The Comic Craft of Tirso de Molina

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<ul><li><p>INFORMATION TO USERS </p><p>This material was produced from a microfilm copy of the original document. While the most advanced technological means to photograph and reproduce this document have been used, the quality is heavily dependent upon the quality of the original submitted. </p><p>The following explanation of techniques is provided to help you understand markings or patterns which may appear on this reproduction. </p><p>1.The sign or "target" for pages apparently lacking from the document photographed is "Missing Page(s)". If it was possible to obtain the missing page(s) or section, they are spliced into the film along with adjacent pages. This may have necessitated cutting thru an image and duplicating adjacent pages to insure you complete continuity. </p><p>2. When an image on the film is obliterated with a large round black mark, it is an indication that the photographer suspected that the copy may have moved during exposure and thus cause a blurred image. 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Filmed as received. </p><p>Xerox University Microfilms 300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108 </p></li><li><p>76-28,208 </p><p>HAUGHTON, Linda Elizabeth, 1940-THE COMIC CRAFT OF TIRSO DE MOLINA. </p><p>The University of Arizona, Ph.D., 1976 Literature, Romance </p><p>Xerox University Microfilms , Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 </p><p>@ 1976 </p><p>LINDA ELIZABETH HAUGHTON </p><p>ALL RIGHTS RESERVED </p></li><li><p>THE COMIC CRAFT OF TIRSO DE MOLINA </p><p>by </p><p>Linda Elizabeth Haughton </p><p>A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the </p><p>DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES </p><p>In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of </p><p>DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY WITH A MAJOR IN SPANISH </p><p>In the Graduate College </p><p>THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA </p><p>19 7 6 </p><p>Copyright 1976 Linda Elizabeth Haughton </p></li><li><p>THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA </p><p>GRADUATE COLLEGE </p><p>I hereby recommend that this dissertation prepared under my </p><p>direction by Linda Elizabeth Haughton </p><p>entitled The Comic Craft of Tirao de Molina </p><p>be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement of the </p><p>degree of Doctor of Philosophy </p><p>Dissertation Director Date </p><p>After inspection of the final copy of the dissertation, the </p><p>following members of the Final Examination Conmiittee concur in </p><p>its approval and-secommend its acceptance:* </p><p>/A </p><p>rf </p><p>This approval and acceptance is contingent on the candidate's </p><p>adequate performance and defense of this dissertation at the final oral examination. The inclusion of this sheet bound into the library copy of the dissertation is evidence of satisfactory performance at the final examination. </p></li><li><p>STATEMENT BY AUTHOR </p><p>This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library. </p><p>Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright'holder. </p><p>SIGNED: </p></li><li><p>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS </p><p>I am grateful to the members of my committee for </p><p>their kind assistance in every phase of the preparation of </p><p>this dissertation. My sincere thanks to the following </p><p>advisers who have shown great generosity of spirit in </p><p>sharing their time and energies so willingly: </p><p>Professor Robert ter Horst, for being a constant </p><p>course of inspiration; for his erudition, patience, fine </p><p>sense of humor, and grace; and for sharing his private </p><p>library so generously. </p><p>Professor H. Reynolds Stone, for his keen eye and </p><p>many helpful suggestions; for graciously undertaking the </p><p>laborious task of proofreading; and for his compassion and </p><p>moral support. Professor Robert Bacalski, for his </p><p>excellent recommendations throughout; for sharing his </p><p>insights freely; for his friendship and support, </p><p>I also wish to thank Miss Ruth Lee Kennedy for </p><p>providing the opportunity to work for her and to learn from </p><p>her during the preparation of her Studies in Tirso I. And </p><p>for their love, friendship and much needed moral support I </p><p>thank Mr. and Mrs. William Haughton, my parents; Mary </p><p>Busalacchi-Bountalis; Mirene Hazebrouck; Dr. Anita Stafford; </p><p>Susan and Ram6n Martinez; Mary Webb; Marilyn Green; Mr. and </p><p>Mrs. Bernard Kerley; and Dr. William D. Sanders. </p><p>iir </p></li><li><p>iv </p><p>Finally, my thanks to Terry and Bill Clark for their </p><p>professionalism and very capable hands. </p></li><li><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS </p><p>Page </p><p>ABSTRACT Vli </p><p>CHAPTER </p><p>1. INTRODUCTION: THE COMIC CRAFT OF TIRSO DE MOLINA 1 </p><p>2. TIRSO'S THEORY OF THE COMEDIA IN PRACTICE IN EL VERGONZOSO EN PALACIO 8 </p><p>The Defense of the Comedia Nueva in Los Cigarrales de Toledo 9 </p><p>The Defense of the Comedia in El Vergonzoso en Palacio . . . 14 </p><p>Plot of El Vergonzoso r , , , . 17 The Loa and Its Relationship to Play </p><p>and Theory ........... 20 The Title: Aspects of Vergiienza 2 5 The Hunt as Dominant Metaphor of Act I . , . 28 Mireno/Dionis and the Quest for Self-</p><p>Realization , 31 Seekers in the Palace; Don Antonio </p><p>el Curioso 37 Concupiscencia and Vergiienza: Dona </p><p>Madalena's Conflict 4 2 Serafina: The Quest for Knowledge Through Role-Playing 50 </p><p>The Art of El Vergonzoso en Palacio . . . . 5 7 </p><p>3. THE ART OF ENTERTAINMENT IN POR EL SOTANO Y EL TORNO: A STUDY OF THE PLAYWRIGHT AS SATIRIST 61 </p><p>The Plot of Por el S6tano y el Torno . . . . 6 3 Act I: The World Upside Down as </p><p>Underlying Topos 66 Act II: Symmetry and Symbol en Torno al </p><p>Torno , , 79 Act III: The S6tano as Unifying Symbol . . , 89 The Function of the Closing Formula of </p><p>Por el S6tano y el Torno 99 </p><p>v </p></li><li><p>vi </p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTSContinued </p><p>Page </p><p>4. THE ART OF ENREDO IN DON GIL DE LAS CALZAS VERDES: A STUDY OF THE PROTAGONIST AS MYTH-MAKER 103 </p><p>The Title and Its Relation to the Myth of Don Gil , . . . 107 </p><p>Act I: The Creation of Don Gil 113 Act II: Don Gil, Dona Elvira and the </p><p>Well-Crafted Fiction 121 Act III: The "Spiritualization" of </p><p>Don Gil , 127 The Uniqueness of Don Gil de las Calzas </p><p>V e r d e s . . . . . . . . , 1 3 4 </p><p>5. THE ART OF ORDER RESTORED IN EL AMOR MEDICO; A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE AT THE SERVICE OF LOVE . 138 </p><p>The Plot of El Amor Medico 140 The Title of El Amor Medico 142 Symbolic Illness in El Amor Medico 14 6 Vision, the Path to Knowledge and </p><p>Well-Being . , . 15 9 Modes of Translation in El Amor Medico , , , 169 The Triumph of Androgyny in El Amor </p><p>Medico , , 177 The Uniqueness of El Amor Medico 182 </p><p>6. CONCLUSION: TRANSCENDENCE AS THE ESSENCE OF TIRSO'S COMIC CRAFT ... 186 </p><p>REFERENCES 204 </p></li><li><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>Most of the critical attention to the theater of </p><p>Tirso de Molina has centered upon the acknowledged master</p><p>piece El burlador de Sevilla, while relatively little is </p><p>known of many of the dramatist's other plays. The purpose </p><p>of this study is to examine a representative group of </p><p>Tirso's secular comedias as self-contained works of art </p><p>which reveal diverse aspects of this playwright's awareness </p><p>and mastery of his craft. The term "craft" is used </p><p>throughout the dissertation in the sense of "artifice" or </p><p>ingenious contrivance. </p><p>The introduction contains a short discussion of </p><p>recent Tirsian scholarship; a statement of purpose; and an </p><p>explanation of procedure. The body of the dissertation is </p><p>composed of four essays which focus upon outstanding aspects </p><p>of Tirso's comedic craftsmanship. These chapters include: </p><p>"Tirso's Theory of the cornedla in practice in El vergonzoso </p><p>en palacio"; "The Art of Entertainment in Por el s6tano y </p><p>el torno: A Study of the Playwright as Satirist"; "The Art </p><p>of enredo in Don Gil de las calzas verdes: A Study of the </p><p>Protagonist as Myth-Maker"; and "The Art of Order Restored </p><p>in El amor medico: A Study of Knowledge at the Service of </p><p>Love," </p><p>vii </p></li><li><p>Vlll </p><p>Each of the four essays departs from a descriptive </p><p>base and progresses to a detailed analysis of verbal and </p><p>visual symbolism; theme and supporting motifs; structure; </p><p>and character analysis. In the chapters dedicated to Por </p><p>el s6tano y el torno and Don Gil de las calzas verdes, the </p><p>analysis follows along the lines of the development of the </p><p>acts. In the essays which treat El vergonzoso en palacio </p><p>and El amor midico, this linear organization is replaced by </p><p>a more synthetic approach upon dominant metaphors and </p><p>motifs. </p><p>Although the plays examined in this study are </p><p>autonomous, they share certain characteristics which are </p><p>discussed in the concluding chapter. These characteristics </p><p>include an emphasis on the transcendent power of incjenio, </p><p>which overcomes all obstacles in order to restore harmony </p><p>to the imbalanced world of the play; an equal emphasis on </p><p>the related concept of discreci6n in the sense of knowledge </p><p>and wisdom; the reconciliation of the dualism of discreci6n </p><p>and necedad through the actions of ingenious characters and </p><p>with the aid of intermediary devices or traslados; and </p><p>finally, the playwright's awareness of the transcendence </p><p>of intellect and Art as revealed through the creation of </p><p>androgynous female protagonists who surpass their normal </p><p>boundaries in order to attain superior levels of existence. </p><p>This transcendence reflects Tirso's awareness of his own </p><p>challenge to create new and superior works out of the "raw </p></li><li><p>XX </p><p>materials" offered by nature, while working within the </p><p>containing structure of the comedia form and also with the </p><p>moral limits of decency or licitud. The essence of </p><p>Tirso's comic craft is revealed in his concern with the </p><p>surpassing of limitations whose transcendence reflects </p><p>worldly progression toward the divine. </p></li><li><p>CHAPTER 1 </p><p>INTRODUCTION: THE COMIC CRAFT OF TIRSO DE MOLINA </p><p>In the past five years two major contributions to </p><p>the study of the theater of Tirso de Molina have come to </p><p>light. The first work in chronological order is L'univers </p><p>dramatique de Tirso de Molina by Serge Maurel (1971);"'" the </p><p>second is Miss Ruth Lee Kennedy's Studies in Tirso I: The </p><p>Dramatist and his Competitors 1620-1626 (1974).2 A brief </p><p>discussion of these significant offerings to Tirsian </p><p>scholarship follows below. </p><p>L'univers dramatique de Tirso de Molina is a </p><p>compendious work which represents an attempt to unify the </p><p>various parts of Tirso's comedic world and reveal their </p><p>singularity of purpose. Maurel begins this study with an </p><p>account of the source materials for Tllez' theater: these </p><p>include the Bible; lives of Saints; history; contemporary </p><p>events and daily life; and "fantasy." </p><p>The remainder of L'univers dramatique is devoted </p><p>to a reordering of Tirso's known works in such a fashion as </p><p>1. Serge Maurel, L'univers dramatique de Tirso de Molina (Poitiers: Publications de l'Universite de Poitiers, 1971). </p><p>2. Ruth Lee Kennedy, Studies in Tirso I: The Dramatist and his Competitors 1620-1626 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Studies in Romance Languages and Literatures, 1974). </p><p>1 </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p>to reveal the lack of a clear division between the sacred </p><p>and the profane. The author treats this question in two </p><p>lengthy sections entitled "L'ici-bas et lfau-dla confundus" </p><p>and "L1Edification dans l'univers de fantaisie." He con</p><p>cludes that Tirso's plays reflect a consistent commitraent to </p><p>the Christian order, which is "... l'unitg de propos qui </p><p>3 r6git ce theatre." This conclusion is further supported </p><p>in the appendix, which contains a discussion of El burlador </p><p>de Sevilla and El condenado por desconfiado. </p><p>L'univers dramatique de Tirso de Molina is the most </p><p>exhaustive study of the playwright's work to date, and </p><p>merits recognition as the first attempt at a thorough </p><p>synthetic study. The main interest lies in what one </p><p>reviewer describes as . . the desire to clarify beyond </p><p>traditional classifications, the inner unity of a seemingly </p><p>4 disjointed body of work." The same writer observes that </p><p>this kind of "thesis" "... seems marked out to give a new </p><p>5 impetus to Tirsian studies , . . ." </p><p>Miss Kennedy's Studies in Tirso I is the first </p><p>volume of a series whose second book will deal with the </p><p>Mercedarian's political plays and the third, with his </p><p>3. Maurel, pp. 499-500. </p><p>4. Jean Canavaggio, Review in Hispanic Review 42 (1974), p. 347. </p><p>5. Ibid. </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p>g relations to other literary schools and personalities. In </p><p>volume I, the foremost Tirsian scholar focuses on the </p><p>playwright's relations with other dramatists during the </p><p>period 1620^1626, which coincided with the early years of </p><p>the reign of Phillip IV and the rise to power of the Conde-</p><p>Duque de Olivares. This period was one of social and </p><p>economic crises, with consequent call for reform on the part </p><p>of high-minded critics, but little action on the part Qf the </p><p>indolent king. Despite numerous grave problems, Madrid </p><p>attracted many writers who came seeking favor at court and </p><p>material reward. </p><p>Against this background Miss Kennedy describes </p><p>Tirso's turbulent relations with such contemporary drama</p><p>tists as Antonio Hurtado de Mendoza, whom she believes to </p><p>7 have denounced Tllez to the Junta de Reformaci6n in 1625; </p><p>0 Lope, with whom Tirso had a fluctuating relationship; Luis </p><p>Vlez de Guevara, whom the author believes to be the poeta </p><p>9 corpulento satirized by Tirso in certain plays; and Juan </p><p>6. Kennedy, Studies I, p. 13. </p><p>7. Ibid., pp, 86-92. </p><p>8. Ibid., pp. 151-187, "Tirso's Relations to Lope and his Theatre Reappraised." </p><p>9. Ibid., "Tirso and the 'Corpulent' Poet," pp. 247-265, </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>Ruiz de Alarc6n, whom Tirso seems to have satirized from </p><p>1620 to 1625-26.10 </p><p>From Miss Kennedy's meticulous scholarship there </p><p>emerges a portrait of the playwright as a frequent victim </p><p>of envidia and necedad on the part of his rivals, whom Tirso </p><p>satirizes through allusions in many of his plays. Studies </p><p>in Tirso I places Tillez' dramatic production in a literary-^ </p><p>historical perspective which reflects thirty years of </p><p>research and assessment. All students of Tirso's theater </p><p>are greatly indebted to Miss Kennedy for sharing her </p><p>profound knowledge and frequently illuminating intuitions </p><p>in this exemplary scholarly work. </p><p>The most recent work of Tirsian criticism is The </p><p>Comic Art of Tirso de Molina (1975) by David H. Darst.11 </p><p>This study deals with the interplay of Art and Nature in </p><p>seven dramas which include: Esto si que es negociar; El </p><p>melanc61ico; Do...</p></li></ul>