The Followers of Horus

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<ul><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 1/18</p><p>The Followers of HorusStudies dedicated toMichael llen Hoffman</p><p>Edited Renee Friedman and arbara dams</p><p>Egyptian Studies Association Publication NoOxbow Monograph</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 2/18</p><p>Michael Allen Hoffman1944 199</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 3/18</p><p>The ollowers orusStudies dedicated toMichael llen offman</p><p>1944 199</p><p>Edited byRenee Friedman and Barbara Adams</p><p>Egyptian Studies Association Publication NoOxbow Monograph 2992</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 4/18</p><p>Published byOxbow Books Park End Place Oxford OX N</p><p> Individual authors 1992ISBN 946897 44 1</p><p>This book is available direct fromOxbow Books Park End Place Oxford OX NPhone: 0-865-241249; Fax: 0-865-794449and</p><p>The David Brown Book CompanyPO Box 56 5 Bloomington IN 474 7 USAPhone: 812-331-0266; fax: 812-331-0277</p><p>Printed in Great Britain byThe Short Run Press Exeter</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 5/18</p><p>The Followers of HorusStudies Dedicated to Michael Allen Hoffman1944 - 1990</p><p>Frontispiece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Michael Hoffman 1944-1990Editors Preface Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii-vContributors and Affiliations/Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi-viiiMichael by Walter J. Fairservis Jr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix-xivMichael Allen Hoffman xv-xxiiPublications and Reports xxiii-xxviiAbbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxviii</p><p>William Y. AdamsThree Questions for the Archaeologist</p><p>Christian E GukschOn Ethnographic Analogies</p><p>Georgette ScarzellaMichael Ho ffman in Cairo: Hom e at Gard en City Hou se</p><p>1-6</p><p>7-10</p><p>11-13Map 1. Topographic Map of Hierakonpolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Fred Harlan</p><p>Wadi and Desert Settlement at Predynastic Hierakonpolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15-18Jeremy Geller</p><p>From Prehistory to History: Beer in Egypt 19-26James O Mills</p><p>Beyond Nutrition:Antibiotics Produced through Grain Storage PracticesTheir Recognition and Implications for the Egyptian Predynastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27-35</p><p>Map 2 . Southern Egypt and Nor ther n SudanDiane L Holmes</p><p>Chipped Stone-Working CraftsmenHierakonpolis and the Rise of Civilization in Egypt</p><p>Hany Hamroush Michael Lockhart and Ralph AllenPredynastic Egyptian Finewares: Insights into the Ceramic Industry</p><p>36</p><p>37-44</p><p>45-52</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 6/18</p><p>IV Renee Friedman and Barbara Adams eds.John E. McArdlePreliminary Observations on the Mammalian Faunafrom Predynastic Localities at Hierakonpolis 53-56Walter Fairservis JrThe Development of Civilization in Egypt and South Asia.</p><p>A Hoffman-Fairservis Dialectic 57-64May Trad</p><p>The Sequence of the Artist s Strokes on a Sherd from Hierakonpolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65-68Barbara AdamsTwo more Lions from Upper Egypt: Hierakonpolis and Koptos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69-76Helen WhitehouseThe Hierakonpolis Ivories Oxford. A Progress Report</p><p>David O ConnorThe Status of Early Egyptian Temples: an Alternate Theory</p><p>77-82</p><p>83-98Renee Friedman</p><p>Pebbles Pots and Petroglyphs: Excavations at Hk64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99-106Michael BergerPredynastic Animal-headed Boats from Hierakonpolis and Southern Egypt 107-120Bahay Issawi and John F. McCauleyThe Cenozoic Rivers of Egypt: The Nile Problem 121-138Susan L. Gawarecki and Steven PerryLate Pleistocene Human Occupation of the Suez Rift Egypt:</p><p>A Key to Landform Development and Climatic Regime 139-146Alfred MuzzoliniDating Earliest Central Saharan Rock Art:</p><p>Archaeological and Linguistic Data 147-154Fred Wendorf and Angela Close</p><p>Early Neolithic Food Economies in the Eastern Sahara 155-162</p><p>Pierre M. Venneesch Etienne Paulissen Dirk HuygeKatherine Newmann Willem Van Neer and Philip Van PeerPredynastic Hearths Upper gypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163-172</p><p>Bodil MortensenCarbon-14 Dates from EI Omari 173-174Robert J Wenke and Douglas J BrewerThe Neolithic-Predynastic Transition in the Fayum Depression 175-184Joan Crowfoot Payne</p><p>Predynastic Chronology at Naqada 185-192William GriswoldMeasuring Social Inequality at Armant 193-198</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 7/18</p><p>The Followers Horus Studied Dedicated to Michael llen Hoffman vStan HendrickxThe Predynastic Cemeteries at Khozam 199-202Carter LuptonAnother Predynastic Pot with Forged Decoration 203-206Karla Kroeper and Lech KrzyzaniakTwo Ivory Boxes from Early Dynastic Grave at Minshat Abu Omar 207-214Map 3. Egypt and the Near East 215Thomas von der WayIndications of Architecture with Niches at Buto 217-226Joseph MajerThe Egyptian Desert and Egyptian Prehistory 227-234</p><p>Harry S. SmithThe Making of Egypt:A Review of the Influence of Susa and Sumer on Upper Egyptand Lower Nubia in the 4th millennium B.C 235-246Krzysztof M. Cialowicz</p><p> composition, e sens et la symbolique des scenes zoomorphespredynastiques en relief. Les manches de couteaux 247-258Gunter DreyerHorus Krokodil, ein Gegenkonig der Dynastie 0Map 4. Predynastic and Early Dynastic Sites in EgyptEdwin C M van den rink</p><p>Corpus and Numerical Evaluation of the Thinite Potmarks</p><p>259-263264</p><p>265-296Kathryn A. ardOrigins of Egyptian Writing 297-306Fekri HassanPrimeval Goddess to Divine King.</p><p>The Mythogenesis of Power in the Early Egyptian State 307-322M. Nabil EI Hadidi</p><p>Notes on Egyptian Weeds of Antiquity: Min s Lettuce and the Naqada Plant 323-326</p><p>Zahi A. HawassA Burial with n Unusual Plaster Maskin the Western Cemetery of Khufu s Pyramid 327-336</p><p>William J Murnane and Frank J YurcoOnce Again the Date of the New Kingdom Pylon at Edfu 337-346Robert C. Snashall JrHot Antiquities: UNESCO, Egypt and the U.S. 347-356</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 8/18</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 9/18</p><p>328 z i awasssurfaces were repaired by using linen, sand, andaraldite. Where appropriate, the cracks were filledby using a special mortar, composed three partssand, two parts lime powder, and one part kaolin Petrie and Hawass 1990:102-105).</p><p>Other changes included the opening to the public the original entrance to the Descending Passageand the Subterranean Chamber the Great Pyramid.All the blocks in the Grand Gallery were recorded indrawings and photographs. A video monitoringsystem was installed in order to control the circulation visitors.The result these efforts by the Egyptian Antiquities Organization is that the monuments the GizaPlateau are now in the best-preserved state since theywere opened to visitors.This phase the site management also includedthe commencement, in 1989, the most scientificconservation and restoration work ever undertaken onthe Great Sphinx. Those who performed the work onthe site include Egyptologists, restorers, an architect,a geologist, and an artist. The work has focused onthree areas:</p><p> The removal modem cement which wasused in previous restorations. This cement createdserious conservation problems, and has been replacedby a much more benign mortar.2. The replacement the large stones that wereadded to the masonry cover around the lower part the Sphinx from 1982 to 1987. These additions hadseriously altered the proportions the monument.</p><p>3. Photogrammetric drawings and old photographs the Sphinx were studied in order to replacethe large stones with ones the same proportions asthose that existed prior to 1982.The mortar used in the current restorationsconsists lime and sand. A quarry fine limestonewas opened in Helwan especially for this restorationwork. The masonry along the southern side theSphinx has been entirely replaced and modeled. Acourse limestone blocks was added beneath theSphinx s chest to support badly-weathered layers natural limestone. Specialists from UNESCO examined the head and neck the Sphinx and reportedthat they were in good condition. The Getty Conservation Institute placed an electronic device to monitorweather and atmospheric conditions on the back the Sphinx. The Institute Astronomy and Geophysics examined the water table, and measured it atseven meters below the base the Sphinx.In March, 1992, an international symposium willbe held at Giza to discuss all current and previousrestoration work on the Sphinx and to proposesolutions to outstanding problems the monument sdeterioration - particularly in the area the chestand upper north side the Sphinx s body.</p><p>In addition to the work described above, twentytombs located in the Eastern and Western Cemeteries the Khufu Pyramid and south the Khafracauseway were restored and opened to the public.3</p><p>Phase The aims Phase III are as follows: All asphalt roads will be removed and replaced by sand roads that blend in with the site.2. All the electricity pylons will be removed andwe will install indirect, ground-based lighting.3. No vehicles will be permitted on the plateauand parking areas will be provided at the base theplateau.4. A picnic area will be established south theThird Pyramid Menkaura, with an entrance via theFayum Road, away from the Giza Plateau.5. A cultural center will be opened near thepyramids to provide information on the history thesite to visitors. 4As the writing this article, the EgyptianAntiquities Organization has already begun Phase III</p><p>in two areas the plateau. East the Great Pyramid, the Organization has removed the asphalt roadthat covered the boat pit located to the north thefoundations the Khufu Mortuary Temple. Theboat pit is being re-excavated and the Khufu Causeway and Queens Pyramids are being cleaned downto the bedrock and restored on the interior.The work around the pyramid GI-a, the northernmost the three Queens pyramids, revealed part the pyramid casing, as well as holes around thepyramid base-line that may have been used forsurveying see Maragioglio and Rinaldi 1965:76;Lehner 1983:7-25). We are also re-excavating andrestoring the Saite pit located in the sanctuary theupper temple Khufu Lauer 1947:245-259). Allthe archaeological features located in this area, suchas the tomb shaft Hetep-heres, the trial passages,and the tombs the nobles, will be cleaned andrestored. The whole site will thus become an openair museum.Another aspect Phase III concerns work in theWestern Cemetery the Khufu Pyramid. We arecontinuing the excavation this site, and cleaningthe debris away from the long and narrow streets.All the tombs will be restored and numbered. During the work in this area, we found the burialwith the plaster mask near tomb G5520. Althoughseveral major expeditions have excavated in theWestern Field, there are still new discoveries to bemade because the enormous quantity debrisencumbering the tombs. A systematic excavation this area is essential to retrieve the stratigraphicsequence the site, as well as to locate and recordhitherto unknown tombs.</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 10/18</p><p>A Burial with an Unusual Plaster Mask 329</p><p>Figure Excavating the Western cemeteryOur first season excavation was carried out inFebruary and March 1989. The work began onthe east side the Western Field, and extended fromthe tomb Sy-ankh-n-ptah G5520) P III: 164) to</p><p>the south as far as tomb G5412. The purpose thiswork was to remove the debris from around thetombs and to return fallen stones to their originalpositions. During work in the debris, we found afalse door, in very poor condition, belonging to thetomb Ka-Nefer G5350) PM 2 III: 160). This falsedoor has been cleaned, restored and returned to itsoriginal position in the tomb.</p><p>We also worked south the tomb Ihy G5330)in the southeast c om er the Western Field PIII: 159). We cleared the corridor south this tomband found two tomb shafts. Shaft number I wasencased with mud brick on its four sides to a depth about 3 cm. We found the burial niche in thenorth wall this shaft. contained a skeleton in thefoetal position. In shaft number II, we found redpottery vessels and pottery sherds in the style theFirst Intermediate Period. This shaft has a rectangular shape and a depth about 277 cm. The burialniche in the western wall the shaft was closed with</p><p>mud brick. contained a skeleton lying on its leftside, with the head to the north. In the general area,we also found many pottery sherds dated to theGraeco-Roman Period, as well as two Roman coins.We also began to restore the south side theancient wall dividing the Western Field fromKhafra s pyramid.T he Buria l with the Pl ast er Ma skIn this same season, we began to clear the debrisaround tomb G5520, a stone-built mastaba located inthe northern comer the Western Field beside thefamily mastaba Senedjem-Inty PM 2 III: 164;Reisner 1942:264-5). We discovered a shaft next tothe northern wall the mastaba. A burial niche wasfound in the southern wall the shaft. The nichewas closed with limestone blocks and mud brick.This shaft was lined with gypsum to a depth 89cm., and the remainder the shaft was encased withmud brick for a total depth 180 cm. The burialniche was 75 cm. long and 52 cm. high figures 2and 3). Within this burial niche, we discovered thebody with the plaster mask. We found a group four types pottery around the top the burial shaft:</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 11/18</p><p>330 Zahi A Hawass &gt; l&gt; N</p><p>G 5520S lC A </p><p>. o .. </p><p>. , . : p II. O . . . . 4</p><p> 8</p><p>S l C A J r ~GIZAwestern fieldburial shaft C) 2 3 4 5m.</p><p>section south north</p><p> N</p><p> VJplan of substructure pIan of suberstructurea 1 2 3m.</p><p>Figures 2 and 3 Plans 552</p></li><li><p>8/12/2019 The Followers of Horus</p><p> 12/18</p><p>A Burial with an Unusual Plaster Mask 33</p><p>Figure 4 Pottery from 05520Nile clay, wheel-made bowl with recurved rimand round base figure 4.1). The core is black andbordered with two red zones, exterior and interior</p><p>surfaces are red Munsell lOR 4/6). The bowl wasprobably used to hold liquids.2-3. Nile clay, wheel-made bowl, keeled, withspout figure 4.2-3). Two examples o this type werefound. T he first one is red-polished on the interiorsurface Munsell lOR 4/6). The exterior surface islight reddish-brown Munsell 5YR 6/4). The secondbowl resembles the first one except that the interiorsurface is light red Munsell 2.5YR 6/8). Both wereprobably used to hold liquids.</p><p>4. Nile clay, wheel-made bowl, hand-finishedwith flaring lip figure 4.4), with a black core bordered by two red zones. Exterior and interiorsurfaces are light red Munsell 2.5YR 6/8). Fourrather deep grooves run from the base upward. Thesewere used to hold the string with which the lid wastighten to the vessel.</p><p>5. Nile clay, hand-made, rough beer j r figure4.5). The exterior and interior surfaces are pinkMunse1l7 5YR 8-7/4). This type o j r was used inthe cemetery to imitate the actual beer jars made omarl clay, which were used domestically. A lu...</p></li></ul>

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