The Buddhist theory of the origin of state.doc
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The Buddhist theory of the origin of state
Explain the origin of state and discuss what are the principles that to be followed by universal monarch towards good government
The Buddhist theory of the origin the state is described in the Agganna Sutta of Dighanikaya. It described briefly the involution and evolution of the universe. When the universe is evolving the majority of the being pass away from their world of radiance bodies to this world. They remain for a very long time made of mind feeling on joy, self luminous. Living in the sky and stain, they live without having food. At that time there is just want mass of water of obscurity the darkness of obscurity. The sun and the moon are not appearing even the star, day and night, seasons, male or female. Beings are classified simply as being.
After long time tasted earth appear. It has colour and taste. Its colour was like that of ghee or butter. Its taste was like that of sweet white honey. Then a certain being tasted the enjoyment earth with its finger. It was pleased and desired arose with in it. Another being following the ideas of that being tasted the enjoyment earth with their fingers. On account of tasted earth craving entered into the inhabitance of earth planner. At this state the full system of sun, moon, star and constellation come into function. The complexes light and dark appeared among the inhabitance. Those who were fair were proud and tasted the dark. Those who fried thus entered into human mind. People will start feeling on plants. The first plants on the earth were said to be mushroom, creepers, rice appeared. After the being taking rice A universal monarch is born to this world for the profit happiness and welfare not only humans but also gods. He is an extraordinary man acchariyamanussa and his deed is regretted by many. The whole rolling monarch is evolved with five qualities known as
1. Attannu He knows of good,
2. Dhammannu He knows righteousness,
3. Katannu He knows times for pleasure, court work and touring the country,
4. Parisannu, He knows whether assembled men are noble Brahmins,
5. Mattannu, He knows the measure in punishment and imposition.
Except Lord Buddha universal monarch also is said to have thirty-two marks of a super man. This mark is given in Lakkhana Sutta of Dighanikaya not only that thirty-two marks universal monarch possess seven precious things. They are as follows
1. Wheel treasure cakkaratana
2. Elephant treasure hatthiratana
3. Horse treasure assaratana
4. Gem treasure maniratana
5. Woman treasure itthiratana
6. Wonderful treasure gahapatiratana
7. Wonderful adviser parinayaratana.
There are four efficacies of the wheel rolling monarch, they might not be common but they are not finite extraordinary. The first efficacy is that the wheel rolling monarch is grateful in figure, handsome in appearance, blessing in manner, of most beautiful complexion. The second efficacy is that the wheel rolling monarch is of long life and many years. The third efficacy is that the wheel rolling monarch is free from disease and bodily suffering. His internal five was neither too hot nor too cool but such as too promote good digestion. The fourth efficacy is that the wheel rolling monarch is dear to Brahmins, householders, and beloved by them just as a father is dear and near to his own sons.
The wheel rolling monarch is different from the ordinary king mainly on the basic that he rules righteously. Therefore he is always called the judge and righteous ruler. It is legitimate to think that a Cakkavatti fulfill his function without partiality chanta, hate dosa fear bhaya and all stupidity moha. It is the duty of a universal monarch to prevent poverty.
The root of so many evils as we have been shown by grants to the poor is delusion. This principle of the ancient emperors which maintain both prosperity and morality until one of them failed to continue it. It elucidated by the advice to grant realms. Three productive class of society are envisaged the peasantry or farmers are to be supplied with seed to extend their agriculture and with fodder if they take off cattle breeding.
Traders are to be supplied with capital to under take their operations. The third class probably included a great variety of wage earners working in the royal service. Not merely officious soldiers and the like. It was usually in that period for various industries such as meaning the method industries and the textile industries to be organised directly by the government. Some industry when carried on by merchants more. But the Buddha advises to King to dispend wage and food to those in the royal service certainly means that the basic industries of the country are to be expended by ruler increasing his labour free. After industry would be expended by the part of the capital grants to the merchants as well as in directly encouraged by successful trade.
The implementation of this economic policy is said to be have brought security and rejoicing.
A Universal Monarch has to follow the Ten principles providing protection for;
1. Ones own fold,
5. Brahmins and householders,
6. Town and country dwellers,
7. Religious men,
8. Birds and beasts,
9. As well as keeping the country free from crime,
10. And giving wealth to the poor.
These ten principles of Universal Monarch can be compared with the ten duties of a king enunciated by the Buddha in a different context. They are;
1. Dana giving, includes charity and practicing generosity. Kings are supported to be liberal, free from attachment to wealth and property. Revenue must be used for the purpose of implementing welfare works in their kingdoms.