The effects of internal marketing on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Taipei sports centers

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Ume University Library]On: 19 November 2014, At: 07:03Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Journal of Global Scholars of MarketingScience: Bridging Asia and the WorldPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rgam20</p><p>The effects of internal marketing onjob satisfaction and organizationalcommitment in Taipei sports centersWeisheng Chiua, Nam-Heung Choa &amp; Doyeon Wonaa Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University,Seoul, South KoreaPublished online: 19 Feb 2014.</p><p>To cite this article: Weisheng Chiu, Nam-Heung Cho &amp; Doyeon Won (2014) The effects of internalmarketing on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in Taipei sports centers, Journalof Global Scholars of Marketing Science: Bridging Asia and the World, 24:2, 206-222, DOI:10.1080/21639159.2014.881609</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21639159.2014.881609</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rgam20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/21639159.2014.881609http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21639159.2014.881609http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>The effects of internal marketing on job satisfaction and organizationalcommitment in Taipei sports centers</p><p>Weisheng Chiu, Nam-Heung Cho and Doyeon Won*</p><p>Department of Sport and Leisure Studies, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea</p><p>(Received 11 October 2013; final version received 22 December 2013)</p><p>The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among internal marketing, jobsatisfaction, and organizational commitment of employees in the context of the sportsservice industry. All employees of public sports centers in Taipei City participated in thisstudy, and the data (n 261) were subsequently analyzed. The results show that internalmarketing has a positive influence on job satisfaction among employees, and that jobsatisfaction in turn has a positive influence on the organizational commitment ofemployees. Although a direct relationship between internal marketing and organizationalcommitment among employees was not found, a full mediation effect of job satisfactionbetween the factors was revealed. The findings of this study clarify the relationships andverify the mechanisms at work among internal marketing, job satisfaction, andorganizational commitment of employees. Academically, the study fills the gap in sportsmanagement literature regarding the role of internal marketing for sports services. Thestudy alsoprovides practical implications for sports centermanagers to implement internalmarketing in sports centers, and thereby provide better-quality service for customers.</p><p>Keywords: internalmarketing; job satisfaction; organizational commitment; Taipei sportcenter; service quality</p><p> (Doyle, 1994)</p><p> (Gummesson, 1987)</p><p> (Berry &amp; Parasuraman, 2000) (Heskett &amp; Schlesinger, 1994; Schneider &amp; Bowen, 1993)</p><p>(, Davis, 2005;</p><p>Martinez, Stinson, &amp; Jubenville, 2011; Seok, 2011)</p><p>1</p><p>23</p><p>4</p><p>q 2014 Korean Scholars of Marketing Science</p><p>*Corresponding author. Email: dwon@yonsei.ac.kr</p><p>Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science, 2014</p><p>Vol. 24, No. 2, 206222, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21639159.2014.881609</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Um</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>03 1</p><p>9 N</p><p>ovem</p><p>ber </p><p>2014</p><p>mailto:dwon@yonsei.ac.krmailto:dwon@yonsei.ac.krhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21639159.2014.881609</p></li><li><p>(n 261)121</p><p>5(CFA)(SEM)</p><p>1</p><p>32</p><p>4</p><p>;;;;</p><p>1. Introduction</p><p>In service industries, internal marketing is regarded as a method of improving service</p><p>quality for customers. The concept of internal marketing originates in the field of</p><p>marketing research in the service industry (Berry, 1981; Gronroos, 1981), and internal</p><p>marketing is proposed as a solution to the question of how to deliver consistently high-</p><p>quality service for customers and users (Berry, 1981). In addition, Greene, Walls, and</p><p>Schrest (1994) hold that internal marketing is the key to better service, emphasizing that it</p><p>is a required condition for effective external marketing. Scholars have found evidence</p><p>supporting the view that the implementation of internal marketing in an organization is an</p><p>essential component of successful service industry operations (Choi, Baek, &amp; Kang, 2013;</p><p>Gronroos, 1990; Jaworski &amp; Kohli, 1993; Rafiq &amp; Ahmed, 2000).</p><p>The precepts of internal marketing emphasize that organizations should treat, value,</p><p>and respect employees from the perspective of internal customers (Longbottom, Osseo-</p><p>Asare, Chourides, &amp; Murphy, 2006) in order to attract, develop, motivate, and retain</p><p>qualified employees (Berry &amp; Parasuraman, 2000). Internal marketing has been widely</p><p>studied in previous research, and the concept is essential to organizations in the service</p><p>industry because it is related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment among</p><p>employees (Siddiqi, 2013; Sihombing &amp; Gustam, 2007). Theorists have already noted the</p><p>importance of employee satisfaction and commitment in retaining employees working in</p><p>service industries, as well as the importance of employee retention to the success of</p><p>service-oriented organizations (Heskett &amp; Schlesinger, 1994; Schneider &amp; Bowen, 1993).</p><p>When the needs of employees are satisfied, the employees are in turn more likely to satisfy</p><p>the needs of external customers (Chung &amp; Kim, 2003; Greene et al., 1994). The particular</p><p>characteristic of organizational commitment among employees has been identified as an</p><p>important variable in understanding the work behavior of employees in organizations</p><p>(Lee, Kwon, &amp; Lee, 2007). Therefore, for the benefit of both the organization and its</p><p>employees, organizations must focus on cultivating organizational commitment among</p><p>employees (Chelladurai, 1999).</p><p>Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science 207</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Um</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>03 1</p><p>9 N</p><p>ovem</p><p>ber </p><p>2014</p></li><li><p>Although the importance of internal marketing in service industries has been widely</p><p>investigated, studies on the role of internal marketing in sports services are limited in</p><p>number, and only a few studies have examined the significance of internal marketing in</p><p>sports as a service industry (Davis, 2005; Martinez, Stinson, &amp; Jubenville, 2011;</p><p>Novatorov, Kim, Wall, &amp; Crompton, 1998; Seok, 2011). Indeed, the role played by</p><p>internal marketing in service industries may translate to sports centers. Customers of</p><p>sports and leisure centers have increased expectations of greater personal benefits as a</p><p>result of their participation in sports, as well as expectations of quality in sports services</p><p>(Howat, Absher, Crilley, &amp; Milne, 1996). Many private fitness clubs in Taipei City are</p><p>expanding their facilities and locations on a continual basis. Due to increased competition</p><p>from these private fitness clubs, with their superior facilities, Taipei sports centers are</p><p>facing a huge threat to their core business. To attract new members and retain current</p><p>customers, Taipei sports centers must provide better services, to meet and exceed the</p><p>expectations of their customers (Mullin, Hardy, &amp; Sutton, 2007; Oh, Lee, &amp; Kim, 2011).</p><p>Moreover, Taipei is the first city to operate public sports centers in Taiwan. In the coming</p><p>years, more and more public sports centers will be established in many other places in</p><p>Taiwan. Consequently, the operation and management of employees of Taipei sports</p><p>centers could be taken as a model by the rest of the cities in Taiwan. Thus, understanding</p><p>the impact of internal marketing in sports centers is necessary for sport managers to</p><p>improve organizational effectiveness through employees in order for sports centers to</p><p>possess greater competitive capabilities in the market.</p><p>Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to propose and test an empirical model</p><p>linking internal marketing, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among</p><p>employees, and to examine the influence of internal marketing on employee job</p><p>satisfaction and organizational commitment in Taipei sports centers. The findings of this</p><p>study may offer practical implications and contributions to the literature about the</p><p>management of customer service in sports.</p><p>2. A brief overview of Taipei sports centers</p><p>Aiming to implement the ideal of Sports for All and following the trend to build a</p><p>Healthy City (Taipei City Government, 2002), the Taipei City Government established</p><p>12 sports centers, one in each of its 12 districts, to meet its citizens demand for public</p><p>sports and leisure spaces. Currently, all of the sports centers are established and</p><p>operational based on an operate-and-transfer (OT) model. The OT model is a type of</p><p>publicprivate partnership. Financed, designed, and constructed by the government, the</p><p>sports centers are commissioned for operation and management by the private sector.</p><p>After the sports centers have operated for a specified period of time, ownership is</p><p>transferred back to the government (Kumaraswamy &amp; Morris, 2002). The sports centers</p><p>are mainly equipped with swimming pools, weight-training rooms, dancing rooms, and</p><p>multipurpose courts for recreational sports.</p><p>3. Conceptual framework and hypotheses</p><p>3.1 Internal marketing</p><p>Berry (1981) initially defined internal marketing as viewing employees as internal</p><p>customers, viewing jobs as internal products that satisfy the needs and wants of these</p><p>internal customers while addressing the objectives of the organization (p. 25).</p><p>Gummesson (2000) suggested that internal marketing is a strategic operation that</p><p>W. Chiu et al.208</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Um</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>03 1</p><p>9 N</p><p>ovem</p><p>ber </p><p>2014</p></li><li><p>combines marketing and human resources management in order for employees to provide</p><p>better service to customers.</p><p>Typically, internal marketing activities are identified and categorized to provide a</p><p>framework for evaluating their implications and effectiveness (Gronroos, 1990). Many</p><p>studies in internal marketing literature have identified key elements of internal marketing</p><p>(Ahmed, Rafiq, &amp; Saad, 2003; Conduit &amp;Mavondo, 2001; Foreman &amp;Money, 1995). The</p><p>current study adopts the five dimensions of a study by Conduit and Mavondo (2001) </p><p>market training and education, management support, internal communication, personnel</p><p>management, and external communication to measure internal marketing in the field of</p><p>sports services.</p><p>3.2 Job satisfaction</p><p>Job satisfaction is perhaps the most commonly discussed topic in research about the</p><p>service industry. At the same time, researchers have made several attempts to define and</p><p>describe the concept of job satisfaction. The essence of all these definitions, as Dawis and</p><p>Lofquist (1984) pointed out, is that job satisfaction is a pleasurable affective condition</p><p>resulting from ones appraisal of the way in which the experienced job situation meets</p><p>ones needs, value, and expectations (p. 72).</p><p>Moreover, researchers have suggested that job satisfaction can be divided into two</p><p>constructs: intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction (Hirschfeld, 2000; Porter &amp; Lawler, 1968;</p><p>Wanous, 1974; Wernimont, 1966). Intrinsic job satisfaction describes how people feel</p><p>about the nature of the tasks involved in the job itself, whereas extrinsic job satisfaction is</p><p>how people feel about aspects of the work situation or environment that are external to the</p><p>job tasks or the work itself (Porter &amp; Lawler, 1968; Spector, 1997; Wernimont, 1966). In</p><p>order to measure intrinsic and extrinsic satisfaction, Spector (1997) developed the 20-item</p><p>short-form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) (Weiss, Dawis, England, &amp;</p><p>Lofquist, 1967), which has become a popular measure of various facets of work. The</p><p>questionnaire is frequently used in job satisfaction research to measure job satisfaction</p><p>among employees.</p><p>3.3 Organizational commitment</p><p>The concept of organizational commitment has become an important research topic in the</p><p>field of organizational behaviors since it was first proposed by Whyte (1956). Buchanan</p><p>(1974) asserted that organizational commitment describes situations in which an</p><p>individual is attached emotionally to an organization, including identification of the</p><p>individual with organizational objectives and values, mental devotion to and concentration</p><p>on a job role, and loyalty to and affection for the organization. Additionally, employees</p><p>identification with an organization may be regarded as their psychological attachment to</p><p>the organization (OReilly &amp; Chatman, 1986). A study by Mowday, Porter, and Steers</p><p>(1982) suggests that when there is a high-level linkage of individual commitment to an</p><p>organization, the phenomenon leads to good results for both the individual and the</p><p>organization. Thus, when employees of sports centers have a high level of commitment to</p><p>their center, this characteristic indicates that the employees are involved and devoted.</p><p>Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) and Trimble (2006) asserted that</p><p>organizational commitment is an attitude and defined it as the degree of an individuals</p><p>identification with and devotion to a specific organization, including (1) value</p><p>commitment: the strong belief of an individual in organizational objectives and values;</p><p>Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science 209</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Um</p><p>e U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 07:</p><p>03 1</p><p>9 N</p><p>ovem</p><p>ber </p><p>2014</p></li><li><p>(2) effort commitment: the willingness of an individual to dedicate greater personal efforts</p><p>to benefit the organization; and (3) retention commitment: the willingness of an individual</p><p>to remain a member of an organization on a long-term basis. The three constructs of value</p><p>commitment, effort commitment, and retention commitment are utilized in this stud...</p></li></ul>

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