the basics of apa style a guide to student papers

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  • The Basics of APA StyleA guide to student papers

  • Three areas of concern:

    Part I: Formatting your paperPart II: The reference listPart III: Parenthetical, or in-text citation

  • Part I:Formatting your paperUse 8 X 11 inch paper12 point, New Times Roman, or similar font3 cm margins, 3,5 cm for left-hand margin.Double-space your text

  • Part I:Formatting your paperNumber pages consecutivelyThe first page is your title page:TitleYour nameYour affiliation

  • Part I:Formatting your paperAbstract (summary) on page two, if required by teachers.Next page: center full title, followed by the main body of the text on the next lineIndent the first line of each paragraph by five spaces (1 cm). Figures, tables, charts may be incorporated into the body of the text

  • Part II:The reference listReference sources used in your paper must be listed. Start references on a new page after the body of your text.

    List alphabetically by authors last name (or title, if author not known).

  • Part II:The reference listThe purpose of the reference list is to: Identify and credit the sources you usedEnable the reader to locate your sourcesAPA style is used in the social sciences, education, engineering and business.Emphasizes the date of publication

  • Example of reference listReferences

    Heinerman, J. (1988). Heinermans encyclopedia of fruits, vegetables and herbs. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Kowalchik, C. & Hylton, W. (1998). Rodales illustrated encyclopedia of herbs. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.

    Wardlaw, G. M. & Smith, A. M. (2006). Contemporary nutrition. Boston: McGraw Hill.

    Weiss, S. E. (Ed.). (1997). Foods that harm, foods that heal. Pleasantville, NY: The Readers Digest Association, Inc.

  • Part II:The reference listIf you have more than one source by the same author, arrange by year of publication beginning with the earliest.

    Capitalization: titles of books and articles are treated like sentences with only the first word capitalized. (Proper nouns should be capitalized, just as they would in a sentence.)

  • Part II:The reference listSingle-author entries precede those with co-authors.Multiple authors are joined with an ampersand & instead of with the word and.Authors first names are always reduced to initials.

  • Part II:The reference listPeriodicalsAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), xxx-xxx.

    Sacks, S. E. (2004). Fraud risk: are you prepared? Journal of Accountancy, 198(3), 57-63.

  • Part II:The reference listNonperiodicalsAuthor, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

    Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Part II:The reference listPart of a nonperiodical (e.g., a book chapter)Author, A. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

    Lipson, C. (2004). Plagiarism and academic honesty. In S. Jones (Ed.), Integrity in scholarship (pp. 32-48). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Part II:The reference listReferences to Electronic SourcesIn general, include the same information as you would for a print resource, and add as much electronic retrieval info as needed to locate the source.Content with no fixed publication date should include a retrieval date.If the source has a DOI (Digital Object Identifier), use it instead of a URL

  • Part II:The reference listArticle with DOI assignedAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:

    Belli, B. (2007). Nuking food: Contamination fears and market possibilities spur an irradiation revival. E: The Environmental Magazine, 18 (4), 136-142. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482

  • Part II:The reference listArticle with no DOI assignedAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved from URL

    Belli, B. (2007). Nuking food: Contamination fears and market possibilities spur an irradiation revival. E: The Environmental Magazine, 18 (4), 136-142. Retrieved from http://www.emagazine.com/view/?3790

  • Part II:The reference listEncyclopediaAuthor, A. A. (Year). Title of article. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from URL

    Ennis, W.(2006).Sign Language.InG. Albrecht(Ed.),Encyclopedia of Disability. RetrievedAugust 28, 2007,fromGale Virtual Reference Library, Pima County Public Library, www.tppl.org

  • Part II:The reference listNewspaper articleAuthor, A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper. Retrieved from URL

    Rico, G. (2007, August 28). Hayden could get Superfund cleanup. The Arizona Daily Star. Retrieved from http://www.azstarnet.com/metro/198476

  • Part II:The reference listPodcastCreator, Producer, Director, etc. (Persons title). (Year, Month Day). Title of show, segment, etc. [Number or other identifier]. Title of podcast. Podcast retrieved from URLGlass, I. (Producer). (2007, August 3). Blame it on art [Show 73]. This American Life. Podcast retrieved from http://www.thisamericanlife.org

  • Part II:The reference listArticle on web site, no dateAuthor, A. A. (n. d.). Title of article. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

    Doughan, D. (n. d.) J. R. R. Tolkien: A biographical sketch. Retrieved August 28, 2007, from http://www.lordotrings.com/noflash/biography.asp

  • Part III:Parenthetical, or in-text citationWithin the body of your text, you must cite your sources as you use them.You must cite any and all data, facts, information, opinions, ideas, tables, charts, graphics, photographs, etc. that you obtained in your research.

  • Part III:Parenthetical, or in-text citationParaphrasingOne idea is to surround quotations with big Qs to distinguish the authors words from your own ideas (Lipson, 2004).

    In Doing honest work in college, Lipson (2004) suggests surrounding quotations with big Qs to distinguish the authors words from your own ideas.___________________________________________Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Part III:Parenthetical, or in-text citationDirect quoteLipsons first rule of academic honesty is, When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it (2004, p. 3).

    A good rule to follow is When you say you did the work yourself, you actually did it (Lipson, 2004, p. 3).___________________________________________Lipson, C. (2004). Doing honest work in college. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • ConclusionFormatting rules make research papers uniform and easy to readThe ability to verify facts through proper citation of sources is essential to good scholarshipIn-text citation and the reference listIdentify and credit the sources you usedEnable the reader to locate your sources