the atom atomic number mass number isotopes elements periodic table atoms and elements
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The AtomAtomic Number Mass NumberIsotopesElementsPeriodic Table Atoms and Elements
What do all of these things have in common?
What Are Atoms?Atoms are the building blocks of matter.So what is matter?Anything that has mass AND takes up space.
Which of the following are considered matterPizzaWoodLoveSoilHeatHope
Subatomic Particles: Smaller Parts of an AtomParticleSymbol Charge Electron e- -1 Proton p+ +1 Neutron n 0
Location of Subatomic Particles 10-13 cm electrons
Number of ElectronsAn atom is neutral = zero net charge because the # of protons = # of electronsAtomic Mass = # of p+ + # of nAtomic Number = # of protons = # of electronsAn atom with a charge is called an ion (unequal #s of protons and electrons).
- Electron Levels (Shells)Contain electrons that are similar in energy and distance from nucleusLow energy electrons are closest to the nucleusIdentify by letters k, l, m, n, o, p, qThe first shell (k) is lowest in energy, 2nd level next and so on k
Order of Electron Filling The smallest shell must be filled before the next size can contain any electrons.K-Shell 2 electrons L-Shell 8 electronsM-Shell 8 electrons
Order of filling for the first 16 electrons
Shellk lm2e8e 6e
Atomic Number Counts the number of ?in an atom
Counts the number of ? + ?in an atom
Subatomic Particles in Some Atoms163165 O P Zn 815308 p+15 p+30 p+8 n16 n35 n8 e-15 e-30 e-Which number do you think is the atomic number? How do you know?
What Are Isotopes?Atoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different atomic masses. Isotopes of Chlorine35Cl37Cl1717 chlorine - 35 chlorine - 37
Learning Check Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, C-12, C-13, and C-14. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms. 12C 13C14C 6 6 6#p _______ _______ _______ #n _______ _______ _______ #e _______ _______ _______
What Are Elements?Pure substances made up of all the same type of atom (same # of: p+, n, e-)The 4 most abundant elements on Earth are carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen (POINTER: COHN or NOCH)112 elements known todayExamples: carbongoldcalcium
What element do these things have in common?
Heres a Hint
IRON (Fe) Latin: ferrumCheapestMost commonMost useful
Used extensively for the making of STEEL
IRON (Fe) Latin: ferrumIt also carries oxygen in hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Symbols of ElementsUse 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalize the first letter only
Examples:C carbon CocobaltN nitrogenCacalciumF fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium
Symbols from Latin NamesElementSymbolLatin nameCopperCucuprumGoldAuaurumLeadPbplumbumMercuryHghydrargyrumPotassiumKkaliumSilverAgargentumSodiumNanatriumTinSnstannum
% Major Elements in the BodyO65.0 %K 0.34C18.0S 0.26H10.0Na 0.14N 3.0Cl 0.14Ca 1.4Fe 0.004P 1.0 Zn 0.003 Mg 0.50
Take a guess what the correct symbol is for the element!
Select the correct symbol for each:A. Calcium1) C 2) Ca3) CAB. Sulfur 1) S 2) Sl3) SuC. Iron1) Ir 2) FE3) Fe
Take a guess what the correct element is! Select the correct name for each:A. N1) neon 2) nitrogen 3) nickelB. P1) potassium2) phogiston3) phosphorusC. Ag1) silver 2) agean3) gold
Atomic TheoryAtoms are the building blocks of all matter, which included elements Similar atoms in each elementDifferent from atoms of other elements
Periodic TableThe periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to:The number of protons, neutrons, and electronsThe way they lookThe way they act
The Periodic TableShows the mass number and atomic numberGives the symbol of the elementmass number 23 Na atomic number 11
Groups of ElementsVertical (up and down) columns on the periodic tableIndicates the number of electrons on the outer most shell called valence electrons.
Periods on the Periodic TableHorizontal (left to right) rows on the Periodic Table.Numbered 1-7Indicates the number of orbitals or shells the element has.
Periods on the Periodic Table
Using The Periodic TableIn your notes, use your periodic tables to determine the following for the elements at the bottom.The number of protonsThe number of neutronsThe number of shellsThe number of electrons on the outer most shell (valence electrons)Draw the atoms for eachCalcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Chlorine (Cl)
All made up of atoms.protonsProtons and neutronsValence electronsorbitals