The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook (Peri/The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook) || Frontmatter

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<ul><li><p>The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook</p></li><li><p>The Extra-VirginOlive Oil Handbook</p><p>Edited by</p><p>Claudio PeriUniversity of Milan, Milan, Italy</p></li><li><p>This edition first published 2014 2014 by John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd</p><p>Registered office: John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex,PO19 8SQ, UK</p><p>Editorial offices: 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford, OX4 2DQ, UKThe Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774, USA</p><p>For details of our global editorial offices, for customer services and for information about how to apply forpermission to reuse the copyright material in this book please see our website</p><p>The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with theUK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.</p><p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted,in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except aspermitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.</p><p>Designations used by companies to distinguish their products are often claimed as trademarks. All brandnames and product names used in this book are trade names, service marks, trademarks or registeredtrademarks of their respective owners. The publisher is not associated with any product or vendor mentionedin this book.</p><p>Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author(s) have used their best efforts inpreparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completenessof the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness fora particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professionalservices and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professionaladvice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>The extra-virgin olive oil handbook / [edited by] Claudio Peri.pages cm</p><p>Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 978-1-118-46045-0 (cloth)1. Olive oilHandbooks, manuals, etc. I. Peri, C. (Claudio), editor of compilation.TP683.E98 2014664.362dc23</p><p>2013039742</p><p>A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.</p><p>Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may notbe available in electronic books.</p><p>Cover image: Noam Armonn www.shutterstock.comCover design by</p><p>Typeset in 10/12 Times by Laserwords Private Limited, Chennai, India.</p><p>1 2014</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>List of Contributors xi</p><p>Acknowledgements xiii</p><p>Introduction 1</p><p>Part I The product 3</p><p>1 The extra-virgin olive oil chain 5Claudio Peri</p><p>1.1 The legal classification and denomination of olive oils 51.2 The subject of this handbook 71.3 The extra-virgin olive oil chain 71.4 Yield and quality 8</p><p>Reference 10</p><p>2 Virgin olive oil: definition and standards 11Manuela Mariotti</p><p>2.1 The legal definition of virgin olive oil 112.2 Quality standards of virgin olive oil 122.3 Authenticity standards of virgin olive oil 19</p><p>Reference 19</p><p>3 The composition and nutritional propertiesof extra-virgin olive oil 21Manuela Mariotti and Claudio Peri</p><p>3.1 Triglycerides and fatty acids 213.2 The nutritional role of olive oil triglycerides and fatty acids 263.3 Minor components and antioxidants in extra-virgin olive oil 283.4 The colour and odour components of extra-virgin olive oil 313.5 Conclusion 32</p><p>References 33</p></li><li><p>vi CONTENTS</p><p>4 The sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil 35Mario Bertuccioli and Erminio Monteleone</p><p>4.1 Introduction 354.2 The official evaluation of defects and positive</p><p>sensory attributes 364.3 The sensory profile 414.4 Sensory performance of extra-virgin olive oil-food pairing 49</p><p>Annex 4.1: The method for evaluating extra-virgin oliveoil sensory profiles 53References 56</p><p>5 Olive tree cultivars 59Luana Ilarioni and Primo Proietti</p><p>5.1 Introduction 595.2 Cultivars 595.3 The cultivars relationship to productivity 605.4 The cultivars relationship to oil quality 645.5 Common-sense recommendations 65</p><p>References 67</p><p>6 The role of oxygen and water in the extra-virginolive oil process 69Bruno Zanoni</p><p>6.1 The conflicting roles of oxygen 696.2 The role of water in the transformation of phenolic compounds 71</p><p>References 74Further reading 74</p><p>7 Extra-virgin olive oil contaminants 75Cristina Alamprese</p><p>7.1 Introduction 757.2 Contaminants of virgin olive oil 78</p><p>References 84</p><p>Part II The process 87</p><p>8 Olive harvesting 89Luigi Nasini and Primo Proietti</p><p>8.1 Introduction 898.2 Olive ripening 908.3 Harvesting systems 91</p><p>Annex 8.1: Methods for olive maturity assessment 101References 105</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS vii</p><p>9 Olive handling, storage and transportation 107Primo Proietti</p><p>9.1 The autocatalytic nature of olives and oil degradation 1079.2 Avoid mechanical damage to the olives 1079.3 Control the time-temperature relationship 1099.4 Management of the harvesting-milling link 112</p><p>References 112</p><p>10 Olive cleaning 113Claudio Peri</p><p>10.1 Introduction 11310.2 The separation section 11310.3 The washing section 11410.4 Control points 115</p><p>11 Olive milling and pitting 117Alessandro Leone</p><p>11.1 Introduction 11711.2 Milling machines 11911.3 Pitting machines 124</p><p>References 126</p><p>12 Olive paste malaxation 127Antonia Tamborrino</p><p>12.1 Basic phenomena in malaxation 12712.2 Malaxers 132</p><p>References 136</p><p>13 Centrifugal separation 139Lamberto Baccioni and Claudio Peri</p><p>13.1 Introduction 13913.2 The three-phase process 14013.3 The two-phase process 14213.4 Decanters 14213.5 Disc centrifuges 14813.6 Final comments and remarks 151</p><p>Further reading 153</p><p>14 Filtration of extra-virgin olive oil 155Claudio Peri</p><p>14.1 Introduction 15514.2 Filtration principles 15614.3 The filter media 15914.4 Filtration equipment 159</p></li><li><p>viii CONTENTS</p><p>14.5 Filtration systems 16014.6 Conclusion 164</p><p>Further reading 164</p><p>15 Extra-virgin olive oil storage and handling 165Claudio Peri</p><p>15.1 Introduction 16515.2 Prevention of temperature abuse 16615.3 Prevention of exposure to air (oxygen) 16815.4 Prevention of exposure to light 17015.5 Prevention of water and organic residues in the oil 17115.6 Prevention of exposure to contaminated atmosphere</p><p>and poor hygienic standards 17115.7 Prevention of mechanical stress 171</p><p>Annex 15.1: Pumps, tanks and piping 172Reference 178Further reading 178</p><p>16 Extra-virgin olive oil packaging 179Sara Limbo, Claudio Peri and Luciano Piergiovanni</p><p>16.1 Introduction 17916.2 The packaging process 18116.3 The packaging materials 18516.4 The packaging operation 189</p><p>References 198Further reading 199</p><p>17 The olive oil refining process 201Claudio Peri</p><p>17.1 Introduction 20117.2 The process of extraction of crude pomace oil 20217.3 The refining process 20517.4 The physical refining process 20817.5 The quality and uses of refined olive oil 208</p><p>Reference 210Further reading 210</p><p>Part III The process control system 211</p><p>18 Process management system (PMS) 213Claudio Peri</p><p>18.1 Introduction 21318.2 The structure of a PMS 21418.3 Control of critical points 22018.4 Risk analysis: a blanket rule for management decisions 224</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS ix</p><p>Annex 18.1: Excellence in extra-virgin olive oil 226Annex 18.2: An exercise of integrated risk analysis applied to theprocess of extra-virgin olive oil 230References 243Further reading 243</p><p>19 Extra-virgin olive oil traceability 245Bruno Zanoni</p><p>19.1 Introduction 24519.2 Four basic steps 24619.3 Comments and conclusion 249</p><p>References 249Further reading 250</p><p>20 Product and process certification 251Ardian Marjani</p><p>20.1 Aims and approaches 25120.2 Product and process certification 25320.3 The selection of a certification system 25720.4 The certification procedure 260</p><p>Reference 261Further reading 261</p><p>21 The hygiene of the olive oil factory 263Cristina Alamprese and Bruno Zanoni</p><p>21.1 Introduction 26321.2 Hygiene of the external environment and buildings 26421.3 Hygiene of the plant 26821.4 Hygiene of the personnel 26921.5 Hygiene management system (HMS) and HACCP 270</p><p>Annex 21.1: Hygienic design 276Reference 281Further reading 282</p><p>22 Olive mill waste and by-products 283Claudio Peri and Primo Proietti</p><p>22.1 Introduction 28322.2 Composition, treatment and uses of olive mill wastewater 28522.3 Composition, treatment and uses of olive mill pomace 291</p><p>Annex 22.1: Mass balance of the extra-virginolive oil process 296Reference 302Further reading 302</p></li><li><p>x CONTENTS</p><p>23 The production cost of extra-virgin olive oil 303Enrico Bertolotti</p><p>23.1 Introduction 30323.2 Concepts, terms and definitions 30523.3 Hypotheses for the cost analysis 30623.4 Cost calculation 30823.5 Total cost 317</p><p>Further reading 318</p><p>24 The culinary uses of extra-virgin olive oil 321Alan Tardi</p><p>24.1 A brief history of the olive 32124.2 Old versus new: expanded culinary possibilities offered by excellent</p><p>extra-virgin olive oil 32424.3 Excellent extra-virgin olive oil as a condiment, at the table</p><p>and in the kitchen 33024.4 Putting excellent extra-virgin olive oils to work 33224.5 Education and communication: revolutionizing the perception</p><p>of olive oil one drop at a time 335References 337</p><p>25 An introduction to life-cycle assessment (LCA) 339Stefano Rossi</p><p>25.1 Introduction 33925.2 Methodological approach 34025.3 Limits and advantages of the carbon footprint 34225.4 Environmental communication strategies 34325.5 The food sector 344</p><p>References 347</p><p>Appendix 349</p><p>Index 361</p></li><li><p>List of Contributors</p><p>Cristina Alamprese, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences,University of Milan, Milan, Italy</p><p>Lamberto Baccioni, Agrivision, Florence, Italy</p><p>Enrico Bertolotti, BTS Business &amp; Technic Systems srl, Milan, Italy</p><p>Mario Bertuccioli, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry SystemManagement, University of Florence, Florence, Italy</p><p>Luana Ilarioni, Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences,University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy</p><p>Alessandro Leone, Department of Science of Agriculture, Food and Environment,University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy</p><p>Sara Limbo, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences,University of Milan, Milan, Italy</p><p>Manuela Mariotti, Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences,University of Milan, Milan, Italy</p><p>Ardian Marjani, Ardian Marjani &amp; C Sas, Milan, Italy</p><p>Erminio Monteleone, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry SystemManagement, University of Florence, Florence, Italy</p><p>Luigi Nasini, Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Uni-versity of Perugia, Perugia, Italy</p><p>Claudio Peri, University of Milan, Milan, Italy</p><p>Luciano Piergiovanni, Department of Food, Environmental and NutritionalSciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy</p><p>Primo Proietti, Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences,University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy</p><p>Stefano Rossi, Life Cycle Engineering, S.r.l., Torino, Italy</p></li><li><p>xii LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS</p><p>Antonia Tamborrino, Department of Agro Environmental and Territorial Sciences,University of Bari, Bari, Italy</p><p>Alan Tardi, University of Gastronomic Sciences, Pollenzo, Italy</p><p>Bruno Zanoni, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forestry System Manage-ment, University of Florence, Florence, Italy</p></li><li><p>Acknowledgements</p><p>I would like to express my deep gratitude to Sr. Mary Frances Traynor, teacher ofEnglish at the University of Perugia (Italy), for her care in correcting, improvingand sometimes reshaping the English text. Her knowledge and experience in thefood chemistry and technology field made her contribution much more valuable thansimple language editing. She has been a precious collaborator in detecting mistakesand inconsistencies.</p><p>I am also indebted to Valrie Ganio Vecchiolino, a student at the University ofGastronomic Sciences in Pollenzo (Italy), who drew plant and designs with greatcare, precision and patience.</p></li></ul>


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