the atom atomic number mass number isotopes elements periodic table chapter 4 atoms and elements
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The AtomAtomic Number Mass NumberIsotopesElementsPeriodic TableChapter 4 Atoms and Elements
What do all of these things have in common?
What Are Atoms?Atoms are the building blocks of matter.So what is matter?Anything that has mass AND takes up space.Examples:
Atomic TheoryAtoms are the building blocks of all matter, which included elements Democritus, JJ Thomson, E Rutherford, N Bohr, Chadwick, Shrodinger, current wave theory
What Are Elements?Pure substances made up of all the same type of atom (same # of: p+, n, e-)The 4 most abundant elements on Earth are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen (POINTER: COHN or NOCH)112 elements known todayExamples: carbongoldcalcium
What element do these things have in common?
Heres a Hint
IRON (Fe) Latin: ferrumCheapestMost commonMost useful
Used extensively for the making of STEEL
IRON (Fe) Latin: ferrumIt also carries oxygen in hemoglobin in red blood cells.
% Major Elements in the BodyO65.0 %K 0.34C18.0S 0.26H10.0Na 0.14N 3.0Cl 0.14Ca 1.4Fe 0.004P 1.0 Zn 0.003 Mg 0.50
Symbols of ElementsUse 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalize the first letter only
Examples:C carbon CocobaltN nitrogenCacalciumF fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium
Symbols from Latin NamesElementSymbolLatin nameCopperCucuprumGoldAuaurumLeadPbplumbumMercuryHghydrargyrumPotassiumKkaliumSilverAgargentumSodiumNanatriumTinSnstannum
Take a guess what the correct symbol is for the element!
Select the correct symbol for each:A. Calcium1) C 2) Ca3) CAB. Sulfur 1) S 2) Sl3) SuC. Iron1) Ir 2) FE3) Fe
Take a guess what the correct element is! Select the correct name for each:A. N1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickelB. P1) potassium2) phogiston3) phosphorusC. Ag1) silver 2) agean3) gold
Periodic TableThe periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to:The number of protons, neutrons, and electronsThe way they lookThe way they act
The Periodic TableShows the mass number and atomic numberGives the symbol of the elementmass number 23 Na or Na-23 atomic number 11
Groups of ElementsVertical (up and down) columns on the periodic tableIndicates the number of electrons on the outer most shell called valence electrons.
Periods on the Periodic TableHorizontal (left to right) rows on the Periodic Table.Numbered 1-7Indicates the number of orbitals or shells the element has.
Periods on the Periodic Table
Using The Periodic TableIn your notes, use your periodic tables to determine the following for the elements at the bottom.The number of protonsThe number of neutronsThe number of electrons on the outer most shell (valence electrons)Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Chlorine (Cl)
Subatomic Particles: Smaller Parts of an AtomParticleSymbol Charge Electron e- -1 Proton p+ +1 Neutron n 0
Location of Subatomic Particles 10-13 cm electrons
VocabularyNeutral atoms = # of protons = # of electronsMass Number = # of p+ + # of nAtomic Number = # of protons Atomic Mass- the average mass of all of the isotopes.ion (unequal #s of protons and electrons).Cation-positive ionAnion negative ion
Atomic Number Counts the number of ?in an atom
IonsCationsLost electrons (to other atoms)When calculating number of e- subtract the charge value from the original number of electrons.AnionsGained electrons (from other atoms)When calculating number of e- add the charge value from the original number of electrons
Counts the number of ? + ?in an atom
Protons and neutrons
Masses of theof ?
Subatomic Particles in Some Atoms163165 O P Zn 815308 p+15 p+30 p+8 n16 n35 n8 e-15 e-30 e-Which number do you think is the atomic number? How do you know?
Drawing Bohr DiagramsNucleus (p+ and no)1st energy level= up to 2 e-2nd energy level = up to 8e-3rd energy level = up to 18 e-4th energy level = 2 fill before 11-18 in the 3rd energy level.
Electron Dot DiagramThe symbol is the nucleus and inner energy levelsDots represent valence electrons8 total (2 on each side of symbol)One each side, counterclockwise.
Electron dot diagrams
What Are Isotopes?Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different atomic masses. Isotopes of Chlorine35Cl37Cl1717 chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37
Learning Check Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, C-12, C-13, and C-14. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms. 12C 13C14C 6 6 6#p _______ _______ _______ #n _______ _______ _______ #e _______ _______ _______
Calculating Average Atomic MassMass = (% x mass) + (% x mass)2 isotopes
Mass = (% x mass) + (% x mass) + (% x mass)3 isotopes
Make sure that % are in decimal form in your Calculator!!!!!
All made up of atoms.Valence electronsorbitalsprotonsProtons and neutronsProtons and neutrons