The Cold War and the Americas 1945-1981 Truman, Eisenhower, Castro, Kennedy, Castro, LBJ, Castro, Nixon, Castro, Carter, Castro, Reagan, Castro, Castro,

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The Cold War and the Americas 1945-1981 Truman, Eisenhower, Castro, Kennedy, Castro, LBJ, Castro, Nixon, Castro, Carter, Castro, Reagan, Castro, Castro, Castro Slide 2 Questions to Consider Was U.S. Latin American policy guided by ideology or economic interest? Assess the policies of President Truman, containment and its implication for the Americas. Review the policies of President Eisenhower and U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles: the reasons for the New Look and its repercussions in the region. Evaluate the foreign policies of presidents Kennedy to Carter, the characteristics and reasons behind policies. Understand the effects of the Cold War in Chile. Slide 3 Harry Truman 1945-1953 Democrat First U.S. Cold War president Truman Doctrine, Containment Hands full with Europe and Asia Latin American policy emphasis on keeping commies out of the region Slide 4 Truman 1945-1953 Latin American leaders expected continued U.S. support of Good Neighbor Policy in return for their support to the U.S. during WWII Reciprocal Trade Agreements Nonintervention Economic support (Marshall Plan for Latin America Pan- American (Regional) Conferences L.A. leaders emphasis on economic development, U.S. emphasis on anti-communism and national security Act of Chapultepec (1946) self determination, sovereignty Rio Treaty (1947) mutual defense for American states Slide 5 Truman 1945-1953 Truman admin. Interprets Rio Treaty as extension of containment policy, positive U.S.L.A. relations based on being anti-communism 1947, U.S. pressures Brazil, Chile, Cuba to ban communist organizations and break diplomatic relations with USSR Compulsory, automatic (Cold War) allies of the U.S. Many in Latin America saw Rio as a return to pre-Good Neighbor School of the Americas Established 1945 by US in Panama to train LA military units National Guard units in Central America used to protect dictatorships in Central America (Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominican Republic ) Slide 6 Truman 1945-1953 Organization of American States (OAS) Formalization of regional defense pact Once again administration emphasis on Cold War defense and anti-communist pledges (in spite of State Dept calls for security through economic development) Trumans 1949 Inaugural Address Four Point Program Point Four- scientific, technical and financial aid to the developing world. Less 3% of US aid goes to Latin American states Louis Halle (US State Dept) Mr. Y Foreign Affairs Slide 7 Truman 1945-1953 Bolivia 1952 Revolution Election won by left-leaning Victor Estenssoro, (land reform, universal suffrage) Truman refuses recognition of Estenssoro government NSC-141 seek first..orderly political and economic development which will make LA nations resistant to internal growth of communism and Soviet political warfare. seek hemispheric solidarity in support of our world policy. Slide 8 Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953-1961 Republican Hands full with budget deficits New Look, Domino Theory CIA covert operations Guatemala, Cuba The Dulles brothers Slide 9 Ike 1953-1961 National Security Act 1947, creation of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Collect intelligence and data on foreign governments Section 102 cl. 5 fifth function to perform other functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security as the NSC may from time to time direct.. Eisenhower under advice of Sec. of State John Foster Dulles and CIA director Allen Dulles used covert ops in Iran, Guatemala and planned action for Cuba Plausible deniability Slide 10 Ike 1953-1961 New Look Shift in military budget from large army and navy to building the air force and nuclear stockpile. More bang for the buck. 1953= 1,200 nukes, 1961=22,000 USSR building its own stockpile since 1949 Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Brinksmanship John Foster Dulles moral crusade against communism, shift from mere containment to freeing oppressed peoples of the world (Guatemala, Vietnam) Growing reliance on CIA covert operations (cheap, fast, deniable) Slide 11 Ike 1953-1961 New Look in Canada North Amercan Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) 1958 Early warning system of potential Soviet air raid (bombers and missiles) Preemptive move by Canadian government Slide 12 Ike 1953-1961 New Look in Latin America John Foster Dulles, communism on the rise in Latin America Domino Theory (his proof, China) Hindsight is 20/20 U.S. perceives everything through pinko Cold War glasses Leftist leaders in LA may have had Marxist ideas but did not support Stalin or his methods Land reform was a major political/economic issue in LA. More about nationalism than communism Haciendas and plantations Ejido United Fruit Company (el pulpo) Slide 13 Ike, The Dulles Brothers & Guatemala United Fruit Co.(UFCO) US company est.1889. Invest in LA, cheap land, labor and taxes = big profits Invest in railroads and ports to support exports LA dictators (ex. Jorge Ubico) welcome UFCO investment with low taxes, anti- union policies, and national guard troops UFCO amasses millions of acres of prime growing land but only cultivates 15% of its holdings Slide 14 Ike, The Dulles Brothers & Guatemala First Democratic Elections in Guatemala 1945 Jacobo Arbenz campaigns as a left leaning reformer, becomes president in 1951 Agrarian Reform Bill/Decree 900 Expropriation of uncultivated land Purchased at tax value, paid for with sale of bonds 1.5 million acres redistributed to 100,000 families UFCO refused Guatemalan gov. offer, US State Dept intervenes on behalf of UFCO Dulles connection Slide 15 Ike, The Dulles Brothers & Guatemala US (Dulles Bros.) see Arbenz as a communist Pressures Organization of American States (OAS)to issue Caracas Declaration (1945) in which member states vow to stop Marxist influence within their governments. US declares an embargo on Guatemala Operation PBSUCCESS CIA covert operation to overthrow Arbenz Arbenz fearful of a coup requests arms sales from US (unaware that the CIA is behind coup) US refuses arms sales, Arbenz seeks weapons from Poland (Soviet Satellite state) US uses arms sale as proof that Arbenz is communist Slide 16 Ike, The Dulles Brothers & Guatemala The Coup Honduras base of operation, CIA funds a small army led by exiled General Castillo Armas Ahead of Armas CIA launches psyops: radio broadcasts of false troop movements, CIA pilots in false marked aircraft buzz Guatemala City Panic ensues, Guatemalan army refuses to fight Arbenz resigns an goes into exile Slide 17 Ike, The Dulles Brothers & Guatemala The Coup Aftermath Armas is installed as the new president and reverses Decree 900, restoring all expropriated land to UFCO Operation PBHISTORY Armas marks the beginning of a string of brutal dictators to rule Guatemala until 1999. Today, Guatemala is poorest state in Central America Slide 18 Glorious Victory artist Diego Rivera Slide 19 Vice-Pres. Nixon Visits Latin America May 1958 Ike sends Nixon to LA Shocked by widespread anti- US protests (students) Caracas and Lima students turn violent US State Dept blames communists agitators Nixon urges Ike increase economic aid to LA US recession and deficit spending force Ike to cut economic aid to LA Slide 20 Revolucion July 26 th, 1953: Fidel Castro and 160 rebels are defeated in their attack on the Moncada army barracks in attempt to overthrow dictator Fulgencio Batista Fidel and brother Raul are arrested and sentenced to 15 yrs. prison, only to be released in 1955. Castro bros. meet Ernesto Che Guevara in Mexico, organize the 26 th July Movement, and launch another attack in 1958. Castros revolutionary army retreats to Sierra Maestra & builds peasant support for the revolution. Eisenhower cuts ties with Batista and embargoes arms shipments to Cuban government (Why?) Slide 21 Post-Revolution 1959-1960 Castro begins to purge the military and police of Batista loyalists While visiting the U.S., Castro says "I know the world thinks of us, we are Communists, and of course I have said very clear that we are not Communists; very clear." Eisenhower officially recognizes Castros post-revolution Cuban government. Slide 22 Post-Revolution Period 1959- 1960 U.S. concerned by Cuban agrarian reforms including redistribution of land, tries to pressure Cuba economically by cutting Cubas sugar imports and oil exports from the U.S. to Cuba March 1960, the Le Coubre explodes in Havana harbor. (sound familiar) March 1960: Eisenhower authorizes the CIA to recruit and train Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro. October 1960: U.S. imposes trade embargo. So, Cuba began to open trade relations with the Soviet Union. January 3, 1961: US withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Cuban government and closed the embassy in Havana Kennedy is elected president Nov. 1960 Slide 23 More to Come