the diary of a young girl-anne frank
DESCRIPTIONthis is the summary of the world famous war diary written durring the Nazi period
The Diary of a Young Girl
Character Summary Chapter Summary→Chapter 1→Chapter 2→Chapter 3→Chapter 4→Chapter 5→Chapter 6→Chapter 7→Chapter 8→Chapter 9
→Chapter 10→Chapter 11→Chapter 12→Chapter 13→Chapter 14 →Chapter 15→Chapter 16→Chapter 17→Chapter 18→Chapter 19→Chapter 20 Themes, motifs & symbols
The author of the diary. She was born on June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt, Germany, and was four years old when her father moved to Holland to find a better place for the family to live. She is very intelligent and perceptive, and she wants to become a writer. She grows from an innocent, tempestuous, precocious, and somewhat petty teenage girl to an empathetic and sensitive thinker at age fifteen. she dies of typhus in the concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen in late February or early March of 1945.
Anne's older sister. She was born in Frankfurt in 1926. She receives little attention in Anne's diary, and Anne does not provide a real sense of her character. Anne thinks that she is pretty, smart, emotional, and everyone's favorite. However, Anne and she do not form a close bond, and Margot mainly appears in the diary when she is the cause of jealousy or anger. She dies of typhus in the concentration camp a few days before Anne does.
Anne's father. He is practical and kind, and Anne feels a particular kinship to him. He was born on May 12, 1889, into a wealthy Frankfurt family, but the family's international-banking business collapsed during the German economic depression that followed World War I. After the Nazis came to power in Germany, he moved to Amsterdam in 1933 to protect his family from persecution. There he made a living selling chemical products and provisions until the family was forced into hiding in 1942. He is the only member of the family to survive the war, and he lives until 1980.
Anne's mother. she was originally from Aachen, Germany, and she married Otto in 1925. Anne feels little closeness or sympathy with her mother, and the two have a very tumultuous relationship. Anne thinks her mother is too sentimental and critical. She dies of hunger and exhaustion in the concentration camp at Auschwitz in January 1945.
The father of the family that hides in the annex along with the Franks and who had worked with Otto Frank as an herbal specialist in Amsterdam. His actual name is Hermann van Pels, but Anne calls him Mr. van Daan in the diary. According to Anne, he is intelligent, opinionated, pragmatic, and somewhat egotistical. He is temperamental, speaks his mind openly, and is not afraid to cause friction, especially with his wife, with whom he fights frequently and openly. He dies in the gas chambers at Auschwitz in October or November of 1944.
Mr. van Daan
Mr. van Daan's wife. Her actual name is Auguste van Pels, but Anne calls her Petronella in her diary. Anne initially describes her as a friendly, teasing woman, but later calls her an instigator. She is a fatalist and can be petty, egotistical, flirtatious, stingy, and disagreeable. She frequently complains about the family's situation—criticism that Anne does not admire or respect. She does not survive the war, but the exact date of her death is unknown.
Mrs. van Daan
The teenage son of the van Daans, whose real name is Peter van Pels. Anne first sees him as obnoxious, lazy, and hypersensitive, but later they become close friends. He is quiet, timid, honest, and sweet to Anne, but he does not share her strong convictions. During their time in the annex, Anne and him develop a romantic attraction, which Mr. Frank discourages. He is Anne's first kiss, and he is her one confidant and source of affection and attention in the annex. Hex dies on May 5, 1945, at the concentration camp at Mauthausen, only three days before the camp was liberated.
Peter van Daan
A dentist and an acquaintance of the Franks who hides with them in the annex. His real name is Fritz Pfeffer, but Anne calls him Mr. Dussel in the diary. Anne finds Mr. Dussel particularly difficult to deal with because he shares a room with her, and she suffers the brunt of his odd personal hygiene habits, pedantic lectures, and controlling tendencies. Mr. Dussel’s wife is a Christian, so she does not go into hiding, and he is separated from her. He dies on December 20, 1944, at the Neuengamme concentration camp.
A man who helps hide the Franks in the annex. Victor Kugler is arrested along with Kleiman in 1944 but escapes in 1945. He immigrates to Canada in 1955 and dies in Toronto in 1981. Mr. Kugler is also referred to as Mr. Kraler.
Mr. Kugler /Kraler
Another man who helps the Franks hide. Johannes Kleiman is arrested in 1944 but released because of poor health. He remains in Amsterdam until his death in 1959. Mr. Kleiman is also referred to as Mr. Koophuis.
A worker in Otto Frank's office. She helps the family by serving as a liaison to the outside world. She remains in Amsterdam until her death in 1983.
A secretary at Otto's office who helps the Franks hide. After the Franks are arrested, she stows the diary away in a desk drawer and keeps it there, unread, until Otto's return in 1945. She died in 2010 at the age of 100.
Miep's husband. He dies in 1993.
HanneliAnne's school friend. The Nazis arrest her early in the war.
The love of Anne’s life from the sixth grade. Peter Schiff is a boy one year older than Anne. She has dreams about him while in the annex. Peter Schiff is also referred to as Peter Wessel.
A boy with whom Anne has an innocent, though romantic relationship before she goes into hiding. He is also referred to as Harry Goldberg.
Anne’s diary begins when Hitler already started his anti-Jewish campaign. On her 13th birthday, Anne’s family was already living in Holland, having immigrated from Germany. Anne had to leave her Montessori School as Jews could study only in a Jewish school. We get introduced to Anne’s family and her classmates, the kind of things teenagers enjoyed. We get a glimpse of Anne’s inner thoughts who in spite of a loving family longs for a ‘true friend’. The harshness of life they are subjected to is revealed from the things they can and cannot do. Yet these all hadn't affected Anne who is enjoying her schooldays.
The second chapter tells a bit about the society in which Anne had lived. It was a very open society which allowed and encouraged its people of both sexes to meet each other and go out together at a very young age. This chapter tells that the people were aware of there few options left to them and were planning about hiding from Nazis. The parents did not put any pressure on their kids and wanted them to live a very normal life.
Here the Frank family are forced into hiding as a SS call up notice comes and they leave their home in care of Mr. Goldschmidt, their tenant. They have been long since preparing for this day but are forced to prepone the date of hiding by 10 days. Anne writes about their hiding place called ‘The Secret Annexe’ vividly. They fears they might have to stay there a long time. The plans of the government it seems that it wants to put the young Jewish girls separated from their families as the call up notice was indented for Margot.
In this chapter we come to know that the Frank family is joined by another family the Van Daans,a family consisting of three members Mr. and Mrs. Van Daan and Peter Van Daan. Here we see how two families an overall seven members adjust to live together in confined quarters. As usual there are disagreements regarding the usual matters like matters concerning linen, plates and also how children should be raised. There is a discussion about the content the children their children should be allowed to read and Mrs. Van Daan appears to be a troublemaker who gets squashed in debates. The fear of being discovered is always present and Anne’s feelings and emotions are described vividly.
As we go through the news of how the Jews are treated by the Germans get worse. The Jews are rounded up by the Germans and taken to concentration camps without mercy. And a lot of ‘Fatal Accidents’ are occurring which are actually a mass genocides carried with pin point precession. The reports came that the Jews were all headed to the gas chamber. The seven inmates of the ‘Secret Annexe’ try to make their life in hiding the best they can with whatever available. The fear of discovery always over their heads, Anne’s clashes with her mother and Mrs. Van Daan’s comments are among the negatives of her life in hiding. The birthdays are still celebrated and Anne’s education grows up and her great writing ability.
The seven members of the Annexe is joined by an eight member- Mr. Alfred Dussel. He brings the frightening news from the outside about the horrors into which the Jews are being subjected. Peter’s birthday is celebrated and a surprising news is heard that british made gains against the germans and russia is resisting and the allies had even recaptured some cities of africa. The inmates try to lead a calm life and we also read about a humorous description of the rules in the Annexe and about the mess made by Peter with a bag of beans. Life moves on.
The 8 members of the Annexe celebrate Hanukkah and St.Nichloas day the best they could. Anne enjoyed Mr. Van Daan making sausages to preserve meat supply and there was a humorous occurrence when Mrs. Van Daan had a tooth examination by Mr. Dussel. We also learn about the suffering of the Jews and even the Dutch by the Germans. And now war planes were zooming every night and causalities were on the rise. Anne was in an extremely rebellious mood with her mother.
In this chapter we read about the fear that has become a part of their lives and are always on alert mode watching out for police and having narrow escapes. In the mean while the warehouse in which the Secret Annexe is located is sold without the knowledge of the inmates or their friends and they are saved from discovery only by the presence of mind shown by Mr. Koophuis. The rats in the loft adds another problem solved by the cat Mouschi and the threat of burglars and Mr. Van Daan’s coughing Mr. Dussel made noises while going downstairs plus the dreadful stories of Jews being taken to slaughterhouses added to their misery.
The entries of the current month portrays the time and the conditions at their present situation in the Annexe. The boredom, fear, and the ways in which they cope up to retain their sanity. Our narrator here gives us a picture of the outside world and the sufferings of the Jews. The inmates of the Annexe live in constant fear of air raids, bullets, the Germans and even the allies. The shortage of food has reached bingo and the clothes are all too small for them. Any victory becomes a reason to celebrate. In between Anne celebrates her 14th birthday ,does a course on shorthand and stick with the daily routine.
Here we read about the a theft that happened at the warehouse and a lot of money were stolen and about 330 pounds of sugar was stolen and it caused a bit of stir. And to pass time the inmates told what they would like to do once they got out. Margot and Mr. Van Daan wanted a hot bath, Mrs. Van Daan a cake, Mrs. Frank a cup of coffee, Mr. Dussel wanted to see his lady friend, Peter would go downtown and Anne had no idea. They rejoiced Mussolini’s fall in Italy and constant fear of bombs over their heads along with a vivid account of a series of everyday events.
The edge of fear and betrayal runs loose in the entries of the month. There are suspicion from outside people like Mr. Van Maaran, fear of bombs and gunfire and all mixed with depression. The tempers are running high with all on short fuses. Through they see a glimmer of hope and everyone is trying to remain normal to the best of their ability but some of them come up in their dark side. Ghost of Anne’s lost friends appear and reproach her. The fear rate is higher than the cheer rate.
The entries seem more serious and they also reflect the changes of puberty in her which seem to have grown in her confined state. Her interest in sex as a sign of her growing up is shown and she tries to find a friend in Peter Van Daan. The war always looming in the backdrop and the news of Germany planning to bomb Amsterdam. The Jews still hounded up and many going underground and threads of resistance knotting up. Anne yearns for freedom from fear and wants to be left alone most time. Confinement does strange things to people as their tempers get shorter.
The months entries are full of humor and hope. The invasion fever was mounting up throughout Holland and anxiety of what the Germans might do if they lost and it looks like Anne found a love in midst of war, Peter as he is the only male closer to her age group and she longs for his companionship and feels dejected when she doesn't receive it. And in between she is annoyed with her mother due to her odd looks when she goes up to Peter’s room. We do not know weather this is really love or proximity and the consequences.
The entries of the month are more frequent and they give and idea about the inside of Anne’s head. Her feelings for Peter which are growing and she is undergoing the misery, hope, despair of a girl and her first love. And she cannot get over this obsession as she has no outlet for her feelings. Her grown ups cannot help her. The also describes the food shortage in the Annexe. Still the people are on short fuses and tempers flare occxassionaly.
Here we are reading about Anne’s total obsession with Peter, the arousal of love in her and her want to share all her secrets to Peter, but she also writes about the happenings in the surroundings. The British had bombed Amsterdam everyday, the Russians defeated the Germans and entered Odessa. Life in tatters in the world outside with the police rounding up the Jews and their helpers. Germany a country turned against itself. Then very political picture.
The diary entry begins with Anne’s keen desire to be patient with Peter and then then the burglary and their near miss with the police.
The near miss with the police made them very uncomfortable and filled with mortal fear of discovery. This chapter reveals the true suffering of Jews during the war and the life in Annexe. Anne feels she had an inner courage and strength and wants to be a writer. This chapter highlights the will to survive by the people of The Secret Annexe.
Tensions in the annex run high after the break-in, and no one can shake the feeling of impending doom. On top of that, Peter forgets to unbolt the front door, so Mr. Kugler has to smash the window to get in. The air raids on the city are incredibly heavy. On April 15, 1944, Anne gets her first kiss. Although Peter only kisses her “half on [ left cheek, half on ear,” Anne suddenly feels she is very advanced for her age. She felt that there were two different versions of Anne and it made her feel uncomfortable. Anne also vividly gives an account of the stark reality of present life.
In this months entry Anne asks Peter if he thinks she should tell her father about their relationship, and he believes they should. Mr. Frank says that he thinks it is not a good idea to carry on a romance in the annex, and he asks Anne if Peter is in love with her. Mr. Frank tells her not to take it too seriously and that it is her responsibility to show restraint. Anne wonders about the point of the war and laments that money is being spent on fighting rather than on medicine, the poor, and the arts. She reflects on human nature and concludes that until all of humanity undergoes a profound change, people’s tendencies toward violence will lead to endless wars and destruction. Only courage and a will to survive shines through.
On June 6, 1944, D-Day, the BBC announces that the Allied invasion of France has begun. The residents of the annex are very excited. Anne turns fifteen and writes that the liberation is going “splendidly.” Her mood improves, and she contemplates her love for nature and the question of why women are thought of as inferior to men. Near the end of July, Anne writes about an assassination attempt on Hitler and hopes it is proof that the Germans want to stop the war themselves. Anne hears that anti-Semitism is becoming more common among the Dutch, and she is deeply disheartened. She grows depressed again and wonders if it would not have been better to suffer a quick death rather than go into hiding. She counteracts this thought by writing that they all love life too much.
. On August 1, 1944, Anne describes her new insights into her own character and muses that perhaps she could become the kind of person she wants to be “if only there were no other people in the world.”
Themes, Motifs & Symbols
Anne Frank’s perpetual feeling of being lonely and misunderstood provides the impetus for her dedicated diary writing. Anne shares a quotation she once read with which she strongly agrees: “Deep down, the young are lonelier than the old.” Because young people are less able than adults to define or express their needs clearly, they are more likely to feel lonely, isolated, and misunderstood. This might seem an odd sentiment from such a playful, amusing, and social young girl, but Anne explains that she is never comfortable discussing her inner emotions, even around close friends.
The Loneliness of Adolescence:
Anne frequently expresses her conviction that there are “two Annes”: the lively, jovial, public Anne whom people find amusing or exasperating; and the sentimental, private Anne whom only she truly knows. As she comes to understand her actions and motivations better over the course of her writing, Anne continually refers to this aggravating split between her inward and outward character. Anne struggles with her two selves throughout the diary, trying to be honest and genuine, while at the same time striving to fit in with the rest of the group and not create too much friction.
The Inward versus the Outward Self
Anne’s diary demonstrates that war brings out both the best and the worst traits in people. Two characteristics in particular become prominent defining poles of character in the annex—generosity and greed. The group’s livelihood depends on the serious and continual risks taken by their Dutch keepers, who are generous with food, money, and any other resources they can share. Mr. Dussel and Mrs. van Daan feel that greed is the only way to protect themselves from the horrors of war, these same circumstances of hardship inspire Anne to feel even more generous.
Generosity and Greed in Wartime
Anne is thirteen years old when she first goes into hiding in the annex, and she turns fifteen shortly before the family’s arrest. Thus, her diary is a powerful firsthand record of the experience of a young girl as she matures. Although Anne faces the challenges of puberty under unusual circumstances, the issues she struggles with are universal. She frequently contemplates the changes in her body and her psychology. Because Anne does not readily confide in her mother or her sister, she turns to her diary to understand the changes she perceives and to question issues about sexuality and maturity
Becoming a Woman
he Franks and the van Daans are fortunate enough to have made advance plans to go into hiding should the need arise, but they still know they are not completely safe from the Nazis. Their security depends on the cooperation of many different people outside the annex, as well as a good amount of luck and hope. Their fear grows each time the doorbell rings, there is a knock on their door, or they hear that there is a break-in at the office building. They hear reports from the outside world about their friends who are arrested and about non-Jews who are suffering from a lack of food.
Hanneli is one of Anne’s close friends who appears in Anne’s dreams several times as a symbol of guilt. Hanneli appears sad and dressed in rags, and she wishes that Anne could stop Hanneli’s suffering. A young Jewish girl, Hanneli has presumably already been arrested and deported to a concentration camp. For Anne, Hanneli represents the fate of her friends and companions and the millions of Jews—many of whom were children like herself—who were tortured and murdered by the Nazis.
Anne’s grandmother appears to Anne in her dreams. To Anne, she symbolizes unconditional love and support, as well as regret and nostalgia for the life Anne lived before being forced into hiding. Anne wishes she could tell her grandmother how much they all love her, just as she wishes she had appreciated her own life before she was confined in the annex.
Sandy Jose Panicker X-A Roll no.:29