the endocrine system michael mckenna lou maselli brendan quinn may 2014

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The Endocrine System

The Endocrine SystemMichael McKennaLou MaselliBrendan Quinn

May 2014What is it?Includes all of the glands of the bodyGlands produce hormonesHelps stabilize the body; homeostasis, cellular metabolism, sexual development, digestion, and heart rate

Pituitary GlandMaster GlandPea-sized piece of tissue located on the inferior portion of the hypothalamus Surrounding blood vessels carry hormones throughout the bodyPosterior:Nervous tissueNeurosecretory cells in the tissue produce two hormones:Oxytocin- contractions during child birth & release of breast milkAntidiuretic hormone (ADH)- prevents water loss & reduces blood flow to sweat glands

Pituitary Gland Cont.Anterior:Releases and inhibits hormones (six) of the hypothalamus: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)- stimulation of thyroid glandAdrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)- stimulation of adrenal cortexFollicle stimulating hormone (FSH)- stimulation of follicle cells (gonads) for production of gametesLuteinizing hormone (LH)- stimulation of the gonads for production of sex hormonesHuman growth hormone (HGH)- stimulation of growth, repair, and reproduction of cells all over the bodyProlactin (PRL)- stimulates the mammary glands for production of breast milk

Hypothalamus Part of the brain, located anterior and superior to the brain stem, and inferior to thalamusControls the nervous systemProduces the hormones:TRHGHRHGHIHGnRHCRHOxytocinADH

Pineal GlandPinecone shaped mass of tissue Located posterior to the thalamus in the brainProduces melatonin to regulate the sleep cycleIs activated when photoreceptors in the retina receive light in low light & dark conditionsIncreased production = drowsy

Thyroid GlandButterfly shaped mass Located at the base of the neckProduces three major hormones:Calcitonin- released when calcium levels in the blood have risenTriiodothyronine (T3)- helps regulate the bodys metabolismThyroxine (T4)- helps regulate the bodys metabolismT3 and T4 both work together to adjust the bodys metabolic rate; increased levels leads to increased energy usage throughout the body

Parathyroid Glands Four small oval masses of tissueLocated on the posterior side of the thyroid glandReleases a parathyroid hormone (PTH)PTH- calcium ion homeostasis; helps stabilize the calcium levels in the blood by stimulating osteoclasts to break down calcium containing bone matrix; this calcium is then released into the blood stream

Adrenal GlandsA pair of triangular glands located superior to the kidneysConstructed of two distinct layers: Adrenal Cortex: outer layer of adrenal glands; produces cortical hormonesGlucocorticoids- breakdown proteins and lipids to produce glucose as well as reduce inflammation and dictate an immune responseMineralocorticoids- regulate the concentration of mineral ions in the bodyAndrogens- regulate the growth of cells that are receptive to hormones produced by males in the testes

Adrenal Glands Cont.Adrenal Medulla: inner layer of the adrenal glands; produces two hormonesEpinephrine- adrenaline; hormone and neurotransmitter that is released during a time of stress; fight or flight responseNorepinephrine- similar to epinephrine; hormone released when stressed; cognitive alertnessThese hormones affect the heart rate, breathing rate, blood pressure, and help the body respond when in a high anxiety situation

PancreasLarge gland located in the abdominal regionAlpha and Beta cells that are produced here contribute to the process/production of glucose and glucagonAlpha cells- production of glucagon which helps raise blood glucose levels; glucagon triggers a release of glucose into the bloodstreamBeta cells- production of insulin which helps lower blood glucose levels; insulin triggers the absorption of glucose

ThymusTriangular organ located in the thoracic cavity anterior to the parathyroid glandsMore apart of the immune system than the endocrineHelps with the development of T-cells

GonadsResponsible for the production of sex hormones in the bodyOvaries in females and testes in males

OvariesPair of oval shaped glands located in the pelvic cavity of a femaleResponsible for:Estrogen- sex hormones; uterine development, breast development, growth of pubic hair, growth of bones (during puberty)Progesterone- sex hormones; active during ovulation and pregnancy; implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterusProduction of egg cells

TestesPair of ellipsoid organs found outside of the body in the scrotumResponsible for:Testosterone- body hair, facial hair, production of sperm, growth of muscles, growth of sex organs, growth of bones, changes in voice

Endocrine System Videohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WVrlHH14q3o

Sites Usedhttp://www.innerbody.com/image/endoov.htmlhttp://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-760-Pregnancy+Hormone+PROGESTERONE.aspx?activeIngredientId=760&activeIngredientName=Pregnancy+Hormone+(PROGESTERONE)&source=0http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/endocrine.htmlhttp://www.livescience.com/26496-endocrine-system.html