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The Biblical Foundation for Mutual Submission and Shared Authority Between Men and Women in Church and Marriage Philip B. Payne, Ph.D. Philip B. Payne, Ph.D. Author: Author: Man and Woman, One in Christ Man and Woman, One in Christ Teacher: Teacher: Fuller, Gordon-Conwell, Bethel, Fuller, Gordon-Conwell, Bethel, Trinity, Cambridge Trinity, Cambridge President: Linguist’s Software President: Linguist’s Software www.pbpayne.com www.pbpayne.com

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The Biblical Foundation for Mutual Submission and Shared Authority Between Men and Women in Church and Marriage Philip B. Payne, Ph.D. Author: Man and Woman, One in Christ Teacher: Fuller, Gordon-Conwell, Bethel, Trinity, Cambridge President: Linguists Software www.pbpayne.com Slide 2 Objections to Equality The Bible (Allegedly) Teaches 1. Male Headship 2. Wives, submit to your husbands 3. Women may not teach 4. Mans priority in the Creation Order 5. Woman is mans helper 6. He will rule over you Slide 3 Objections to Equality The Bible (Allegedly) Teaches 7. Only males exemplify OT leadership 8. Only male priests 9. Only male Apostles 10. Only male overseers, pastors, elders 11. Women should not speak in church 12. Women have separate roles Slide 4 1. Male headship Liddell Scott Jones, Greek-English Lexicon, lists 48 translations of kephal as a metaphor, but none means leader or authority. In only 6 of 171 instances in LXX (Greek OT) where head ( ro ) may convey leader did they translate it with the metaphor kephal in a way that clearly means leader. Slide 5 Male headshipMale headship Seven of the ten people Rom 16:116 names as Pauls colleagues in ministry are women: 1-2 Phoebe, deacon of the church in Cenchreae 3 Priscilla and Aquila, my co-workers in Christ 7 Andronicus and Junia outstanding among the apostles. 6 Mary, Tryphena and Tryphosa, 12 Persis women who work hard in the Lord. Slide 6 2. Wives, submit to your husbands Eph 5:2122 Context: mutual submission 23 head explained as savior by apposition 25 savior + husband gives himself for 29 nourishes and cherishes 1 Tim 5:14 Wives be house despots. 1 Cor 7 Wives and husbands equal 12x Slide 7 3. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man 1 Timothy 2:12 Authentein is best translated: Authentein is best translated: to assume authorityto assume authority Paul typically uses the conjunction (oude) to join two elements to convey a single idea Paul typically uses the conjunction (oude) to join two elements to convey a single idea I am not permitting normally not universal I am not permitting normally not universal Paul permitted women to teach elsewhere Paul permitted women to teach elsewhere Slide 8 NT Affirmations of Women Teaching: Acts 18:26 Priscilla and Aquila explained to [Apollos] the way of God more adequately. Acts 21:89 Philip had four daughters who prophesied. 1 Cor 11:5 But every woman who prays or prophesies 1 Cor 14:5 I would like every one of you to prophesy. 1 Cor 14:24 while everyone is prophesying 1 Cor 14:26 brothers and sisters each of you has a word of instruction, a revelation 1 Cor 14:31 you can all prophesy so that everyone may be instructed. 1 Cor 14:39 brothers and sisters, be eager to prophesy Col 3:16 Addressed to the whole church: teach and admonish one another with all wisdom. 1 Tim 3:12 Whoever aspires to be an overseer is to be able to teach. 2 Tim 2:2 entrust to reliable people who will also be qualified to teach ( ) others. Titus 2:3 teach the older women to teach what is good. 2 Tim 1:5; 3:14-16 your faith, which first lived in your grandmother Lois and in your mother Eunice from infancy you have known the Holy Scriptures. Heb 3:1, 12; 5:12 brothers and sisters, by this time you ought to be teachers. Slide 9 4. The Creation Order Establishes Mans Priority Genesis Creation Account Stresses Equality: 1:2627 God said, Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness. So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created them; male and female he created them. When God created mankind, he made them in the likeness of God. 1:26, 2829, God gave both dominion over the earth, 1:28; 5:2 God blessed them And He named them Mankind (plurals are consistent throughout) 2:23 Made of the same substance: bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh. 2:24 In marriage they are united and one flesh. 2:24 a man leaves his father and mother and is united to his wife. This is contrary to a male centered culture. 3:613 Together they face temptation and fail. Both hide from God. Both experience guilt. Both pass the blame. God speaks to both announcing specific consequences of their sin. Both are responsible for their own acts. Slide 10 5. Woman is Mans Helper Gen 2:18 zer = help, savior, rescuer, protector, strength, might Gen 2:18 zer = help, savior, rescuer, protector, strength, might Elsewhere in the OT 15x God is our help, 4x of a military protector as in front of him knegd as in front of him knegd ( k = as) + ( negd = in front of/before) + ( = him) like his opposite > proper for him. HALOT 2:666. like his opposite > proper for him. HALOT 2:666. The etymologically-related noun ngd refers to the person in front, HALOT 2:66768, the one declared (by Yahweh) to lead chief, leader, the leader of Israel, appointed by Yahweh. It is used of Davids and Solomons rule over Israel in 1 Sam 9:16; 13:14, and 1 Kgs 1:35. Together this expression conveys: Strength as in front of him. ( literal) a strength corresponding to him. (flowing) a strength corresponding to him. (flowing) Slide 11 6. He will rule over you Gen 3:16 A statement of what will result from the fall, not Gods decree of what should be. A statement of what will result from the fall, not Gods decree of what should be. All male rule, not just bad rule, comes from the Fall. Both major Hebrew Lexicons (HALOT 2:64748 and BDB 605) list no negative meaning for rule. All male rule, not just bad rule, comes from the Fall. Both major Hebrew Lexicons (HALOT 2:64748 and BDB 605) list no negative meaning for rule. Why should we support a curse the Fall introduced, namely mans rule over woman? Why should we support a curse the Fall introduced, namely mans rule over woman? Slide 12 7. Pattern of male leadership in OT God sent the prophetess Miriam to lead Israel. Micah 6:4 God sent the prophetess Miriam to lead Israel. Micah 6:4 Deborah prophetess, the highest leader in all Israel (Judg 4:45). Deborah prophetess, the highest leader in all Israel (Judg 4:45). Queen Esther along with Mordecai, Wrote with full authority. Esthers decree confirmed these regulations. Esther 9:2932 Queen Esther along with Mordecai, Wrote with full authority. Esthers decree confirmed these regulations. Esther 9:2932 The king, the elders, the prophets, and the people accepted the prophetess Huldahs word as divinely revealed, producing Israels greatest revival (2 Kgs 22:1423:25; 2 Chr 34:2235:19). The king, the elders, the prophets, and the people accepted the prophetess Huldahs word as divinely revealed, producing Israels greatest revival (2 Kgs 22:1423:25; 2 Chr 34:2235:19). would that all the Lords people were prophets! Num 11:29 would that all the Lords people were prophets! Num 11:29 O woman, say, Here is your God! Isa 40:9 O woman, say, Here is your God! Isa 40:9 The Lord announced the word; the women proclaiming (feminine plural) it are a great company. Psalm 68:11 (12 MT) The Lord announced the word; the women proclaiming (feminine plural) it are a great company. Psalm 68:11 (12 MT) Slide 13 8. Only males were priests Deut 23:17 provides cultural explanation for no women priests in ancient Israel: prohibiting cult prostitution.Deut 23:17 provides cultural explanation for no women priests in ancient Israel: prohibiting cult prostitution. Exod 19:6 The OT ideal was for all of Israel to be A kingdom of priests and a holy nation.Exod 19:6 The OT ideal was for all of Israel to be A kingdom of priests and a holy nation. Isaiah 61:6 predicted a future when all of Gods people Will be called priests of the LORD, you will be named ministers of our God.Isaiah 61:6 predicted a future when all of Gods people Will be called priests of the LORD, you will be named ministers of our God. Slide 14 Only males were priests God revealed inspired Scripture through women: Exod 15:21 the song of Miriam Exod 15:21 the song of Miriam Judg 5:231 the song of Deborah Judg 5:231 the song of Deborah 1 Sam 2:110 Hannahs prayer 1 Sam 2:110 Hannahs prayer 1 Sam 25:2431 Abigails prophecy and blessing of Davids enduring house 1 Sam 25:2431 Abigails prophecy and blessing of Davids enduring house Luke 1:25, 4245 Elizabeths blessing Luke 1:25, 4245 Elizabeths blessing Luke 1:4655 Marys Magnificat Luke 1:4655 Marys Magnificat Slide 15 9. Only males were apostles Jesus chose men to avoid scandal and for symbolic parallel, not to ban women leaders. Jesus in all his words and deeds treated women as full persons equal with men, never subordinate or restricted in role. Jesus John 4:1426;11:2526 taught Samaritan woman and Martha. John 4:1426;11:2526 taught Samaritan woman and Martha. Luke 10:3842 encouraged female disciples like Mary. Luke 10:3842 encouraged female disciples like Mary. Mark 10:12 treated men and women equally regarding adultery and divorce. Mark 10:12 treated men and women equally regarding adultery and divorce. John 20:1418 demonstrates his respect for womens testimony by appearing post resurrection first to Mary Magdalene. John 20:1418 demonstrates his respect for womens testimony by appearing post resurrection first to Mary Magdalene. Slide 16 10. Only males were elders, overseers, or pastors Apart from Christ, the NT does not name anyone man or woman as overseer (episkopos) or pastor ( poimn ). Heb 13:20; 1 Pet 2:25; 5:4 Apart from Christ, the NT does not name anyone man or woman as overseer (episkopos) or pastor ( poimn ). Heb 13:20; 1 Pet 2:25; 5:4 John refers to himself twice as The elder, (2 John 1; 3 John 1) a title unique to him. Nothing in context associates this title with a local church or with administrative duties. John refers to himself twice as The elder, (2 John 1; 3 John 1) a title unique to him. Nothing in context associates this title with a local church or with administrative duties. 2 Pet 5:1 Peter Fellow-elder, a witness of Christs sufferings (synpresbyteros) also highlights his special witness status. 2 Pet 5:1 Peter Fellow-elder, a witness of Christs sufferings (synpresbyteros) also highlights his special witness status. Rom 16:1 Clearest identification of an individual with a church office is: Phoebe, deacon of the church in Cenchrea. Rom 16:1 Clearest identification of an individual with a church office is: Phoebe, deacon of the church in Cenchrea. Slide 17 11. Let women in the churches be silent 1 Corinthians 14:3435 1 Cor 14:5 I would like every one of you to prophesy 1 Cor 14:24 while everyone is prophesying 1 Cor 14:26 brothers and sisters each of you has a word of instruction, a revelation 1 Cor 14:31 you can all prophesy so that everyone may be instructed 1 Cor 14:39 brothers and sisters, be eager to prophesy 1 Cor 11:5 But every woman who prays or prophesies Slide 18 Let women in the churches keep silent 1 Corinthians 14:3435 Codex Vaticanus, the oldest Greek Bible, written ca. A.D. 350, uses this symbol 8 times. Each occurs at the exact location of a widely-recognized, multi-word later addition. Codex Vaticanus, the oldest Greek Bible, written ca. A.D. 350, uses this symbol 8 times. Each occurs at the exact location of a widely-recognized, multi-word later addition. All the evidence indicates that this one marks 1 Cor 14:34 35 as a later addition. All the evidence indicates that this one marks 1 Cor 14:34 35 as a later addition. Slide 19 12. Separate roles for women 1 Cor 11:11 mutuality and shared authority of man and woman, even in prophecy. 1 Cor 11:11 mutuality and shared authority of man and woman, even in prophecy. Gal 2:11-14; 3:28 Any exclusion of women as a class from participation in the church is contrary to the gospel. Gal 2:11-14; 3:28 Any exclusion of women as a class from participation in the church is contrary to the gospel. Gal 3:28 doesnt merely state that all can be saved. It calls for radically new social interaction based on equality in church. Gal 3:28 doesnt merely state that all can be saved. It calls for radically new social interaction based on equality in church. Slide 20 Objections to Equality, Answered Objections to Equality, Answered The Bible Teaches: 1.Shared leadership, NOT Male Headship 2. Submit one to another, NOT just Wives submit to your husbands 3. Women may not teach Slide 21 Objections to Equality, Answered The Bible Teaches 4.Shared dominion in Creation, NOT Mans priority in the Creation Order 5.Woman is strength corresponding to man, NOT mans subordinate helper 6.Male rule is part of the Curse. He will rule over you is NOT Gods ideal. Slide 22 Objections to Equality, Answered The Bible Teaches 7.Female leadership in the OT. NOT only males exemplify OT leadership 8.All believers being priests is the ideal, even though only male priests in OT 9.Women leaders in the apostolic church, even though only males in the 12 Apostles Slide 23 Objections to Equality, Answered The Bible Teaches 10.Phoebe was a deacon. NT gives no man by name a local church leadership title. 11. Women should not speak in church 12. Exclusion of women from church leadership is contrary to the Gospel, NOT separate roles for men & women Slide 24 Conclusion The Bible teaches the equal standing of men and women in the church, including church leadership. The Bible teaches the equal standing of men and women in the church, including church leadership. An avalanche of texts clearly support this. An avalanche of texts clearly support this. Let us who know these truths proclaim the liberating message of the gospel! Let us who know these truths proclaim the liberating message of the gospel!