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  • THE GREAT LAKES BAY REGIONKawkawlin Watershed

    Where the mussels are strong,

    the Walleye are good looking and,

    the Phosphorus is above average…

  • Concept Looking at a watershed wide problem

    Opportunities for Drain Commissioner involvement

    Determine a simple solution

    How best to implement

    Partnerships developed

    Bay County Drain Commissioner – Joseph Rivet

    Agricultural Industry

    MSU-Cooperative Extension

    MDEQ

    Saginaw Bay WIN

  • Development of Study Initial goals

    Identify viable methods for sediment removal

    Discussion of BMPs

    Selection of simple, efficient methods

    Quantify BMP effectiveness

  • Simplifying a Watershed Design model to fit goals and objectives

    Requires broad applicability

    Several important aspects

    Soils

    Topography

    Climate

    Land use

  • Scope and Outline of Study Address sedimentation concerns

    Treat with vegetative filter strips (VFS)

    Research

    Model development

    Implementation

    BMPs for surface drainage (V-ditches)

    Quantify impact of sediment

    Drain cleanouts

    Financial costs

  • Effectiveness of VFS Filter effectiveness depends on:

    Soil type

    Slope

    Contributing area

    Erodibility of upland

    areas

    Type/density of

    vegetation

    Local climate

  • Comparison of Filter Widths

    Source Year

    Filter

    Zones

    Recommended Filter Width

    Description

    Sediment (ft) Chemicals (ft)

    Min. Max. Min. Max.

    Schultz et al. 1997 Multiple 50 50 66 300 Iowa State University: "Stewards of

    our Streams"

    USDA 1997 Multiple 50 50 n/a n/aAgro-forestry Notes: "A Riparian

    Buffer Design for Cropland"

    NRCS 2000 Single 50 n/a 50 150Michigan, CREP-CP21: "Filter

    Strips"

    Minnesota BMP 2001 Single 15 100 15 100 Minnesota Metropolitan Council

    BMP Manual: "Filter Strips"

    NRCS 2008 Single 20 n/a 30 n/a Standard Practice 393: "Filter Strip"

    Nebraska Dept.

    of Agriculture2009 Single 100 n/a 100 n/a

    "Buffer Strip Act" - NE Admin. Code

    Title 25, Ch 4., Sect. 2-5101 to 2-

    5111

    Minnesota

    Statute2010 Single 16.5 n/a 16.5 n/a

    103E.021 - Requires perennial

    vegetation on "ditches"

    Ohio Code 1999 Single 4 15 n/a n/a6131.14-Single County Ditches;

    County Engineer's Duties

    *Other sources use variable width buffers (Bren 1998)

  • Modeling Buffer Strips Identify “minimum” width

    USDA methods to quantify soil loss

    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

    Revised USLE (RUSLE)

    Incorporated into computer program

    RUSLE 2

    Version 2 of RUSLE computer program

    Used in NRCS Conservation Practice Standard

  • RUSLE 2 Location specific

    Climate data, soil data, agricultural practices

    Site layout Soil types, land use, filter widths, slopes

    100’s of different crops

    Sheet, rill, inter-rill erosion

    Can determine filter effectiveness

    Modeled over 600 scenarios

  • Sediment Yield

    Comparison of Sediment Yield

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    4000

    Group 1 Group 2 Group 3

    RUSLE2 Soil Category

    Sed

    imen

    t Y

    ield

    (lb

    /ac/

    yr)

    .

    Corn

    Soybean

    Wheat

    Bare Ground

    Land use and cover

    Soil group

  • Filter Strip EffectivenessSediment Yield from Bare Soil

    (0.5% Slope with Switchgrass Filter)

    0

    200

    400

    600

    800

    1000

    1200

    1400

    1600

    1800

    2000

    0 10 20 30 40 50 70

    Filter Strip Width (ft)

    Sed

    imen

    t Y

    ield

    (lb

    /ac/y

    r)

    Group 1

    Group 2

    Group 3

  • Varying Grass TypeSediment Yield from Bare Soil

    (0.5% Slope with Group #2 Soils)

    0

    50

    100

    150

    200

    250

    300

    350

    400

    450

    500

    10 20 30 40 50 70

    Filter Strip Width (ft)

    Sed

    imen

    t Y

    ield

    (lb

    /ac/y

    r)

    Switch Grass

    KY Bluegrass

    Bermudagrass

  • Sediment Trapped Use bare soil

    Most significant

    Varying VFS types

    Small VFS works Limit VFS life

    Slope length has

    little effect cft/ac/yr

    Does not address

    concentrated flow

    23 Tappan Loam - 0.5% Slope

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    18

    0 10 20 30 40 50 70

    Buffer Width

    So

    il E

    nte

    rin

    g D

    rain

    (c

    ft/a

    c/y

    r)

    500' Slope, Bermudagrass 500' Slope, KY Bluegrass 500' Slope, Veg. Barrier - Fair

    1000' Slope, Bermudagrass 1000' Slope, KY Bluegrass 1000' Slope, Veg. Barrier - Fair

  • Cost Effective Implementation Developed cost assessment tool

    Sedimentation Prediction and Incurred Cost Estimation Resource (SPICER)

    Uses watershed specific criteria

    Sediment load reduction

    Monetary benefit of BMPs

    Opportunity cost to agricultural producer

  • Establishing Vegetative Buffer Strips

    Kevin Wilson

    Bay Conservation District

  • Establishing vegetative

    buffer strips help reduce

    soil erosion, create

    wildlife habitat and

    contribute to improved

    water quality.

  • Soil Test

  • Site Preparation: Spraying, burning, disking,

    removing trees / shrubs

  • Work ground to a firm / weed-free seedbed

  • Native Grasses are “fluffy seeds” and

    require a special seed box to use with a

    no-till drill.

  • Introduced Grass Mixtures

    Timothy, Orchardgrass, Red Clover & Alfalfa

  • Use buffer

    strips to

    straighten

    fields

  • Native Grasses

    Big Bluestem, Little Bluestem, Indiangrass

  • Native Grasses & Wildflowers

    Big Bluestem, Little Bluestem, Indiangrass

  • Switchgrass

  • Great Winter / Nesting Cover

    http://www.michigan.gov/mda/0,1607,7-125-1567_1599_1603---,00.htmlhttp://www.michigan.gov/mda/0,1607,7-125-1567_1599_1603---,00.htmlhttp://macdc.net/http://macdc.net/

  • Maintenance and

    Management

  • Financial assistance is available for this

    practice through USDA farm bill programs

    and other various watershed initiatives.

  • Questions?