Great Pyramid. Today, the ruins of three small pyramids are indeed situated on the east side of the monument. Archaeologists have found independent evidence that the southernmost of the three small pyramids flanking the Great Pyramid was in fact dedicated to Henutsen, a wife of Khufu. Everything in the inscription thus matches the known facts. If these facts can be believed as true, then the additional information that Khufu was only a restorer of the Great Pyramid and not its builder, must also be treated as historically true.

    ANCIENT LEGENDS AND MODERN RESEARCH CONFIRM EACH OTHER

    When we look at mythic history for the story of the origins of the Great Pyramid, we discover that the monument was not attributed to any Pharaoh, but was the product of the genius and higher learning of the Gods of Old. Time and time again, from the Roman Marcellinus to the Coptic Al Masudi and the Arab Ibn Abd Alhokim, the recounters of the ancient legends tell how the Pyramid was built to preserve the knowledge of a magnificent civilization from destruction by a Flood, and that it was this Flood which brought the Age of the Gods to its tragic end. The various Chronologies of Legendary Rulers place a minimum date for the Age of the Gods as circa 10,000 B.C. This is the time frame Plato, in his Timaeus and Critias, ascribed the destruction of Atlantis. And it is also this date, as can be proven in modern scientific studies, which was highlighted by major climatic, geologic

  • and geomagnetic disturbances, accompanied by massive paleo-biological extinctions in the planet, marking the division point between the Ice Age and the Present Era.

    In Egypt, geologists examining the fossil record have found that the combined effect of melting glaciers in the Mountains of the Moon, plus a sharp rise in precipitation levels in Central Africa, caused the Nile river circa 10,000 B.C. to swell in size a thousandfold, eroding away cliff walls miles from its present banks, and washing out its entire valley throughout the length of Egypt. At the same time, as the Mediterranean Sea began to fill and rise due to higher ocean levels from melting northern glaciers, its waters for a brief period also flooded the lower Nile valley. These, geologists are certain, are the last major flood events in Egypts fossil history, before the sea retreated and the Nile settled down to todays relatively peaceful, winding flow. Yet, knowing this, geologists are hard pressed to explain why there existed a fourteen-foot layer of silt sediment around the base of the Pyramid, a layer which also contained many seashells, and the fossil of a sea cow, all of which were dated by radiocarbon methods to 11,600 B.P. (Before Present) plus or minus 300 years.

    Legends and records likewise speak of the fact that, before the Arabs removed the Pyramids outer casing stones, one could see water marks on the stones halfway up the Pyramids height, in about the 240-foot level, which would be 400 feet above the present Nile level. The medieval Arab historian Al Biruni, writing in his treatise The Chronology of Ancient Nations, noted: "The Persians and the great mass of Magians relate that the inhabitants of the west, when they were warned by their sages, constructed buildings of the King and the Giza Pyramids. The traces of the water of the Deluge and the effects of the waves are still visible on these pyramids halfway up, above which the water did not rise." Add to this the observation made when the Pyramid was first opened, that incrustations of salt an inch thick were found inside. Most of this salt is natural exudation from the chambered rock wall, but chemical analysis also shows some of the salt has a mineral content consistent with salt from the sea. Thus, during the prehistoric Flood, when waters surrounded the Great Pyramid, the known and unknown entrances leaked, allowing seawater into the interior, which later evaporated and left the salts behind. The locations where the salts are found are consistent with the monument having been submerged half-way up its height.

    If the floodings of 10,000 B.C. were the last major catastrophic water events in Egypt, and the Pyramid exhibits signs of having been subjected to them, it means the Pyramid must date from a period before the flooding occurred.

  • Though most Egyptologists today have yet to accept such a necessary "radical" revision of their dating of the Pyramid, there have been other discoveries that have forced them to at least realize that their preconceived theories of any early Dynastic age for the structure is no longer tenable.

    In 1983 and 1984, prehistorian Robert J. Wenke from the University of Washington, and president of the American Research Center in Egypt, was given permission to collect mortar samples from various ancient construction sites, including the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx Temple. The mortar contained particles of charcoal, insect matter, pollen, and other organic materials which could be subjected for carbon-14 dating analysis. Using two different radiocarbon dating laboratoriesthe Institute for the Study of Man at Southern Methodist University, and the Institute of Medium Energy Physics in Zurichthe samples revealed a number of curiosities. For the Great Pyramid samples, the tests performed at the two labs initially gave very different clusterings of dates, off by several thousands of years. When certain "adjustments" in the data were applied, the resulting time frame narrowed to 3100 B.C. to 2850 B.C.which is still 400 years earlier than when most Egyptologists believe the Great Pyramid was built. Even more anomalous, the dates obtained from mortar used near the top of the Pyramid were a thousand years older than those obtained from mortar nearer the Pyramid base. The researchers, if they were to fully believe these findings, would have to propose that the Pyramid had somehow been built from the top down.

    What makes the datings further unacceptable is that all of them were taken from areas of previously exposed surfaces. We know from such sources as the Inventory Stele that the Giza monuments were time and time again subjected to many reconstructions and repair work, inside and out. Therefore the radiocarbon dates can only give us clues as to when the time frame was for the repair work, not the actual construction of the Great Pyramid. If the dates are to be believed at all, they at least tell us that reconstruction work was done on the monument in a time period long before the "accepted" building was done, which means the Pyramid itself must be from an even earlier period, farther distant in the past.

    WERE THE THREE GIZA PYRAMIDS MODELS FOR EGYPTS "PYRAMID AGE"?

    Expanding our sphere of inquiry to now include all three of the Giza Pyramids, we find that an interesting historical conundrum arises regarding their "accepted" construction. If, as conservative scholars surmise, the three Giza Pyramids were built in the Fourth Dynasty by the succession of three PharaohsKhufu, Khafre and Menkhare

  • what we find regarding the sizes of the three pyramids in association with the three reigns is inconsistent with what we would have expected to have happened.

    First, Khufu ruled and supposedly constructed the Great Pyramid. Khafre followed Khufu, and in order to be politically and religiously "correct," we would have expected him to have erected a pyramid larger than Khufus. To do otherwise would have seriously reflected on his being inferior to his predecessor. Generally speaking, a ruler could not afford for his people to think that their Pharaoh was weaker in power and less blessed by the gods and goddesses than the ruler before him.

    After Khafre, Menkhare next took the throne of Egypt, and in order to be in continued good political and religious form, we would have expected him to build the largest pyramid of all, dwarfing those of Khufu and Khafre in order to make sure he was not to be outshone by either of his predecessors.

    Yet what we find at Giza is exactly opposite the expected scenario: Supposedly Khufu constructed the largest pyramid, Khafre built his slightly smaller than Khufus, and Menkhare erected a pyramid only a third the size of the other two.

    If what actually happened contradicts what should have happened if the three Giza pyramids were built in the Fourth Dynasty, then this can only mean that something is fundamentally wrong with the accepted scenario.

    Instead of the three Pharaohs building the three Giza pyramids, what if the pyramids were already present, old with age, and in the Fourth Dynasty the three succeeding rulers simply claimed possession of the structures, doing repair work on them, and building only the minor subsidiary pyramids around them for themselves and their familiesjust as the Inventory Stele describes Khufu did. What would we expect would have happened?

    Khufu, first on the scene, would naturally have laid claim to the largest pyramid for himself, or the Great Pyramid. His successor, Khafre, now left with only two pyramids to choose from, would have taken possession of the second largest. Menkhare, the last to reign, would have had to be content with the last pyramid available, the smallest of the three.

    Such a scenario best fits the actual facts, for this is exactly the succession of pyramids the Pharaoh had jurisdiction over, each in their turn. Clearly, what this suggests is the Giza pyramids came first, then the Pharaohs ruled, not the other way around.

  • According to conservative scholars, the Giza Three were supposed to represent the "height of accomplishment" in the Egyptian age of pyramid building, from the Third to the Thirteenth Dynasties, 2700 to 1800 B.C. But if the Giza Pyramids are in reality 12,000 years old, then they instead must have served as the models the Dynastic Egyptians repeatedly tried to copy and emulate. If we recognize this greater antiquity for the Giza Three, then many mysteries surrounding the design and construction of Egypts other pyramids find their solutions.

    The conservative view purports that the early pyramids along the Nile developed by stages of "evolution." Initially, in the First and Second Dynasties, from circa 3200 to 2800 B.C., the Pharaohs were buried in mastabas, which were rectangular-shaped structures with walls sloping inward, built over underground vaults. What has baffled archaeologists is that each of the first kings of Egypt had not one but two such mastabas, at Abydos, and at Saqqara. One of these served as a cenotaph, or an empty tomb in honor of the royal person. The reason for this early practice is still a puzzle to scholars, not yet solved.

    However, we know from ancient records that the peoples of the ancient world at one time had knowledge of the existence of the known entrance to the Great Pyramid, and they left evidence, in the form of torch soot and graffiti on the walls, that they penetrated as far as the Descending Passage and Pit Chamber. The Second and Third Pyramids also possess passages and empty chambers deep beneath their foundations. Did the early Pharaohs, in studying the design of the Giza Pyramids standing silently before them on the Nile, imitate the empty Pyramid chambers in the building of their second royal tombs, believing the empty chambers had a special spiritual significance they wished to emulate?

    In the Third Dynasty, beginning about 2780 B.C., Pharaoh Zoser undertook to build a mastaba for himself as had his predecessors, but then decided to go several steps further. Two more mastaba structures were constructed on top of the first in step fashion, and finally, these in turn were incorporated as one side of a six-tiered pyramid. The development of this curious structuretoday called the Step Pyramid, and located at Saqqaraindicates that Zoser was attempting to copy or duplicate a particular image. The pyramid does resemble a Sumerian ziggurat, or "holy mountain," except that unlike the ziggurat Zosers structure possessed no sanctuary at its apex, and had a system of internal tunnels and chambers. The only structures which come close to being models for Zosers work are the Giza Pyramids.

    Significantlyand again in imitation of the Giza monumentsZoser was not buried in his Step Pyramid. The foot of a mummy thought to have belonged to Zoser was found in one chamber, but the wrappings

  • proved to be from a period much later than the Third Dynasty. All in all, a total of sixty mummies were found in and around the Step Pyramid, but these have been dated to the Saitic or Late Period, in the first millennium B.C. Zosers tomb has been identified as located at Bet Khalaif, and no pyramid structure was found associated with it.

    Following Zoser, his successor, Pharaoh Sekhemket, attempted to build a pyramid, but it appears never to have been completed, and today is only a mass of rubble. However, archaeologists did find at the bottom of a shaft below the structure a sealed alabaster sarcophagus. When the sarcophagus was opened, it was found to be completely empty, mirroring the state the Stone Box was found in, in the Great Pyramid.

    The one ruler who by far was the most ambitious pyramid builder of the Third Dynasty was Pharaoh Senefru. He constructed three monuments, and there is every reason to believe he attempted to duplicate the feat of the three Giza Pyramids. He came close, for his pyramids contained two-thirds as much stone, covered 90 percent as much area, and were built with comparable speed as the Giza structures. The one obvious difference is their building design and masonry were very crude, when examined alongside the work done in the Giza area.

    It is in the period immediately following Senefru, at the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty, that we are supposed to believe that Egyptian architects somehow miraculously overcame all their construction shortcomings, and developed the quantum leap of techniques for advanced building that went into the making of the Giza Pyramids. But the Giza monuments, however, stand out above all the rest of the pyramids in Egypt in many unique ways, clearly showing they were not related to the other Egyptian pyramids in time or construction.

    First, only the Great Pyramid and (from what is known from legend and esoteric literature) the other two Giza Pyramids have chambers in their upper interiorall the rest possess only a lower chamber or chambers near the foundation. These are copies of the pit chambers in the Giza Pyramids. The Dynastic Egyptians, not knowing of the secret chambers higher up, had no precedent for including these in their own pyramids.

    Second, only the Giza Three are accurately aligned to true north, which is indicative of a very sophisticated science of Earth measurement and constructionelements exhibited in no other pyramid.

    Third, only the Giza monuments were built with a high degree of accuracythis precision, coupled with the apparent mastery of large, multi-ton stone construction, is what allowed the Giza Pyramids to reach their gigantic size, the largest in Egypt. In the Second and Third

  • Pyramids the construction blocks are often not as massive or as finely positioned as they are seen in the Great Pyramid, but they are precise enough to place them in an entirely different category from all other structures along the Nile.

    Fourth, the Giza monuments were built using construction designs totally alien to any other pyramid form. As William R. Fix, in Pyramid Odyssey observed: "Because the other pyramids consist of much smaller blocks, they were built as a series of shells with multiple internal retaining walls to give cohesiveness. The three large Giza Pyramids do not have these internal casings. The very size of the blocks produces the necessary stability. This characteristic reveals a general excellence of workmanship and also imply a much higher technological capability than that employed anywhere else..

    And fifth, unlike any pyramid supposedly built either before or after the Giza Three, none of the Giza monuments contain religious symbols or pictures in any of their inner chambers.

    According to conservative scholars, the Giza Pyramids were built by the Fourth Dynasty Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre and Menkhare, as tombs. Yet not one of their bodies was found in any of them. The Kings Chamber in the Great Pyramid was discovered to be completely empty upon its opening, its Stone Box sealed but vacant. In the Belzoni Chamber, beneath the Second Pyramid, a stone box was found like the one in the Great Pyramid, but it too contained no corpse. In 1878, a sarcophagus with a mummy inside was brought to light in the Third Pyramid. Though both the sarcophagus and mummy were lost at sea during their transport to the British Museum, samples had been taken from them, and when later analyzed by radiocarbon dating techniques, they were found to be from a fairly late date, only 2,000 to 2,500 years ago.

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that the three Pharaohs who are thought to have built the Giza Pyramids instead simply claimed the monuments as their own, having given up on the idea of attempting to duplicate the structures, as Senefru had tried but failed to do before them. There are several subsidiary pyramids around the Giza Three which were probably built by the Pharaohs, and today are almost in total ruins because of their greatly inferior construction. According to ancient stelae and legends, the Pharaohs also made repairs on the Pyramidsbut had nothing to do with their actual construction.

    With Menkhare came the end of the Fourth Dynasty, and at the beginning of the Fifth Dynasty we are supposed to believe, according to the historians, that the Egyptians suddenly reverted back to the same old methods of design and greatly inferior construction techniques as

  • seen in the pyramids prior to the Fourth Dynasty. The first Pharaoh, Shepeskaf, actually built nothing more than a mastaba for his burial place. He was then followed by Userkaf, whose pyramid was so badly made it today is only a heap of debris. Sahure, Nieswerre and Neferirkare came next, and between them at Abu Sir they attempted to erect three pyramids (again duplicating Giza), but these in no way approached the size or grandeur of the Giza Three, and today are nothing more than broken piles. The same can be said for the monuments of the Sixth through the Thirteenth Dynasties, after which pyramid building for the most part came to an end. In all, 23 major pyramids were erected following the Fourth Dynasty and in each single case, the work on them was done hastily, with little care of precision, and using blocks that were no more than roughly squared boulders. We may well ask, if the Giza Pyramids, in all their excellence, were supposedly built in the Fourth Dynasty, what happened to the advanced knowledge seen in their design and constructionwhy was it never used again, in not a single later pyramid?

    Author William R. Fix concluded: "The many fundamental differences between the major Giza monuments and the rest of Egypts pyramids indicates that they do not fit into the contended chronology for dynastic Egypt. But if they do not belong to dynastic Egypt, there is only one direction in which they can be moved-not forward, but back into the past."

    In truth, the Giza Pyramids were not an integral part of the evolutionary development of the Egyptian pyramids. Instead, they were there from the very beginning, the motivation and influence which spurred the building of the Dynastic pyramids along the Nile.

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