The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook (Peri/The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook) || Index

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<ul><li><p>Index</p><p>Note: Page numbers in italics refer to Figures and those in bold to Tables.</p><p>2 glyceril monopalmitate, 17Alfa-linolenic acid, 25, 26, 27Alfa-tocopherol, 29Aglicones (of oleuropein and ligstroside),</p><p>30, 72Almond (flavour), 47ANOVA, analysis of variance, 44, 45Antioxidants, 2831Apple (flavour), 43, 47Artichoke (flavour), 43, 47Astringency, 43, 55Audit and system review, 215, 218Authenticity standards, 19, 17, 18Autocatalytic degradation (of olive oil),</p><p>107, 108</p><p>Bag-in-box containers and dispensers, 189Bar graph, 45Beta-sitosterol, 18, 29Bins, 109Bitterness or bitter, 43Bleaching, 207Blending, 182Boiling point, 356Bottles (see glass bottles)Break Even Point, BEP, 3056BRC standards, 259Brine (sensory effect), 40By-product and waste management,</p><p>28395</p><p>Camomile (flavour), 47Carbon footprint, 342</p><p>The Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Handbook, First Edition. Edited by Claudio Peri. 2014 John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd. Published 2014 by John Wiley &amp; Sons, Ltd.</p><p>Centrifugal pump, 1724, 173Centrifugal separation: 13954</p><p>three-phase process, 140, 141, 144two-phase process, 142, 143, 144</p><p>Certification, 25161first-party certification, 2512second-party certification, 252third party certification, 2537certification standards, 256, 2589certification systems, 2579certification procedure, 260</p><p>Certified olive trees, 67Chain (see olive oil chain)Chemical formulas:</p><p>structural, 22skeletal, 23spatial (or stereochemical), 712</p><p>Cis-fatty acids, 24, 25, 26Citrus (flavour), 43, 47Classification of olive oils, 5, 6Closing (glass bottles), 193, 194Coalescence, 128, 130Colour (of extra virgin olive oil), 31Combs (also: oscillating combs, vibrating</p><p>combs), 93, 99Communication, 181, 3357Composting, 2934Concentration units, 352Contaminants (also: biological, chemical</p><p>and physical hazards), 7585Conversion tables:</p><p>physical quantities, 349, 350temperature, 355, 356</p></li><li><p>362 INDEX</p><p>Convenience, 180Co-packaging, 1812Cost analysis: 30319</p><p>cost of cultivation and harvesting,310313</p><p>cost of milling, 31315cost of storage and bottling, 31517</p><p>Crates, 109Cucumber (sensory defect), 40Culinary uses (of olive oil): 32137</p><p>olive oil as a preservation agent,3267</p><p>olive oil as a cooking medium, 3279olive oil as an integral ingredient,</p><p>32930olive oil as a condiment, 330332olive oil-food pairings, 3334</p><p>Cultivars: 59classification, 60cultivars in various countries, 612cultivar-productivity relationship, 60cultivar-quality relationship, 64, 66self-sterility and pollinators, 64, 65</p><p>Decanters, 1428the classic two-phase decanter, 142, 145three-phase decanters for olive oil</p><p>separation, 147, 147two-phase decanters for olive oil</p><p>separation, 147, 148LWC, Low Water Consumption,</p><p>three-phase decanter, 147noise, 1512cleaning, 153, 153mechanical stress, 153</p><p>Denomination of olive oils, 5, 6Density (of olive oil), 351Deodorizing, 208Desolventizing, 205Detergents (contaminants), 77, 83Disc centrifuges: 14850</p><p>manual discharge, 148, 149self-cleaning, 150, 150</p><p>Disc mill, 122, 122Documentation of process management</p><p>systems, 217Double bond (see unsaturated fatty acids),</p><p>Earthy (sensory defect), 40ECN42, 18</p><p>Education of (and communication to)consumers, 3357</p><p>Energy recovery (from pomace), 291,2945</p><p>EPD, environmental product declaration,344</p><p>Erythrodiol (and uvaol), 17Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), 267Excellence in extra virgin olive oil: 2269</p><p>basic requirements, 226, 227sensory style, 226effective process management, 227the quality-proximity matrix, 227, 228</p><p>Excellent extra-virgin olive oil (culinaryuses), 3246</p><p>Eucalyptus (flavour), 47</p><p>Fatty acids: 217% distribution in olive oil, 358</p><p>Fig leaf (flavour), 47Filling (glass bottles), 1913, 192Filtration (of extra virgin olive oil):</p><p>15564principles, 1568filtration cycles, 158filter media, 159filtration equipment, 15960filtration systems, 160163</p><p>Flowers (flavour), 47Free acidity, 1314Frostbitten olives (sensory defect), 40Fruitiness or fruity, 41Frying, 3278, 357Fungicide residues, 77, 79Fusty-muddy (sensory defect), 40</p><p>Gear pump, 174Glass bottles, 1857, 190Gravity filling, 192Grassy (or grass), 43, 47Greasy (sensory defect), 40Green olive (or green or green fruit), 43, 47Green pepper (flavour), 47Grubby (sensory defect), 40Gustatory sensations, 47</p><p>HACCP (see Hygiene ManagementSystem, HMS)</p><p>Hagen-Poiseuille equation, 157Hammer mills, 11922Hand-held harvesting machines, 925</p></li><li><p>INDEX 363</p><p>Hand picking, 91, 99Harvesting batches, 246Harvesting systems, 91100Harvesting-milling link, 112Hay-wood (sensory defect), 40Health-promoting properties, 2833Heated or burnt (sensory defect), 40Herbicide residues, 77, 79Herbs (flavour), 47History of the olive, 3213Hydroperoxides, 70Hydrostatic pressure, 162Hydroxytyrosol, 30, 72Hygiene Management System, HMS,</p><p>270275Hygiene of the oil factory: 26375</p><p>external environment, 265buildings and internal environment,</p><p>2658control of insects and rodents, 267plant and equipment, 2689personnel, 26970HMS manual, 2735</p><p>Hygienic design, 27681</p><p>ISO standards, 2549, 340347Inert gas, 169, 169</p><p>nitrogen sources, 170Insect and rodents control, 267Interception (and collection) of olives,</p><p>96</p><p>Labelling, 1948Lampante oil, 6, 13, 16LCA, Life Cycle Assessment, 33745Legal definition of virgin olive oils, 11Legal quality standards: 12</p><p>chemical standards, 12, 13sensory standards, 16, 16</p><p>Light transmittance, 1867Ligstroside (see oleuropein)Linoleic acid, 25, 26, 27Lipolysis, 13, 108Lipoxigenase (LOX) pathway, 70, 129Lobe pump, 175LSD, Least Significant Difference, 44, 45Lubricants (contaminants), 77, 83</p><p>Malaxation, 12737basic phenomena, 12731time-temperature relationship, 1312</p><p>temperature control, 1335residence-time control, 135</p><p>Malaxers, 1326Management (see Process Management</p><p>and Risk Management System)Mass balance (of the extra-virgin olive oil</p><p>process), 296302Maturity assessment, 1015Maturity indices:</p><p>skin and pulp color, 103pulp firmness, 103detachment force, 104</p><p>Mechanical damage of olives, 1079Mechanical stress of oil, 171Mediterranean diet, 28Melting point (of fatty acids), 26Metal containers, 1889, 190Metallic (sensory defect), 40Micro-organisms (contaminants), 77, 78Migration of plastic contaminants, 188Milling (or olive milling; also: pitting):</p><p>11726effects on oil quality, 119single-grid hammer mills, 11921double-grid hammer mills, 120, 1212disc mills, 1223stone mills, 1234</p><p>Milling batches, 2467Minor components (of extra virgin olive</p><p>oil), 2832, 359Mono pump, 175Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), 24,</p><p>25, 26, 27Musty-humid (sensory defect), 40Mycotoxins, 77, 78</p><p>Negative sensory attributes (see sensorydefects)</p><p>Nets, 96Neutralization, 206, 208Noise, 1512Nutritional value of triglycerides and fatty</p><p>acids, 267, 323</p><p>Odour (of extra-virgin olive oil), 31Oil-food pairing, 4952, 3334Oil storage: 16571</p><p>spoilage phenomena during storage,167</p><p>prevention of temperature abuse, 1668</p></li><li><p>364 INDEX</p><p>Oil storage: (continued)time-temperature relationship, 167,</p><p>168prevention of exposure to air, 16870</p><p>nitrogen sources, 170prevention of exposure to light, 170prevention of water and organic</p><p>residues, 171prevention of exposure to contaminated</p><p>environment, 171prevention of mechanical stress, 171</p><p>Oleic acid, 23, 27Olfactory sensations, 47Oleuropein (also: ligstroside) and</p><p>aglycones, 30, 72Olive cleaning: 11316</p><p>the separation section, 11314the washing section, 11415</p><p>Olive handling and storage: 10712mechanical damage, 1079time-temperature relationship, 10911</p><p>Olive leaf (flavour), 47Olive Mill Wastewater, OMW (see</p><p>Wastewater)Olive spoilage, 108Olive oil chain, 7Olive ripening (see ripening)Omega fatty acids, 27Oxidation (also: oxidative reactions,</p><p>photoxidation, thermoxidation),14, 69, 70</p><p>Packaging: 17999primary, secondary and tertiary</p><p>packaging, 179functions of, 180the packaging process: 1815, 183</p><p>ASAP or ALAP, 184the packaging materials: 1859</p><p>glass bottles, 1857, 190metal containers, 1878, 190plastic containers, 188, 190bag-in-box, 189</p><p>the packaging operation, 18998filling, 1913closing, 193, 194</p><p>labelling, 1948Packaging batches, 248PAHs, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons,</p><p>77, 812Partial pitter mill, 1256</p><p>PCBs, polychlorinated biphenils, dioxins,77, 81</p><p>Pear (flavour), 47PEF, product environmental footprint, 343Peristaltic pump, 176Peroxide value, 14Pesticide residues, 77, 79Phenolic compounds, 3031Phtalates, 77, 823Physical contaminants (also: insoluble</p><p>impurities), 77, 834Physical refining, 208Phytosterols, 29Pine kernel (flavour), 47Pitting, 124, 204</p><p>total pitter mill, 124partial pitter mill, 125</p><p>Plastic containers, 1889, 190Plate filter, 160Polar components, 32, 73Pollinator (and cross-pollination), 64, 65Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), 24,</p><p>25, 26, 27Pomace drying, 204Pomace pelleting, 204Pomace pitting, 204Pomace utilization: 2915</p><p>composition, 291uses (see also Chapter 17): 292</p><p>composting, 2934energy, 291, 2945</p><p>Positive sensory attributes, 16, 37, 41Principal Component Analysis, PCA, 46,</p><p>48Process Management System (PMS),</p><p>21324companys policy, 215product requirements and control, 215,</p><p>216process requirements and control, 215,</p><p>216general control procedures: 215, 21719</p><p>documentation, 217training, 21718audit and system review, 215, 21819</p><p>control of critical points, 220224risk analysis, 2213, 222</p><p>an exercise, 230242risk treatment, 2234</p><p>Product Category Rules, PCRs, 3445,343</p></li><li><p>INDEX 365</p><p>Pumps: 1726centrifugal pump, 1724gear pump, 174lobe pump, 175mono pump, 175peristaltic pump, 176</p><p>Pungency or pungent, 43, 55</p><p>Quality standards (see Legal QualityStandards)</p><p>Quality-proximity matrix, 2279</p><p>Rancid (sensory defect), 40Refined olive oil, 6, 201, 20810Refining (of olive oil), 20110</p><p>extraction of pomace oil, 2025the refining process, 2058the quality of refined olive oil, 20810</p><p>Ripe olive (flavour), 43Ripening (of olives), 9091Risk analysis, 2213</p><p>an exercise of integrated risk analysis,230242</p><p>Risk gravity evaluation, 2213Risk management system: 220225Risk treatment, 2234</p><p>risk elimination, 223risk prevention, 223reducing risk gravity, 224accepting risk consequences, 224</p><p>Roll-on caps (glass bottles), 194Rough (sensory defect), 40</p><p>Scalping (in plastic containers), 188Scorecard, 37, 44Scraped-Surface Heat Exchangers, SSHE,</p><p>1345Screw caps, 193, 194Self-cleaning disc centrifuge, 150Self-compatibility and self-incompatibility,</p><p>64, 65Sensory defects, 16, 37, 40Sensory profile, 416, 536</p><p>experimental design, 54sensory procedure, 546</p><p>Sensory performance or sensory properties,4952</p><p>Sensory standards, 1617Sensory panel, 53Sensory terminology (or glossary), 4041,</p><p>42, 43, 47</p><p>Sensory wheel, 42Shaking hooks, 94Skin (and pulp) colour, 90, 103Smoke (contaminants), 77, 82Smoke point, 356Solvent extraction, 205Solvents (contaminants, also: organic,</p><p>halogenated solvents), 77, 82Specific heat, 356Spectrophotometric absorption, 13, 1415Spider plot (or polar coordinates), 45, 46Spreading load (of wastewater), 287Squalene, 28Stearic acid, 22, 25, 26Stigmastediene, 17Stone mill, 1234Storage (see olive handling and storage or</p><p>oil storage)Storage batches, 2478Straddle harvesters, 98100Suggested daily intake (of extra-virgin</p><p>olive oil), 32Super-intensive and intensive systems, 63Sustainability, 181, Chapter 25</p><p>Tactile (or kinaesthetic) sensations, 47Tamper evidence, 194Tanks and piping, 1768Telescopic pole, 93Third-party certification, 2517Three-phase decanters, 147Time Dominance of Sensation, TDS,</p><p>5052Time-temperature relationship:</p><p>in olive storage, 110in malaxation, 132in oil storage, 168</p><p>Tocopherols, 29Tomato (flavour or tomato fruit or tomato</p><p>leaf), 43, 47Total pitter mill, 1245Traceability: 2459</p><p>harvesting batces, 246, 247milling batches, 2467storage batches, 2478packaging batches, 248</p><p>Training of staff and workers, 21718Trans-fatty acids, 24, 26Trans-oleic or linoleic or linolenic fatty</p><p>acids, 17Triglycerides, 21, 23</p></li><li><p>366 INDEX</p><p>Trunk shakers, 95, 96, 97, 99Turbidity (of extra virgin olive oil), 159Two-phase decanters, 1428</p><p>Unit operations of olive oil processes, 8, 9Unsaturated fatty acids, 23, 25</p><p>Vacuum filling, 192Vanilla (flavour), 47Vegetable water (sensory defect), 40Viscosity:</p><p>as a tactile sensation, 43as a physical property, 3524</p><p>Walnut (flavour), 47Wastewater: 28591</p><p>composition, 287spreading on soil, 2859physical treatments, 28990</p><p>Water activity (in olive oil), 3545Water role (in phenolic compounds</p><p>transformations), 713Waxes, 17Winey-vinegary (sensory defect), 40Wrap-around umbrella, 96, 96</p><p>Yield, 8, 352, 353</p></li></ul>


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