the era of muhammad ali

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The Era of Muhammad Ali. By Nehal, Sarah, Hasnae, and Ashley. Background. Born in 1769 in an Ottoman port called Kavala His father and grandfather were military leaders Moved to power through military achievement Known as the “Father of Modern Egypt”. Family. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • The Era of Muhammad AliBy Nehal, Sarah, Hasnae, and Ashley

  • BackgroundBorn in 1769 in an Ottoman port called KavalaHis father and grandfather were military leaders Moved to power through military achievementKnown as the Father of Modern Egypt

  • FamilyHe married the governor's daughter, KhadraThen he married Amina who gave birth to Ibrahim, Tussun, and Ismail He fathered seventeen sons and thirteen daughters

  • Muhammad Alis Family Tree

  • Political Personality Fun and lively personPiercing eyes Smart and fair with experience

  • Reforming EgyptMain goal: a European-style EgyptNationalized all land so he owned all the production of land Raised taxes on the people who previously owned all the land Monopoly on trade in EgyptEstablished a modern navy

  • Agricultural Reforms 1813: sharing of common land (changed the state of the fellaheen in Egypt)Took hold of the lands from the MamelukesImproved the irrigations systems Cultivation of cotton in Delta starting 1822

  • Educational Reforms Educational system was founded in 1811 Took effort to educate all people in his country, especially girls Established many schools particularly in rural areas Offered scholarships for students to go study outside of Egypt

  • Military Reforms Conscripted peasants to work in the armyInvited Turks into the country to lead his armyCreated Western-styled schools to train doctors, engineers, and veterinarians to supply services for his army Sent soldiers to European countries for training in modern techniques

  • PoliticsMuhammad Ali was the viceroy/ pasha of Egypt from 1805-1848He wanted to eliminate the mameluksHe wanted to create an independent Egypt politically and economically

  • Political ReformsMuhammad Ali desired a professional bureaucracy1811, exterminated the leader of the mameluksHe reorganized the administrative structure of the governmentWorked to modernize Egypt

  • Social StructureReligious leaders acted as intermediaries/ buffers between the public and administrationIntermediaries would take money or authority for servicesIn times of crisis, intermediaries would usurp the central govt

  • Social StructureGuilds had tax-collecting eldersVillage shaikh was power booker, money lender, and landlord

  • Social ReformsConfiscated feudal farms of mameluks1808, he started confiscating private lands of individuals and gave them pensionsReform programs were aimed at creating a modern Egyptian society

  • Mameluks Tombs

  • EconomySurplus from agriculture was distributed to: fallah, village sheikh, mameluks, and central treasury.System benefited large number of people, but was wasteful and the treasury used the money unproductively

  • Economic ReformsBy reorganizing the administrative structure of the government, Muhammad Ali guaranteed strict control of the economyCreated state monopolies over chief productsEncouraged overland transit of goods from Europe to India via Egypt

  • Industrial ReformsHe tried constructing a modern industrial system to process raw materials. Created factoriesCreated a cotton industry

  • Industrial ReformsStarted building a new canal, called Mahmudiya, in 1819This made travel safer and trading more efficient

  • Failures of ReformsMuhammad Ali was unable to sever ties with Ottoman SultanateIndustrial experiments failed, due to Egypts lack of power sources and a skilled working classAgricultural sector declined due to excessive taxation and monopoly on tradeFinancial requirements increased because of military campaigns

  • The Successors Reforms Abbas I, Ibrahims nephew, takes the throneReforms:Put an end to commercial monopoliesRailway from Alexandria to Cairo begun

  • Muhammad Alis SuccessorsSaid, son of Mohammad Ali, takes over Egypt

    Reforms and death:

  • Muhammad Alis SuccessorsReforms of Ismail The Magnificent:

  • Wars and Foreign Affairs

  • Egyptian Revolution (1803-1805)Egyptian Revolution (1803-1805) - Political violence had hit Egypt, leading to the rise of Muhammed Ali as Pasha of Egypt.

  • Wahabi War (1811-1818)Muhammed Ali lead a war against the Wahabi Muslim sect in Arabia.The Wahabis were trying to capture Muslim Holy place like Mecca and Medina.The Egyptians regained their territory and settled in the name of Ottoman Empire.

  • Egyptian Conquest of the Sudan (1820-1839)Led my Muhammeds son, Hussein, conquered Sudan.This gave control over the Red Sea, as well as the Nile. This was their most successful attempt on expanding

  • Greek War of Independence (1821-1832)Egypt aided the Ottoman Turks when fighting the Greeks. Muhammeds son, Ibrahim, lead the Egyptian troops in Greece.But the British, French and Russians came in to help out Greece.

  • Greek War of Independence (1821-1832)The war ended, at the Battle of Navarino, in the defeat of both the Ottoman Turks and Egyptians.This directly caused in their new war between the Ottomans and Egyptians.

  • First Turko-Egyptian War (1832-1833)Muhammed was hoping to receive Syria as a token of thanks from the OttomansAfter not receiving an reward for helping out the Turks during the war, resulted in the First Turko Egyptian War.

  • First Turko-Egyptian War (1832-1833)Ali invaded several major cities in the region, as well at Constantinople. (Ottoman Capital) Russia came intervened the war and in order to restore peace, Egypt was awarded with Syria

  • Second Turko-Egyptian War (1839-1841)Egypt declared itself as a independent nation from Ottoman ruleThey even beat the forces that were sent by the Ottoman rulers to stop the uproar.Britain eventually came and brought Egypt back to Ottoman rule.

  • International RelationsRelations between Sudan and Egypt were never great, especially during Alis conquest of Sudan.His view on Sudan was a place with a great deal of resources that they could take advantage of.Such as gold, territory and slaves

  • International RelationsDuring the Greek Independence War, Egypt stepped in to help out the Ottomans.Allies of Greece, Britain, France and Russia intervened to come to defeat the Turko/Egyptian fleet.This cost the Pasha his whole navy as well as no new addition to territory

  • International RelationsBeing under the Ottoman rule always something that kept the Pasha on his toesClearly, Egypt wanted to be their own independent nation resulting in two Turko Egyptian warsBritain stepped in to restore everything to Ottoman Rule.

  • Main Achievements in his Era Weakening the tie bonding Egypt to Turkey Starting the cotton industryRecognizing the advantages of European Science the conquest of Sudan.

  • Successors

  • IbrahimSeptember 1848 10 November 1848Born 1789, Macedonia (Greece)Died November 10, 1848, CairoEldest son of Muhammed Ali. However is considered adopted.

  • 1805 - Governor of Cairo1816-18 - Commanded an army against the wahhabite rebels1821-22 - His father sent him to Sudan for a mission1831-32 Led an Egyptian army through Palestine, and defeated an Ottoman army.


  • December 21, 1832 - Gained a final victory at Konya

    May 4, 1833 He became governor-general Syria and Andana

    June 24, 1839 Last and greatest victoryIbrahim

  • Abbas I10 November 1848 13 July 1854Born 1813, Jeddah, HejazDied July 13, 1884, EgyptIbrahims nephewSelfish, secretive, cruel

  • Served in administrative and military positions, and military commander in SyriaReduced the arm forces, opposed the construction of the Suez canal.Roads were improved, and let the british construct the Alexandria-Cairo railway.1853 he sent a force to help the ottomans in the Crimean WarHelped the poor classAbbas I

  • Said I13 July 1854 18 January 1863Born 1822, CairoDied January 18, 1863, AlexandriaMuhammed Alis fourth son

  • 1854 Succeeded viceroy of Egypt, against Abbas1855 passed a law; male descendents of a peasant to inherit his land1856 one of his greatest acts; construction of the Suez canal by a French company1858 passed another law; limiting land inheritance to Muslims1861 established a commission to work out a municipal code for Egypt citiesUnsuccessfully attempted to end slave tradeSaid I

  • Ismail I18 January 1863 June 1879Born December 31, 1830, CairoDied March 2, 1895, IstanbulIbrahims son

  • Studied in ParisUndertook diplomatic missions in Europe1867 obtained the title of Khedive, from the Ottoman SultanNegotiated the completion of the Suez CanalHope to bring Sudan under Egyptian controlIsmail I