The Dawn of History Section 2. Paleolithic Age “The Old Stone Age” The earliest period of human history 2 million B.C. – about 10,000 BC.

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Anthropologists found evidence of early human life in East Africa 1959: the Leakeys found bones of an early HOMINID (humanlike primate) 1974: Donald Johanson found Lucy in Ethiopia (another hominid) This evidence leads scientists to believe that the earliest people lived in East Africa, and later migrated to Europe and Asia

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The Dawn of History Section 2 Paleolithic Age The Old Stone Age The earliest period of human history 2 million B.C. about 10,000 BC Anthropologists found evidence of early human life in East Africa 1959: the Leakeys found bones of an early HOMINID (humanlike primate) 1974: Donald Johanson found Lucy in Ethiopia (another hominid) This evidence leads scientists to believe that the earliest people lived in East Africa, and later migrated to Europe and Asia Paleolithic people lived in small hunting/food-gathering groups (20-30 people) Men hunted; women gathered They were nomads: moving from place to place as they followed animals and ripening fruit They also adapted to their environment by making simple tools and weapons We even see the development of language to communicate while hunting Sometimes it was difficult to survive, especially during the ice ages We found evidence of early religious beliefs from about 30,000 years ago They believed that spirits and forces lived in animals, objects, or dreams This is called animism Cave paintings show pictures of horses, deer, and buffalo with small stick figures Almost as if they were praying to the spirits to help them hunt Small statues were also found of pregnant women and other womanly figures Suggests they worshipped women for the continuation of life; and earth-mother goddess (gives of food and life) At the end of the Stone Age, some people buried the dead with great care Dead buried with tools, weapons, etc.suggests they believed the afterlife was similar to life on Earth Neolithic Age New Stone Age Begins 11,000 years ago Humans learn how to farm (REVOLUTIONARY!) and settled into permanent villages Nobody knows exactly where farming first started Either in the Middle East and spread or farming developed independently in different regions Neolithic Agricultural Revolution People also began to domesticate, or tame, some animals they had hunted Becoming food producers meant a growing population, which meant more communication between different communities Also a change in society Women lose status as men begin to dominate family, economic, and political life Council of elders is also formed War increased as food ran out; and some men gain status as warriors We also see the beginning of wealth and status as more people start to gain more land than others To successfully farm, Neolithic people had to develop technologies to keep their plants growing They developed the first calendar to keep track of crops Some villages had workshops where villagers would make tools

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