THE BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON. the appendicular skeleton = 126 bones of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs the appendicular.

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  • Slide 1
  • THE BONES OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON
  • Slide 2
  • the appendicular skeleton = 126 bones of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs the appendicular skeleton = 126 bones of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs
  • Slide 3
  • SKELETAL ORGANIZATION pectoral girdle = scapula + clavicles pectoral girdle = scapula + clavicles upper limbs = humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges upper limbs = humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges pelvic girdle = 2 os coxae or coxal bones pelvic girdle = 2 os coxae or coxal bones lower limbs = femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges lower limbs = femur, tibia, fibula, patella, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
  • Slide 4
  • THE PECTORAL GIRDLE 2 clavicles + 2 scapula 2 clavicles + 2 scapula supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment supports the upper limbs, provides a place for muscle attachment arrangement of bones arrangement of bones is good for mobility, is good for mobility, but bad for stability
  • Slide 5
  • THE PECTORAL GIRDLE clavicles = collarbones clavicles = collarbones S shape S shape not very strong; easily fractured not very strong; easily fractured
  • Slide 6
  • THE PECTORAL GIRDLE scapulae = spade shoulder blades scapulae = spade shoulder blades broad, triangular bones broad, triangular bones
  • Slide 7
  • THE PECTORAL GIRDLE glenoid cavity = a depression where the head of the humerus fits glenoid cavity = a depression where the head of the humerus fits
  • Slide 8
  • THE UPPER LIMBS humerus: location = upper arm humerus: location = upper arm extends from the scapula to the elbow extends from the scapula to the elbow head fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula head fits into the glenoid cavity of the scapula
  • Slide 9
  • THE UPPER LIMBS radius: location = forearm radius: location = forearm on the thumb side between the elbow & wrist on the thumb side between the elbow & wrist
  • Slide 10
  • THE UPPER LIMBS ulna = forearm ulna = forearm longer than the radius, overlaps the humerus longer than the radius, overlaps the humerus
  • Slide 11
  • THE UPPER LIMBS carpals = wrist carpals = wrist 8 bones 2 rows of four short bones 8 bones 2 rows of four short bones
  • Slide 12
  • THE UPPER LIMBS 5 metacarpals = palm 5 metacarpals = palm distal ends form the knuckles distal ends form the knuckles numbered 1-5 starting with the thumb numbered 1-5 starting with the thumb
  • Slide 13
  • THE UPPER LIMBS 14 phalanges = fingers / digits 14 phalanges = fingers / digits 3 in each finger (proximal, middle, distal), 2 in the thumb / pollex (proximal, distal) 3 in each finger (proximal, middle, distal), 2 in the thumb / pollex (proximal, distal)
  • Slide 14
  • THE PELVIC GIRDLE made of 2 os coxae or coxal bones which articulate with each other & the sacrum made of 2 os coxae or coxal bones which articulate with each other & the sacrum
  • Slide 15
  • THE PELVIC GIRDLE functions include support for the trunk, attachments for the lower limbs, protection for the bladder, large intestine, & reproductive organs functions include support for the trunk, attachments for the lower limbs, protection for the bladder, large intestine, & reproductive organs has a cup-shaped acetabulum which receives the head of the femur has a cup-shaped acetabulum which receives the head of the femur
  • Slide 16
  • THE PELVIC GIRDLE each coxal bone has 3 parts: each coxal bone has 3 parts: ilium: the largest portion, upper prominence called the iliac crest ilium: the largest portion, upper prominence called the iliac crest ischium: the lowest portion, you sit on the ischial tuberosities ischium: the lowest portion, you sit on the ischial tuberosities pubis: the anterior portion, fuses at the pubic symphysis pubis: the anterior portion, fuses at the pubic symphysis
  • Slide 17
  • THE PELVIC GIRDLE the obturator foramen is a large opening where nerves & blood vessels pass from the spinal cord to the lower limbs the obturator foramen is a large opening where nerves & blood vessels pass from the spinal cord to the lower limbs
  • Slide 18
  • THE LOWER LIMBS
  • Slide 19
  • femur = thigh bone femur = thigh bone longest, strongest bone in the body longest, strongest bone in the body extends from the hip to the knee extends from the hip to the knee head of femur fits into the acetabulum of the coxae head of femur fits into the acetabulum of the coxae
  • Slide 20
  • Patella = kneecap, a sesamoid bone Patella = kneecap, a sesamoid bone articulates with the femur articulates with the femur
  • Slide 21
  • THE LOWER LIMBS tibia = larger bone of the lower leg, shin tibia = larger bone of the lower leg, shin on the medial side of the leg on the medial side of the leg
  • Slide 22
  • THE LOWER LIMBS fibula = smaller bone of the lower leg fibula = smaller bone of the lower leg on the lateral lower leg on the lateral lower leg bears no weight bears no weight
  • Slide 23
  • THE LOWER LIMBS tarsals = ankle tarsals = ankle 7 tarsal bones 7 tarsal bones the talus is the only free moving bone of the ankle the talus is the only free moving bone of the ankle the calcaneus / heel is the largest tarsal bone the calcaneus / heel is the largest tarsal bone
  • Slide 24
  • THE LOWER LIMBS metatarsals = soles / arch metatarsals = soles / arch numbered 1-5 starting with the big toe numbered 1-5 starting with the big toe longitudinal arch + transverse arch longitudinal arch + transverse arch when arches weaken you may get flat feet when arches weaken you may get flat feet
  • Slide 25
  • THE LOWER LIMBS phalanges = toes phalanges = toes 14 total, 3 in each except the big toe 14 total, 3 in each except the big toe
  • Slide 26
  • JOINTS 230 in the body 230 in the body = functional junctions between bones = functional junctions between bones bind parts of the skeletal system bind parts of the skeletal system make bone growth possible make bone growth possible allow the skeleton to change shape during birth allow the skeleton to change shape during birth enable movement enable movement
  • Slide 27
  • JOINTS classified according to their degree of movement = functional classification classified according to their degree of movement = functional classification immovable immovable slightly movable slightly movable freely movable freely movable
  • Slide 28
  • JOINTS also classified according to the type of tissue binding bone = structural classification also classified according to the type of tissue binding bone = structural classification fibrous fibrous cartilaginous cartilaginous synovial synovial
  • Slide 29
  • FIBROUS JOINTS: bones are tightly joined by a layer of dense connective tissue bones are tightly joined by a layer of dense connective tissue allow little or no movement allow little or no movement ex. sutures of the skull, tibia-fibula ex. sutures of the skull, tibia-fibula
  • Slide 30
  • CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS: bones are connected by fibrocartilage bones are connected by fibrocartilage allow limited movement allow limited movement ex. intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, 1st rib to sternum ex. intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, 1st rib to sternum
  • Slide 31
  • SYNOVIAL JOINTS: bones are covered with articular cartilage & held together by a fibrous joint capsule (outer layer of ligaments + inner layer of synovial membrane) bones are covered with articular cartilage & held together by a fibrous joint capsule (outer layer of ligaments + inner layer of synovial membrane)
  • Slide 32
  • SYNOVIAL JOINTS: some have menisci (shock-absorbing pads), some have bursae (fluid-filled sacs located between the skin & bony prominences such as knees & elbows) some have menisci (shock-absorbing pads), some have bursae (fluid-filled sacs located between the skin & bony prominences such as knees & elbows)
  • Slide 33
  • SYNOVIAL JOINTS: types of synovial joints: types of synovial joints: gliding gliding hinge hinge Pivot Pivot ellipsoidal ellipsoidal saddle saddle ball-and-socket ball-and-socket
  • Slide 34
  • TYPES OF JOINT MOVEMENTS: flexion / extension flexion / extension abduction / adduction abduction / adduction Circumduction Circumduction hyperextension Refer to handouts! hyperextension Refer to handouts! retraction / protraction retraction / protraction elevation / depression elevation / depression Rotation Rotation pronation / supination pronation / supination opposition opposition dorsiflexion / plantar flexion dorsiflexion / plantar flexion eversion / inversion eversion / inversion

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