The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) MODULE 3: ELPS and Language Proficiency
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DESCRIPTIONThe English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) MODULE 3: ELPS and Language Proficiency. Presented by the Brownsville Independent School District Bilingual Department Reference: Texas Education Agency and Region One Education Service Center. What does it look like?. Five E.L.P.S. Domains. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS)
MODULE 3: ELPS and Language ProficiencyPresented by the Brownsville Independent School District Bilingual Department
Reference: Texas Education Agency and Region One Education Service Center
Texas Education Agency
*What does it look like?
*Five E.L.P.S. DomainsELPSLearning StrategiesListeningWritingSpeakingReading
Social and Cultural Processes
(Collier, 1995)Language AcquisitionAcademicDevelopmentCognitiveDevelopment
*Social vs. Academic Language Social Language Academic LanguageSimpler language (shorterTechnical vocabulary; written material hassentences, simplerlonger sentences and more complexvocabulary and grammar)grammarUsually face-to-face, smallOften lecture-style communicationnumber of people, informalor reading a textbook; little situationalsettingscontextPrecise understanding is Precise understanding andseldom requireddescription/explanation is required;higher-order thinkingUsually simpler, familiar topicsNew and more difficult to understand(movies, friends, daily life)topics, knowledge is often abstract;cognitively complex; student often hasless background knowledge to build onGet many clues from expressions, gesturesFewer clues, most clues are language cluessocial contextsuch as further explanationMany opportunities to clarify (look puzzled,More difficult to clarifyask questions, etc.)
*What Teachers Need to Know About Second Language LearningAcquisition-Learning HypothesisThe Natural Order HypothesisThe Monitor HypothesisThe Input HypothesisThe Affective Filter HypothesisS. D. Krashen
*Needs of English Language LearnersEffective teachers providing:Affective supportCognitive supportLinguistic support based on language acquisition research Focused instruction Modified textsModified and differentiated instructionOpportunities to demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skills
Affective DomainConfidence Self-assuranceInstruction Providedin Spanish/ESL to ensure...Positive home Positive Englishcultural identity cultural identity*
Cognitive DomainInstruction providedin Spanish/ESL to Ensure mastery in...Science Health
MathSocial Studies *
Linguistic Domaincomprehension speakingcomposition readingInstruction provided inSpanish/ESL to
ensure mastery in...*
*(Cummins, 1981)Cognitively DemandingCognitively UndemandingContext Embedded (Concrete)Context Reduced (Abstract)Developing survival vocabularyFollowing demonstrated directionsParticipating in hands-on science and mathematics activitiesMaking maps, models, charts, and graphsSolving math computational problemsEngaging in telephone conversations Reading and writing for personal purposes: notes, lists, sketches, etc.Understanding academic presentations without visuals or demonstrations: lecturesSolving math word problems without illustrationsTaking standardized achievement testsWhat Teachers Need to Know About Second Language Learning (cont.)1234
*What Teachers Need to Know About Second Language Learning (cont.)BICSCALP
Listen to Oral Directions Language DrillsPlay Simple Games Small Group Art and Music Activities
Reading Simple Developing Word BanksDirections*Activities for Beginning ESL Students
Activities for Intermediate ESL Students
Lessons with demonstrations Higher level questioning activitiesand illustrations Making models, charts, and maps in Social Studies in small groups
Math word problems Writing short paragraphswith concrete references using wordbanksRead heavily illustrated Filling simple forms textbooks*
Activities for Advanced ESL StudentsDiscussions using higher Oral presentation activitieslevel questioning Discussions using higher level questioning Hands-on Science Activities
Reading for comprehensionMulti-purpose compositionactivitiesactivitiesContent explanations withWriting for publicationillustrations*
Beginning Level: Little or no ability, uses high frequency, routine words; in writing, typically lists, labels, copies.
Intermediate Level: Limited ability, understands and uses short, simple sentences. Uses present tense.
Advanced Level: Typically have grasp of basic verbs, tenses, grammar features and sentence patterns/ partial grasp of more complex verbs, tenses, grammar features and sentence patterns, needs support
Advanced High Level: Ability, with minimal support very close to native English speaking peersListening Speaking Reading WritingKey Features of Each Proficiency LevelSource: TEA Assessment Division
*Academic Listening Sample
Good morning, class. Today we are going to study something brand new. Its difficult, so Im going to need everyones undivided attention. Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word net. Todays lesson is about net. As it says in the definition in your book, in math, net is a two-dimensional model. The net of a cylinder is shown in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles? Thats the net of the cylinder.
What Might a Beginning Listener Understand?TEA Assessment Division
*Academic Listening SampleGood morning Today Open your books to page one top page Todays book math two book rectangle two circles Beginning levelTEA Assessment Division
*Academic Listening SampleGood morning, class. Today we are going to study Its difficult going to need everyones Open your books to page one hundred top of the page Todays lesson your book, in math two cylinder book rectangle and two circles cylinder.
Intermediate levelTEA Assessment Division
*Academic Listening SampleGood morning, class. Today we are going to study something new. Its difficult, so Im going to need everyones Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word Todays lesson is definition in your book, in math, net is a two a cylinder is in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles? cylinder.Advanced levelTEA Assessment Division
*Academic Listening Sample
Good morning, class. Today we are going to study something brand new. Its difficult, so Im going to need everyones undivided attention. Open your books to page one hundred seventy-two. At the top of the page is the word net. Todays lesson is about net. As it says in the definition in your book, in math, net is a two-dimensional model. The net of a cylinder is shown in your textbook. Does everyone see the rectangle and two circles? Thats the net of the cylinder.Advanced High levelTEA Assessment Division
CONTACT INFORMATION:Bilingual Director:Alma Cardenas Rubio548-8271
Maricela Camarillo 698-3195Norma Lopez 698-1326Pat Segura 698-0083Dr. Paty Quesada 698-0081Questions? http://www.bisd.us/Bilingual_Education/*
*This training was developed with existing Texas Education Agency sponsored trainings developed by Education Service Centers, Region 2, Region 4, Region 1 and trainings by the TEA Assessment Division on TELPAS-Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System along with the LEP Instructional Excellence Center: Project Tesoro at Region One Education Service Center. Funding was provided by the TEA School Initiatives.
This training was also developed in response to the need for understanding the Required Curriculum as stated and adopted in December 2007.*First teachers must look at the needs of English Language Learners.Next slides cover teacher support and what the research says that instruction should include to address those needs.
*The Five ELPS Strands provide guidance to teachers towards best practices for teaching and working with ELLs.*Have the teachers review the ELPs in small groups and report those things that they are already doing, those things that they should stop doing, and those things that they should start doing on a large sheet of paper. Have the groups share their responses with the whole group.*Already doing*Should Start doing*Should Stop doing
*If time permits, move forward to review examples of how instruction can be adapted to help ELLs at varied levels of language proficiency in English. *Lets take a look at what we need to know about our ELL students.The students language and culture is at the center of all learning. It is what they use to make sense of things. Many times the culture of home does not match the culture of school, so careful handling of teaching school culture must be taken into consideration. (Collier, 1995)It is essential that objectives focused on content, language, and metacognitive skills be identified in the development of effective lessons for ELLs. Content objective: This objective comes from the content area TEKS and should be written in a student-friendly manner. (Get an example of a TEKS objective)Language objective: This objective comes from language skills that facilitate the acquisition of English. This objective involves the reading, writing, listening, speaking, and viewing/representing types of expectations and activities that can help students gain a better understanding and mastery of the content objective. (Give an example) Metacognitive/Study skill objective: This objective defines what process or study skill(s) the students will learn that will help them grasp the newly learned concepts and skills.(Echevarria and Graves, 1998)
In Teaching Reading and Writing in the Bilingual Classroom, Freeman and Freeman (1996) found that there are three elements of language acquisition that are relevant to bilingual students and teachers: language development, cognitive development, and academic development. English language proficiency is achieved as students grow linguistically, cognitively, and academically. Social and cultural influences have a strong positive or negative impact on students language acquisition and academic performance. Teachers expectations of students should include high cognitive, linguistic, and academic standards in English and Spanish.
*Please take 10 minutes to compare the two types of language.Take time to share and get some responses from the audience.
*Krashen (1985) states that there is a distinction between acquiring a language and learning a language. Acquisition is the subconscious process of attaining the subtleties of language and culture. Learning refers to the process by which learners become aware of the rules of the target language. Other factors involved in the acquisition of a second language include the following:Input Hypothesis: states that acquisition of a second language can only be promoted in one waycomprehensible input. Messages must be presented or encoded in a way that the message is easily understood, i.e.: pictures, visuals, gestures, and facial expressions work to make language more easily understood.Affective Filter Hypothesis: states that students must have a risk-free environment in which to acquire and learn a second language. The needs and emotional states of students will affect whether or not input will be readily available and comprehensible.Natural Order Hypothesis: states that the student acquires the rules of language in predictable sequence. According to Lightbown and Spada (1996, p. 29), developmental sequences are similar across learners from different backgrounds: What is learned early in one language is learned early by others.Monitor Hypothesis: states that the acquisition of a second language involves intuitive judgments about correctness of a language. However, in the process of learning, rules are learned to monitor or merely polish written and oral responses. Through this hypothesis, Krashen (1996, p. 27) emphasizes that the focus of language teaching should be communication and not on rule learning.*The needs of English language learners include:Effective teachersAffective supportCognitive supportLinguistic supportFocused instructionModified textsModified and differentiated instruction Opportunities to demonstrate mastery of knowledge and skillsThese needs will be reviewed in the slides that follow.(Freeman and Freeman, 2002)The first area of need of LEP students is the affective domain. Literature tells us that, in order for students to maximize their learning potentials, they must feel good about themselves and their heritage. As educators, we often do not integrate the LEP students background and environment into daily instruction. Appropriate instruction should be provided in English that instills confidence, self-assurance, and a positive identity with students cultural heritages. For the secondary student, activities should emphasize the history and cultural heritage associated with the students home language and American culture associated with English. In order to bridge the gap between home and school, the affective domain must be incorporated into the instruction of the ESL student.Many ESL students who fail the TAKS test do so not necessarily because of linguistic and/or affective needs, but because of cognitive needs. There are gaps in the educational background of these students. Because the regular content teachers are often not aware of strategies to help these students learn content, teachers all too often relegate instruction of limited English speakers to ESL specialists. This is in the belief that only specialists have the expertise to teach these students. However, while the ESL teachers may have training in language development, they are not necessarily experts in content area instruction. Content area teachers must share in the responsibility for making a difference in the academic success of linguistically diverse students.The second area of need of LEP students is the linguistic domain. It is common for teachers to tell students about information or do limited showing by way of demonstrating with words. Frequently, teachers jump from a short show and tell to actually having students complete lessons. With students who are acquiring academic English, that approach will rarely, if ever, work. To truly learn a language, a student must be given multiple opportunities to practice the four language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and composition. For the secondary student, instruction in the four sills should be in English. An emphasis should be placed on the required TEKS and higher-order thinking skills in all subjects. *When teaching in the content areas, it is important to move ELLs through the four quadrants outlined by Cummins (1981). In the first quadrant, students are immersed in real life, heavily contextualized scenarios and activities, and then move into the sec...