The Early Linear Script as an Argument Against the Phoenician Origin of the Alphabet.

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The present article is an investigation into the origin of the alphabet with an account of the linear and pictographic symbols found by Sir Flinders-Petrie in Egypt and by Sir Arthur Evans in Crete, which are viewed as possible prototypes for the symbols of the alphabet. Thus they also present an argument against the Phoenician origin of modern writing.

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1.

- . , , , , , . - - , , . , , , . , , . , , , , . - , - , , . , , . , , . , , , a priori, , . , , , , , , , - 1050 . . .. . , , , . , . , , , ,

2 , . - , , , , . . , , 1, . .2 , , , V . . .. , (Hillgard 1880, 24-27). , , () (Herodotus 1824, 25) , , , - .3 , , . . .. , literae elementa, (Diringer 1947, 145). . . .. , , , - , , (Diodorus 1952, 297-299). - , , , (Diodorus 1946, 239). , (Pliny the Elder 1991, 104-105), , ( ) , (Pliny the Elder 1991, 105). , , , . (V . . ..) ,4 , , . ., (Eusebius 1903, I, 9). , (. Dht(y). . , , primi per figuras1

- , : , , , , . 2 . .: Driver 1976, 128-130. 3 V . , (. ) , qdm, . , . .: Edwards 1979, 58, 60. 4 .: Plato 1860, 6-7; Plato 1848, 354-355.

3 animalium Aegyptii sensus mentis effingebant,5 - . - , ( . . ..) (Christids, Arapopoulou, Chrit 2007, 275), (Riley 1853, 102), (Adler 1938, 538) ., , . - . , , . (De Rouge 1874), , (-V . . ..) , ., , , . , , , (Humboldt 1860, 491) (1810-1884) (Lepsius 1836, 23, 28, 57) , . 1883 . (Taylor 1883), , , . , , , . 1885 . - , , , , , 6 - 7. , , - , , .8 - .. , , , - . 1889 . ( ), 1400-1200 . . .. - ,5 6

Tacitus 1956, 237. , - , . Prisse DAvennes (Pap. Prisse), , 1847 . . - .: Taylor 1883, 95-97. 7 - . - , V . . . , 1868 . .. , , , 890-850 . . .. 8 . : Flinders-Petrie 1912, 1.

4 . (-V . . ..) (. 3100-2686 . . ..), - (Flinders-Petrie 1912, 2). , , , - . , . - , , , , , , . (Flinders-Petrie 1912, 2). , . , , . , , , . , . - . , , , , , - ( ) 9, - - . - , , (Flinders-Petrie 1912, 8-9). , , . , , , , -, - . , 9

60 , .

5 - , (V- . . ..), , - . , ( ?) , -, ? , , , , , , . , , - , , - . , , , (). , (-V . . ..) -, , , , , , , (Flinders-Petrie 1912, 8-9). , 9 , , , , . , , , - (Taylor 1879). , - V . . .., .. , , , (Taylor 1879, 51). , , , , , .. , (Taylor 1879, 50-51). , , , - V . . .., , - (XXII-XVIII . . ..), -

6 . , - , , , (Dionysus Hallicarnassus 1937, 30-73; Herodotus 1824, 442), -. - . (Dionysus Hallicarnassus 1937, 30-73; Herodotus 1824, 442) 1894 ., , , , , (1600-1100 . . ..), , , - . , , , : . , , -, 10 ... (vans 1895, 56). . , - ( ) , , - ( ). - . . , . , 32 , (1600-1100 . . ..) - , : , , , , - (vans 1895, 77). - , . (Brice 1961, I). , . , , , . , . 32- , - 20 , , 15 ( ), . . (Brice 1961, 77). , 16-20% , (V- . . ..), (Brice 1961, 47-48). , - , , 10

: , , , .

7 , , - : ... , ... , ... . - . , , - , . (Brice 1961, 47-48). , , , , - , - (. ). , , - , - . . , , , , , , , , . , , . , . (. . . ..) (Brice 1961, 89). , , , , . , -, , , (Brice 1961, 93). , , ... , , , - ... , - 11... , , , , . -

11

.

8 , , . .12 - 1900 . (. 3000-1100 . . ..), . , . , 2000 , - (Evans 1909, 17-18). : ... , - , , , , , - - . (Evans 1909, 17-18). , , . , - ( , . 2006 ., , V . . ., . . , 60 ., ) , . , , , - . . , , , , - . , , , , - , - . , -, . ( ) , , . , (Obermann 1938, 3). , ,12

. : Brice 1961, 94-98.

9 , . - -, , . , - . , 1750 . . .. (Obermann 1938, 5), - - , , ( ) , 1928 1929 . , , , V . . ..13 . , , , - (Segert 1985, 5-6). , , (, , ) , - - . .., , , - , ( -, ) (Segert 1985, 6-8). , ( ), , . . ., , (Segert 1985, 6-7). - , , , - ( 578 . . .., ) - (Segert 1985, 43). , , , , - , , , . , , 13

- .: Young 1993, 6; Segert 1985, 23.

10 , , , , , - V . . . , , , , , - , -. , V- . .., , - , , . - , , , , . , , , , , : ( 1:8), . - , . - , , , . , - V , , . , : , ... : , . , . ... , . : , , ? , , , . . : , , ... (Elliot 1993, 76-77). , , (Elliot 1993, 76-77). , ,

11 . , , , , . - ? , . - -, . ! , , , , , . , , . , , , , , , . , , - , , . , - : , , .

: Adler 1938: A.S. Adler. Suida. Lexicographi Graeci. Vol. I. Teubner, 1938. Brice 1961: W.E. Brice. Inscriptions in the Minoan Linear Script of Class A. Oxford, 1961. Christides, Arapopoulou, Chrite: A. Christids, M. Arapopoulou, M. Chrit. A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginning to Late Antiquity. Cambridge, 2007. De Rouge 1874: E. De Rouge. Mmoire sur lorigine gyptienne de lalphabet Phenicien. Paris, 1874. Diodorus 1946: Diodorus of Sicily. The Library of History. Trans. C.H. Oldfather. LCL 279, 1946. Diodorus 1952: Diodorus of Sicily. The Library of History. Trans. C.H. Oldfather. LCL 340, 1952. Dionysus Hallicarnassus 1937: Dionysus Hallicarnassus. Roman Antiquities. Trans. E. Cary. LCL 319, 1937. Diringer 1947: D. Diringer. The Alphabet. A Key to the History of Mankind. Vol. II. London, 1947. Driver 1976: G.A. Driver. Semitic Writing. London, 1976. Edwards 1979: R.B. Edwards. Kadmos the Phoenician: A Study in Greek Legends and the Mycenaean Age. Amsterdam, 1979. Elliot 1993: J.K. Elliot. The Apocryphal New Testament. Oxford, 1993. Eusebius 1903: Eusebius of Caesarea. Praeparatio Evangelica. Trans. E. Gifford. 1903. Evans 1895: A. vans. Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script. London, 1895. Evans 1909: A. Evans. Scripta Minoa. Vol. I: The Hieroglyphic and Primitive Linear Classes. Oxford, 1909. Flinders-Petrie 1912: W.M. Flinders-Petrie. The Formation of the Alphabet. London, 1912.

12Herodotus 1824: Herodotus. The History. Vol. II. Oxford, 1824. Hillgard 1880: A. Hillgard. De artis grammaticae ab Dionysio Thrace. Heidelberg, 1880. Huboldt 1860: A. Humboldt. Cosmos: A Sketch of a Physical Description of the Universe. London, 1860. Lepsius 1836: C.R. Lepsius. Ueber die Anordnung und Verwandtschaft des Semitischen, Indischen, AltPersischen, Alt Aegyptischen und Aethiopischen Alphabets. Berlin, 1836. Obermann 1938: J. Obermann. The Archaic Inscriptions from Lachish. A Non-Phoenician System of the North-Semitic Alphabet. Yale University, 1938. Plato 1848: Plato. Phaedrus. Trans. H. Cary. London, 1848. Plato 1860: Plato. Philebus. Oxford, 1860. Pliny the Elder 1991: Pliny the Elder. Natural History: A Selection. Trans. J.F. Healy. Penguin Classics, 1991. Riley 1853: H.T. Riley. The Pharsalia of Lucan. London, 1853. Segert 1985: S. Segert. A Basic Grammar of the Ugaritic Language. University of California Press, 1985. Tacitus 1956: Tacitus. The Annals of Imperial Rome. Trans. M. Grant. Penguin Classics, 1956. Taylor 1879: I. Taylor. Greeks and Goths: A Study on the Runes. Macmillan and Co, 1879. Taylor 1883: I. Taylor. The Alphabet: An Account of the Origin and Development of Letters. London, 1883. Young 1993: I. Young. Diversity in Pre-Exilic Hebrew. [Forschungen zum Alten Testament 5], Tbingen, 1993.

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