The Art of Teaching Argument artofteachingargument.wikispaces

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The Art of Teaching Argument artofteachingargument.wikispaces.com/. Delia DeCourcy Susan Wilson-Golab Oakland Schools ELA - Social Studies - Science. Todays Workshop Goals. To review the foundational moves of argument. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<p>The Art of Teaching Argument artofteachingargument.wikispaces.com/</p> <p>The Art of Teaching Argument artofteachingargument.wikispaces.com/Delia DeCourcy Susan Wilson-GolabOakland SchoolsELA - Social Studies - Science</p> <p>Susan/DeliaAllow time for participants to sign onto wikispaces.com.Todays Workshop GoalsTo review the foundational moves of argument.To experience how to build a culture of argument in your classroom.To explore a possible argument task progression for your students.To experiment with effective argument task design.</p> <p>Susan. Mention MAISA units.</p> <p>Susan/DeliaArgument vs. PersuasionArgument </p> <p>Argument is about making a case in support of a claim in everyday affairs in science, policy making, in courtrooms, and so forth.- George Hillocks, Jr., Teaching Argument Writing</p> <p>logical appeals</p> <p>Persuasion</p> <p>In a persuasive essay, you can select the most favorable evidence, appeal to emotions, and use style to persuade your readers. Your single purpose is to be convincing.-- Kinneavy and Warriner 1993</p> <p> advertising, propagandaDeliaArgument in the CCSSReading Anchor Standards:CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.</p> <p>Writing Anchor Standards:CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.History, Science &amp; Technical Subjects:CCSS.ELA-Literacy.WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.</p> <p>DeliaYour Goals for Your Teaching Practice?Identify an open-ended question or two about teaching argument writing that you would like to explore during this 2-day workshop.</p> <p>pair &amp; share</p> <p>post to the wallSusanArguments Surround Us9:20 SusanAs listen, consider how song functions as a memoir, a poem, speech, and argument. Watch w/lens of what argument is he making about role athletic shoes play in life? It changes across the text.Arguments Surround Us</p> <p>artofteachingargument.wikispaces.com/9:35 - DeliaUnpack the Argument INFORMAL WRITESelect one visual argument from the page.Identify a possible argument that is implied by this image/text. (claim)Name evidence to support your claim. (details from the image, anecdotal, etc.)Explain your reasoning.DeliaShare &amp; Analyze Share your flash draft with a partner.Partner say back. What was the:claimevidencereasoning (connection between claim &amp; evidence)Delia - Finish at 10:00.Share &amp; AnalyzeHAVE A CONVERSATION: FEEDBACK</p> <p>What was the strongest part of the argument and why?</p> <p>What could the writer add or subtract to improve the argument?Delia; debrief: what did you notice about the process of developing the argument about a visual text as a learner? Arguments in the Real World10:00 SusanWhat is the claim and where during the speech does she state her claim? Transition into real arguments in the world.Students Concept of Argument/WritingWhat high schoolers sometimes come to us with (and what can get in the way of their college writing/thinking):* a tendency to see writing and research as report rather than discovery; not seeing or believing that you can write to find and hone your ideas, and that some of this comes from the richly complex relationships that evolve between ideas that may take sentences and paragraphs (i.e., not just a "However") to explain and unpack; in conjunction with this, not always knowing or believing how thoughtful responses from readers (including themselves) can really help along a writer's process of discovery. - MSU Writing Instructors</p> <p>SusanFoundational Concepts of ArgumentClaimEvidence (standards and nature of evidence differs by subject area)Reasoning/Analysis/Warrant - an explanation of how the evidence supports the claimCounterargument/Rebuttals - refute competing claimsConsideration of audience</p> <p>Susan transition Delia - focus on the discovery involved in these foundational arguments</p> <p>Toulmin ModelDelia - reference election video; importance of examining evidence first in order to develop a claim and not vice versaArgument as a Habit of MindIn your teachingIn your students thinkingdiscussionwriting</p> <p>Teach across the yearEverything is an argument.Consistently use rhetorical language to build students academic vocabulary. Name the moves of argument.</p> <p>DeliaInstructional Strategies to Build Argument Culture &amp; Habits of Mindinformal writingfirst thoughtsrespond to a promptvisual thinking routinesflash drafts annotationtalk to the texttext in the middlediscourseSocratic seminarstructured small groups - test ideastalk protocoldebatesthink alouds</p> <p>component tasks</p> <p>building reasoning musclesDeliaBREAKJoin the Art of Teaching Argument CommunityLog in to your Google accountVisit: plus.google.com/communitiessearch for The Art of Teaching ArgumentClick Join CommunityWe will accept your invitationOnce youre a member, click on the cog (settings) to turn your notifications on.Share your current interests, curiosities, and challenges with teaching argument writing.</p> <p>10:15-10:30BUILDING REASONING MUSCLESAre rats useful friends to humans or dangerous foes?ARGUMENT TALK PROTOCOL </p> <p>10:30 until 11:30LUNCH!</p> <p>11:30-12:15</p> <p>SusanCoding Activity</p> <p>12:15-12:45 SusanShifting Our Language</p> <p>Curriculum and Assessment </p> <p>12:45 - 1:05List of Events Learning ProgressionShifting the conversation: islands of content to connected learning that scaffolds writers across a year and beyond. Working at the Edge of LearningProgressions invite a developmental view of learning because they lay out how expertise develops over a more or less extended period of time, beginning with rudimentary forms of learning and moving through progressively more sophisticated states.</p> <p>-Margaret Heritage, p. 37Formative Assessment in Practice SusanWhats a Learning Progression?Sequence set of subskills and bodies of enabling knowledge</p> <p>Composed of step-by-step building blocks needed to attain target curricular aim</p> <p>What it isntFlawless</p> <p>Un-changing</p> <p>One size fits all</p> <p>Transformative Assessment, W. James PophamWhat it isSusan- Moving from GLCEs/HUSKIES to CCSS: content and skills wrapped together = conceptual understanding and application.</p> <p>Building Blocks of ArgumentEnabling Knowledgeclaim evidencecounterargumentaudienceSubskillreasoninganalysisangling evidence for audience</p> <p>ExampleWhat has our learning skill progression been today?TURN &amp; TALK</p> <p>Todays Task Progression</p> <p>video analysisvisual argumentargument talk protocolcoding activity</p> <p>DeliaTodays Learning Progressionvideo analysis: notice pattern of and shifts in argumentvisual argument: make an argument, identify argument traits, and give feedbacktalk protocol: gather evidence, make a claim, argue with an opponent, angle evidence for a particular audiencecoding activity: identify argument traits, norm across content areasDelia: consider the skills and content knowledge of the learner and how to develop complexityThesis Statement Parallel Topic Sentence #1Parallel Topic Sentence #2Parallel Topic Sentence #3Concluding Statement GRADES 3-5 LUCY CALKINS: BOXES &amp; BULLETSFoundational stage where writers working on creating an overall thesis/idea and reasons. THESIS PARAGRAPH Thesis Statement (Stance, Position, Claim) May require sentence order or sentence #. BODY PARAGRAPH #1Topic Sentence (Least important point or reason)Include evidence, explanation, and concluding sentence BODY PARAGRAPH #2Topic Sentence (2nd most important point or reason) Include evidence, explanation, and concluding sentence BODY PARAGRAPH #3Topic Sentence (Most Important Point or Reason)Include evidence, explanation, and concluding sentence CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH Restate Thesis Include summary and/or commentComplexity ramps up in this template where writer begins to not just list a reason or an example but also explain its connection and sort evidence from least to most important. KEYHOLE ESSAYThesis Paragraph General: Grabber Specific: Thesis (Claim)</p> <p>Body Paragraph #1Topic Sentence (Specific Point) Evidence, explanation, transitional conclusion Body Paragraph #2Topic Sentence (Specific Point) Evidence, explanation, transitional conclusion Body Paragraph #3Topic Sentence (Specific Point) Evidence, explanation, transitional conclusion </p> <p>Concluding Paragraph Rephrase Thesis (Claim)Summarize Points</p> <p>Reasoning of deductive and inductive introduced to the already more complex task of sorting and organizing evidence and explanation. WHAT ARE THE EQUIVALENTS IN SS/SCIENCE? Students &amp; Structures/Reasoning What high schoolers sometimes come to us with (and what can get in the way of their college writing/thinking):</p> <p>* a relentless search for / use of formulas (3- to 5-paragraph essays) and "rules" (i.e., Never use "I" in an essay; Never begin a sentence with "But," etc.) rather than focusing on audiences, purposes, contexts, etc. In other words, not recognizing, as a friend of mine says, that there are "different spokes for different folks," and that different contexts invite different kinds of writing.- MSU Writing Instructors1:05 Delia: having an idea, developing a line of reasoning, not getting stuck in formulas, more and shorter writing, more real world tasksArguments: encouraging complexityTeacher provided question/problem</p> <p>Student generated responseTeacher provided topic</p> <p>Student generated question/problem + response</p> <p>COMPLEXITYconsider alternatives, evaluate evidence, and think criticallyWHO DECIDES?control of question/problemcontrol of data/evidenceDelia</p> <p>Delia: Learning progression options for a task; 3 concepts; developing complexity; Talk through how youre understanding this document and what you make of it; examine the map on the back</p> <p>Delia: mention pre-assessment &amp; progression of subskills hereDeveloping Task Trajectories Best in ShowNominationsWriting to make the world different(fixable problem in community)Elevating the quality of argument: create a trajectory across a year and grade levels that develops cognitive complexity. -Mary Ehrenworth1:10 Susan: Task trajectory that also relies on a skill progression. The foundational enabling knowledge stays constant but what it has to be applied to becomes increasingly more complex. Developing Task Trajectories Social issues with meaning for writerResearch items having a direct impact on writerTURN &amp; TALK: How does each task layer more complexity than the previous task?Task Trajectory - Brainstorm!- pairs/trios - Google Community: Task TrajectoriesSubjectGrade Level- Question/problem for each task</p> <p>Best in ShowNominationsWriting to make the world different (community problem)Social issues with meaning for writingResearch on topic directly impacting writerDelia: finish by 1:35</p> <p>Designing Argument Tasks1:35More &amp; Shorter TasksAssign more writing tasks of shorter length or smaller scope rather than fewer tasks of great length or large scope.Students get more opportunity to practice basic skills and can refine their approach from assignment to assignment based on feedback they receive.BENEFIT: frees you to think beyond the large paper and be more creative in the type of writing you assignDeliaBig PicturePlace the task outcomes in the larger frame of the learning progression for the class: How is this particular task a piece of the big picture for the writing taskfor the unitfor the your year-long class? </p> <p>PurposeWhat do you want students to show you in this assignment?What is the purpose of the task/assignment? to find evidence?to develop a claim?to put forth an original ideas?to create a more nuanced argument?to synthesize research to examine a new hypothesis? Making the purpose(s) of the assignment explicit helps students complete the task and/or write the kind of paper you want.</p> <p>AudienceWho is the audience the writer is addressing?classmates?an imagined audience? (the EPA, Congress, literary experts, the NY Times Editorial Board)an authentic audience?</p> <p>Specificity of audience affectsevidence selectionevidence anglingcounterargumentwriting style</p> <p>Learning Outcomes</p> <p>Specify learning outcomes:What should students learn from doing the assignment? What should the experience of it DO for them?Consider your task and skills progression here. Does the assignment build on what they learned previously and demand more of them?</p> <p>Clarity of ProcessInclude expectations for process steps/activities: Are there multiple steps?How will you support the writing process?At what point will you check in to formatively assess?What intermediate steps and procedures would be useful for a longer piece?</p> <p>Lets EvaluateRead and evaluate the tasks provided based on the criteria.Discuss as a table - find consensus?Share scores with the larger group.</p> <p>Design a TaskWorks with your curriculum before March 13 based on where your students are on task trajectoryCan collect and share exemplarConsider where your students are in the argument learning progressionpreceding skill &amp; content developmentwhere will you go after this task to continue to build skillsDesign a TaskBefore March 13: Post to Google Community Google Drive folder (Argument Writing Tasks)</p> <p>On March 13: Bring student artifact - exemplarfinish by 2:25Task Table SharingProvide contextShare thinkingDiscuss challenges &amp; concerns with implementation</p> <p>Debrief: What concerns are coming up?</p> <p>finish by 2:40Reflection on the DayHow has your thinking about teaching argument writing shifted today?</p> <p>Reflect on the question you generated at the beginning of the day. </p>