The Archival Back Burner: Manuscript Collections and the National Archives

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  • This article was downloaded by: [Laurentian University]On: 10 October 2014, At: 00:39Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    The Archival Back Burner: Manuscript Collections andthe National ArchivesAaron D. Purcell MA and MLS aa University Archivist, University of Tennessee, Special Collections Library , 1401Cumberland Avenue, Knoxville, TN, 37996 E-mail:Published online: 04 Oct 2008.

    To cite this article: Aaron D. Purcell MA and MLS (2005) The Archival Back Burner: Manuscript Collections and the NationalArchives, Journal of Archival Organization, 2:4, 53-66, DOI: 10.1300/J201v02n04_04

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  • The Archival Back Burner:Manuscript Collections

    and the National Archives

    Aaron D. Purcell

    ABSTRACT. Greater access to archival materials remains a significantchallenge to archivists, librarians, and researchers. In addition to officialrecords documenting governmental activities and agencies, the NationalArchives and Records Administration (NARA) has significant collec-tions of donated personal papers. Some are processed, some are in thebacklog, but nearly all of the non-Presidential Library manuscript col-lections are inaccessible. This essay reviews the history and some of thecontents of the former Record Group 200: Records of the National Ar-chives Gift Collection, as an example of the importance of hidden materialat NARA. After a contextual history of the agency and the creation of thisforgotten record group, this article describes ten manuscript collectionsfrom the former RG 200 to demonstrate not only the research potential ofeach but show the varied nature of these materials. This study reveals theimportance of access, description, and reevaluation when archivists dealwith back burner collections. [Article copies available for a fee from TheHaworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: Website: 2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.]

    KEYWORDS. Archival description, archival history, National Archivesand Records Administration, NARA, gifts and donations, Archivists ofthe United States, James B. Rhoads, Ernst Posner, Victor Gondos, Jr.

    Aaron D. Purcell, MA, MLS, is Assistant Professor and University Archivist, Spe-cial Collections Library, 1401 Cumberland Avenue, University of Tennessee, Knox-ville, TN 37996 (E-mail: purcell@aztec.lib.utk.edu).

    Journal of Archival Organization, Vol. 2(4) 2004Available online at http://www.haworthpress.com/web/JAO 2004 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

    Digital Object Identifier: 10.1300/J201v02n04_04 53

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  • INTRODUCTION

    Access to archival materials continues to rank as the highest demandfor researchers and archivists alike. Digital projects with online facsimi-les of archival materials have alleviated some of the push for greater ac-cess, but there is an increasing call to venture deeper into unprocessedbacklogs. A September 2003 conference hosted by the Association ofResearch Libraries (ARL) called Exposing Hidden Collections, fo-cused on the issue of the backlog. An ARL white paper, written by aspecial ARL taskforce, covered the barriers of access to materials foundin the backlogs of nearly every Special Collections Library or manu-scripts department. Smoldering backlogs and shifting processing priori-ties were not new problems for the archivists in attendance, but therewere near gasps from many of the library directors and administrators inthe audience unaware of the untapped treasure troves. It seems that inthe twenty-first century, the backlog is once again becoming the centerof attention for archivists, librarians, and researchers; and where betterto start looking, than in the backlog at the National Archives RecordsAdministration (NARA).

    A common assumption of both archivists and researchers is that theNational Archives only collects records documenting governmental ac-tivities and agencies. Apart from the various personal collections atNARAs Presidential libraries, most interested parties conclude that theorganization does not have or accept what some archivists classify asmanuscript collections. However, since 1934, NARA has acceptedgifts from private sources deemed appropriate for retention by the gov-ernment.

    Beginning in the 1930s, NARA archivists separated these donatedmaterials into four record groups, numbers 189, 200, 401, and 421.The largest of the four accumulations was record group 200 (RG 200),Records of the National Archives Gift Collection, which as of themid-1980s contained over 450 linear feet of personal papers and histori-cal manuscripts. In addition to the textual holdings, RG 200 featuredcartographic records, still and motion pictures, and sound recordings.The record group was listed in NARA archival guides, but detailed find-ing aids for the collections were never produced.1

    This essay outlines the history and some of the contents of the formerRG 200, Records of the National Archives Gift Collection, as an exam-ple of the importance of backlog material at NARA. After a contextualhistory of the agency and the creation of this forgotten record group, thisessay describes ten manuscript collections from RG 200 to demonstrate

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  • not only the research potential of each but show the varied nature ofthese materials. As sources, the paper will be based on memos, corre-spondence, drafts of unpublished finding aids, transaction dossiers, andother materials from NARAs College Park facility. This study revealsthe importance of fully describing these valuable materials and the needto make these collections more accessible and available to researchers.

    GROWTH OF THE NATIONAL ARCHIVESIN THE UNITED STATES

    The move toward the scientific preservation and administration ofthe archives of the United States government started even before theorganization of the country itself. In 1774, the First Continental Con-gress took the necessary steps to preserve the records of its deliberationsand actions. However, as the Congress designated no permanent storagespace for its archives, the materials were moved from city to city, untilthe 1800 relocation of the nations capital to Washington, DC. But eventhen, the fledgling government did not appropriate space or funds for abuilding to house the nations rapidly growing archives. Fires were thebiggest preservation concern of the day so protection of these materialswas top priority. In 1810, Congress passed the first National ArchivesAct which allowed for the construction of a fireproof structure west ofthe White House to house public papers and records of the UnitedStates, belonging to, or in the custody of the state, war, or navy depart-ment.2

    Following the Civil War, the growing bulk of government archiveshad overwhelmed the small storage facility. Congress refused to passanother archives bill, but a movement for a hall of records to housethese materials had gained momentum. Professional groups such as theAmerican Historical Association (AHA) also pushed for better accessto federal records. As president of the AHA, in 1906, historian J. Frank-lin Jameson took up the fight to establish a National Archives buildingand a subsequent agency to care for the voluminous and critical recordsof the government.3

    In 1913, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to designplans and specifications for a fireproof National Archives building, butthe outbreak of war in Europe prevented the fruition of this effort. An-other decade of delayed hopes followed, as government records accu-mulated at an accelerated rate and officials searched for space to housetheir important files and documents. By the mid-1920s, Congress fi-

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  • nally appropriated funds for a National Archives Building that would bepart of the Federal Triangle in downtown Washington, DC. In February1933, President Herbert Hoover laid the cornerstone for the structureand construction of the building, designed by eminent architect JohnRussell Pope, began.4

    While construction on the new building progressed, the country andfederal government underwent massive changes. Newly elected Presi-dent Franklin D. Roosevelt ushered in a series of reforms to combat thesocial and economic effects of a nearly worldwide depression. As partof his New Deal to Americans, Roosevelt pushed Congress to createnew government agencies to battle the onslaught of domestic problems.With dual purposes in mind, the President created a National Archivesagency to oversee the existing archives of the government and to pre-serve the records of the newly created agencies. On June 19, 1934, afterdecades of failed archives bills and proposals, Congress establishedthe National Archives of the United States Government to preserve thehistorical documents of the then depression-laden country. The orga-nization was an independent agency of the federal government andCongress authorized the archivists to inspect and retain all valuable fed-eral records, whether executive, legislative, or judicial. Later that year,Roosevelt appointed Robert D. W. Conner of North Carolina as the firstArchivist of the United States.5

    By the end of 1934, the statutory bases for the National Archives hadbeen laid, and the building to house the new agency was taking shape inthe heart of the nations capital. Even though the organization was off toa strong start, the budding agency inherited an awesome backlog ofabout three million feet of federal records, with an expected growth rateof more than 180,000 feet annually. Records began to arrive at thebuilding as early as December 1935 and the skeleton staff quickly deter-mined standards of appraisal, disposition, and organization. By the endof the decade, the National Archives had the custody of seventy-twoagencies with over 300,000 feet of textual records.6

    Besides being overwhelmed by records, underfunded, and often un-derstaffed, the National Archives underwent even more changes im-mediately following World War II. With a flood of new governmentmaterials, archivists such as Theodore R. Schellenberg developed the-ories of records management and appraisal to deal with the masses offederal records. Another important development was Schellenbergsconcept of the record group which represented a body of organization-ally and functionally related records established with particular regard

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  • for the administrative history, complexity, and volume of the records ofan agency.7

    By the late 1940s, the government was bursting at the seams with rec-ords, many of which should have been scheduled for destruction. Spacein the National Archives building and its nearby storage facilities wasnearly exhausted yet the agency could do little to slow down the flood ofpaper. As part of a major governmental reorganization, in 1949, Con-gress created the General Services Administration (GSA). This multi-faceted agency supervised the implementation of records managementtechniques throughout federal agencies and subsequently absorbed theNational Archives (to be renamed the National Archives Records Ser-vice) as part of its organizational structure.8

    For the next thirty years the pseudo-agency struggled with GSA,managing an overabundance of government records, and the chal-lenges of maintaining regional records centers and the Presidential Li-brary system. By the late 1970s the National Archives moved towardachieving its independence from GSA, and in 1985, the agency got itswish and once again became an independent government agency. Asone of the first actions of freedom, the renamed National Archives andRecords Administration (NARA) petitioned Congress for a new mod-ern facility to house the plethora of government records. After consider-able lobbying, in 1993 NARA opened a new facility in College Park,Maryland to serve as their major research facility and records storagecenter.9

    Today, NARA deals with problems of electronic records and agingor advancing technologies, as well as unresolved issues inherited fromthe past fifty-five years of existence. In 1997, NARA released a strate-gic plan for the future. In this ambitious report NARA announced thatits purposes were to ensure, for the citizen, public servant, President,and courts, ready access to essential evidence, and to house the recordsof the United States government. Although the plan outlines specifi-cally what NARA considers a record, other materials clearly not re-lating to the operations of the federal government have been acceptedand retained.10

    GIFTS TO NARA AND RG 200

    As the legal backbone for these materials, the 1934 National Ar-chives Act authorized the acceptance of gifts if they related to and illus-trated historical activities of the United States. This definition was

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  • expanded with the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of1949, which authorized the acceptance of gifts from private sources thatwere appropriate for preservation by the government as evidence of itsorganization, functions, policies, decisions, procedures, and transac-tions. These materials were donated by a wide range of businesses, cul-tural organizations, and individuals.11

    Four record groups made up what NARA considered donated mate-rials. The two smaller collections were record group 189, the Recordsof the National Academy of Sciences, and record group 421, the Rec-ords of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Former record group401, Materials Relating to Polar Regions, consisted of over 500 cubicfeet of records dated between 1865 and 1968. Included were AdmiralRobert E. Pearys papers and other materials relating to polar explora-tions. However, the largest and perhaps most diverse assemblage ofdonated materials was former RG 200, the National Archives Gift Col-lection.12

    Record group 200 included gifts of personal papers, historicalmanuscripts, and cartographic and audiovisual materials. As for tex-tual records, this mixed bag of materials consisted of more than sixtycollections of personal papers, fifteen collections of records of organi-zations, and more than eighty donations of materials each smaller thanone cubic foot. To gain a better understanding of some of NARAslesser known holdings, this study now focuses on ten diverse textualcollections of donated materials from the former RG 200.13

    SELECTIONS FROM RG 200

    Traditionally researchers picture historical manuscripts as papers ofimportant leaders in government, industry, business, or private practice.The personal papers of General Leslie R. Groves, director of theManhattan Project, fit this description and were part of RG 200.14 Be-ginning in 1963, Groves began weeding his personal papers only tofind a large bulk of materials that might have some future historicalvalue. He contacted the National Archives, which in turn expressed aninterest in the materials. Sherrod East, the Director of the organizationsWorld War II military division, believed that Groves personal paperswould appropriately supplement the official government records relat-ing to the Manhattan Project (RG 77) and expressed an interest. Aftersome negotiating, by 1966 Groves deeded his personal papers to the

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  • National Archives where they were accessioned and placed into RG200.15

    Topics covered in this largely personal correspondence included theManhattan Engineering District (1942-1970), the Panama Canal (1957-1964), and the construction of the Pentagon, (1940-1945). Also in-cluded were diaries (1940-1948), shorthand notebooks from the 1940s,comments, interviews, reviews, drafts of his publications, and copies ofCongressional hearings (1941-1963). In total, with a handful of photo-graphs, the collection was about forty linear feet and mostly covered theperiod from 1940 until Groves death in 1970.16

    Apart from famous or historically noteworthy individuals, RG 200also contained the papers of organizations. As an example, in themid-1970s the American Red Cross offered to donate its corporate rec-ords, from 1881 through World War II, to the National Archives.17 Be-cause of the bulk, approximately 3,500 linear feet, archivists at theNational Archives were wary to accept such a generous offer. However,in August 1976, archivists determined that the research potential of thematerials made the acquisition necessary. Specifically, they cited thatthe records would be useful to examine American programs for humani-tarian relief, the growth of charitable organizations, major American di-sasters, three wars, and the American role in implementing the GenevaConventions.18

    The collection contained the early records of the American RedCross including papers of its founder, Clara Barton. In addition, therewere other executive officer materials, a World War I nursing file, andevidence of current Red Cross activities. Their diverse mission coveredproviding wartime relief, refugee resettlement, assistance to U.S. ser-vicemen and their families, disaster relief, blood collection and distribu-tion, and health and safety instruction. In total, the papers measure asprawling 3,523 linear feet, but unlike most of the collections from RG200, this group of materials is heavily consulted by researchers.19

    As another example of organizational materials, RG 200 containedthe records of the American Committee on the French Revolution. Thisnonprofit organization coordinated the United States observances ofthe 1989 bicentennial of the French Revolution. Recognized by Con-gress in 1988, the group served as a clearinghouse for events connectedwith the event and published a newsletter. Between April 1988 and De-cember 1989, the group oversaw over 1,000 projects, programs, andevents relating to the bicentennial. Chaired by former U.S. Senator fromMaryland, Charles McCurdy Matthias, Jr., the organization dissolved in

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  • early 1990 and offered to donate their materials to the National Ar-chives.20

    Because the records represented a significant national effort, the Na-tional Archives accepted the collection and placed it into RG 200. Theseven linear feet of materials consisted of minutes of board meetings,correspondence files, fund-raising letters, state and local committeefiles, a project log for each event, and a press file of clippings. Althoughthe organization was short-lived and nongovernment related, NARA ar-chivists judged its activities to fall within their collecting policies. Per-haps pressure from Senator McCurdy also influenced the acceptance ofthis unique and apparently unused collection of materials.21

    The former RG 200 has often been the final resting place for the per-sonal papers of former archivists of the United States. As an example,the papers of James B. Rhoads, Archivist of the United States from1968 to 1979, contain tangential personal materials covering aspects ofhis career with the National Archives, between 1952 and 1979. Rhoadswas also heavily involved with the Society of American Archivists(SAA), serving as its president during 1974 and 1975, and was presidentof the International Council of Archives (ICA) from 1976 to 1979. Thebulk of this collection covered his activities with the National Archives,SAA, and ICA, as well as his own research and writing. The National Ar-chives retained these related materials as the papers justifiably supple-ment the official records of Rhoads tenure as Archivist of the UnitedStates already held by NARA. This collection, ten linear feet, containsmostly correspondence, papers, speeches, and photographic prints.22

    In addition to the materials of former Archivists of the United States,the National Archives occasionally accepts personal collections fromprominent NARA archivists. The Victor Gondos, Jr., papers are a goodexample of this anomalous tradition. Gondos was an archivist with theNational Archives from 1942 to 1965, dividing his tenure between theOld Army, Civil War, and Army and Navy departments. Following hisretirement as an archivist, he earned his PhD in history at AmericanUniversity and wrote his dissertation on the historical origins of the Na-tional Archives. This detailed work was later published as a monographand remains the best account of the prehistory of the agency. An activemember of the SAA, Gondos served for many years as chairman of theirCommittee on Archival Buildings and Equipment, and in 1970 SAApublished his Reader for Archives and Records Center Buildings.23

    When Gondos died in 1976, the bulk of his papers were placed withthe University of Wyoming, except for a small collection of materialsoffered to the National Archives. These items included SAA annual re-

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  • ports regarding archival buildings and equipment, correspondence re-lating to his services as consultant to archival institutions, research fromhis dissertation work, and records concerning various archival build-ings. As the records supplemented RG 64 (Records of NARA) andadded to the understanding of archival architecture, in June 1978, theNational Archives accepted the personal papers and placed the nine lin-ear foot collection in RG 200.24

    Even further removed from NARAs collection policies are donatedpapers from important international archivists. Although never em-ployed by the National Archives, German archivist Ernst Posner ad-vised it on its organizational structure and on the arrangement of itsholdings. During the 1940s and 1950s he trained scores of archivistsand was a leading thinker in the archival profession. As an instructor atAmerican University, Posner developed and directed a program in ar-chival administration and conducted numerous archives institutes forNational Archives employees, archivists of state and local institutions,and government agency records officers.25

    In 1970, Posner offered to donate some of his papers to the NationalArchives. Apart from his professional archival correspondence, re-search for his articles and publications, and the papers from his Ameri-can University archives courses and lectures, he also offered to donatematerials relating to his work with organizations interested in reconsti-tuting war-torn European archives, and records concerning his emigra-tion to the United States. The National Archives immediately acceptedthe offer as they believed his personal papers would shed importantlight on the historical development of the National Archives and the ar-chival profession generally. Although most of the materials are in Ger-man, the National Archives retains this largely unused collection.26

    The former RG 200 also contains papers relating to important litiga-tion. As an example, the papers of Bolon B. Turner, a United States TaxCourt Judge, contains materials concerning a specific case. Turner wasa member of the U.S. Board of Tax Appeals who heard the 1930s caseof Andrew W. Mellon v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue. The caserevolved around Mellons 1931 tax return, and whether or not he coulddeduct from his income tax the value of paintings that he had donated tomuseums. In 1935, the court, with Turner as a member, ruled thatMellon could deduct from his income taxes the value of philanthropicart donations.27

    In the late 1970s, while still serving as a Judge on the Tax Court,Turner offered to donate his personal files on the Mellon case and otherimportant cases to the National Archives. Turners personal case files

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  • not only included his observations on Mellon and the case but chroni-cled his fifty-year career with the Tax Court. The National Archives ac-cepted his offer believing that the papers had informational value for thestudy of Andrew Mellon, the Mellon case, the reorganization of corpo-rations in the 1930s, philanthropy, the U.S. Tax Court, and Mellons ef-forts in establishing a trust for the creation of the National Gallery ofArt. There was further justification to keep this collection, as the judi-cial records of the case had been previously destroyed.28

    In addition to papers of individuals, organizations, and archivists, theformer RG 200 also contained textual materials less than one cubic footin volume. These eighty collections consisted of diaries, reprints, certif-icates, correspondence, single items, and other miscellaneous docu-ments covering the Revolutionary War period to present day.29

    As the first of three examples from these smaller collections, in 1985the National Archives obtained the Journal of Charles Malcolmson, anassistant director of public relations for the Department of Justice (DOJ)during the 1940s. As part of his duties, Malcolmson wrote press re-leases, conducted press briefings, and wrote speeches for the AttorneyGeneral. On December 7, 1941, he started a journal of events related tohis job. Over the next three years, the journal included observations onconversations with DOJ officials, such as Attorney General FrancisBiddle, reactions to world events, and speculation about domestic poli-tics. Specific topics mentioned include registration of enemy aliens,problems between the Western Defense Command and the DOJ con-cerning publicity about the alien control program, and the arrest andtrial of eight German saboteurs who in June 1942 landed by submarinein Florida. Because the journal provided detailed information on theDOJ, World War II, the perceived national threat of illegal aliens, andthe domestic front during the early 1940s, in 1985 the National Ar-chives obtained the journal from Malcolmsons widow.30

    As a second example, in 1965 the National Archives accepted theBenjamin Pritchard Papers. This small collection of sixty-five items re-late to the Civil War military career of Benjamin F. Pritchard, and hispart in the capture of Jefferson Davis following the conclusion of thewar. After the Confederacys April 9, 1865 surrender at Appomattox,the President of the defeated Confederacy fled South. On May 10, Fed-eral Cavalry led by Pritchard captured Davis at Irwinville, Georgia.31

    The materials were originally purchased at an auction and the buyer,John F. Rider, donated the collection to the National Archives for phil-anthropic reasons. Materials in this collection include Pritchards 1865diary, copies of his official reports concerning the capture of Davis, and

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  • his commissions in the 4th Michigan Cavalry. In late 1965, the NationalArchives accepted Riders donation and placed the collection in RG200.32

    As a final example, one of the smaller, but more interesting collec-tions in the former RG 200, were the Papers of Leo Bellarts, Sr. In 1937,Bellarts was chief radioman on the United States Coast Guard CutterItasca, which acted as the radio beacon for Amelia Earhart at the time ofher disappearance. He maintained a scrapbook of material relating tothis incident that included Coast Guard radio messages, weather re-ports, and newspaper and magazine clippings. Bellarts also retained theoriginal radio log which records the last transmissions between theItasca and Earhart. Following his retirement from the Coast Guard,Bellarts remained active in the search for answers to the unexplaineddisappearance of Earhart.33

    To provide researchers with information surrounding the mystery, in1974, Bellarts son offered to donate his fathers Earhart materials to theNational Archives. Archivists at the National Archives determined thatthe materials would provide important insights into Earharts disap-pearance and quickly accepted the offer. As further justification for ac-quisition, even though about half the materials were officially CoastGuard records, these important files were not duplicated in RG 26 (Rec-ords of the United States Coast Guard). Thus, in 1975, the National Ar-chives placed Bellarts small collection of papers into RG 200.34

    Together the ten specific collections briefly outlined here representthe diversity of the materials that were part of the former RG 200. Theseand other donated materials now considered collections are housed atthe agencys College Park facility. Although NARAs collection policyof retaining only government records has kept the organization from be-coming a manuscript repository, the tangential materials described herefall into an unclear area of responsibility.

    Today, although no record group is designated to house donated ma-terials, miscellaneous collections deemed worthy of acquisition are stillaccepted by the National Archives. However, because of other NARAprojects and the emphasis on developing online catalogs, since the early1990s work on creating inventories and finding aids for old and incomingdonated materials has been largely ignored. Still, from looking at just tencollections from RG 200, it is clear that a major research potential existswithin NARAs rich collections of largely unused donated materials. Per-haps, if the National Archives took these collections off the back burnerand made the information available to researchers through emergingelectronic methods, a firestorm of interest would result.

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  • NOTES

    1. Trudy Huskamp Peterson, NN to NN Center, Division, and Staff Directors, Feb-ruary 11, 1993, National Archives, College Park Maryland [copy in authors posses-sion].

    2. National Archives, First Annual Report for the Archivist of the United States,for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1935 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Of-fice, 1936), 1-2.

    3. National Archives, First Annual Report, 1935, 3-4; Victor Gondos, Jr., J. FranklinJameson and the Birth of the National Archives, 1906-1926 (University of Pennsylva-nia Press, 1981), 15-16; James M. OToole, Understanding Archives and Manuscripts(Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1990), 35. See also United States Senate,History of the Movement for a National Archives Building in Washington, D.C. (Wash-ington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1912).

    4. National Archives, First Annual Report, 1935, 4-5; Gondos, Jameson, 60-70.See also Victor Gondos, Jr., The Movement for a National Archives of the UnitedStates, 1906-1926 (PhD diss., American University, 1971).

    5. National Archives Act, Statutes at Large, 48, sec. 668, 1122-1124 (1934);OToole, Archives and Manuscripts, 35; Donald R. McCoy, The National Archives:Americas Ministry of Documents, 1934-1968 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of NorthCarolina Press, 1978), 9. See also Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the NewDeal (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1958).

    6. McCoy, The National Archives, 12, 69; Terry Cook, What is Past is Prologue,Archivaria, 43:26; OToole, Archives and Manuscripts, 37.

    7. Guide to the National Archives of the United States (Washington, DC: NationalArchives and Records Administration, 1987), 6; OToole, Archives and Manuscripts,37-38. See also Schellenbergs Modern Archives: Principles and Techniques (Chi-cago: University of Chicago Press, 1956).

    8. Federal Property and Administrative Services Act, Statutes at Large, 63, sec.288, 377-381 (1949); McCoy, National Archives, 214-231.

    9. National Archives and Records Administration Act, Statutes at Large, 98,sec. 497, 2280-2289 (1984); McCoy, National Archives, 274-363. See also RobertWarner, Diary of a Dream: A History of the National Archives Independence Move-ment, 1980-1985 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995).

    10. National Archives, Ready Access to Essential Evidence: The Strategic Plan ofthe National Archives and Records Administration, 1997-2007 (National Archives,1997), 5, 7.

    11. Guide to the National Archives, 742-43.12. Ibid., 742-51.13. Judith A. Koucky, Analysis of RG 200 Materials, March 20, 1989, 1, RG 200

    Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, National Archives at College Park, MD(hereafter NACP).

    14. For more information on Groves, see Leslie R. Groves, Now It Can Be Told: TheStory of the Manhattan Project (New York: DeCapo Press, 1975; William Lawren, TheGeneral and the Bomb: A Biography of General Leslie R. Groves, Director of theManhattan Project (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1988); and Leslie Richard Groves, Jr.,Dictionary of American Biography, Suppl. 8 (New York: Charles Scribners Sons,1988), 229-31.

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  • 15. Leslie R. Groves to Sherrod East, April 15, 1963; Sherrod East to Leslie R.Groves, April 24, 1963; Leslie R. Groves to Sherrod East, May 31, 1963; Leslie R.Groves to Robert H. Bahmer, 21 April 1966; Robert H Bahmer to Leslie R. Groves,May 26, 1966 NN-366-108, Leslie R. Groves Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619,NACP. See also section 77.11.1 Records of the Office of the Commanding General,Manhattan Project, in RG 77 Records of the Office of the Chief of Engineers, NACP.

    16. Judith A. Koucky, Donated Materials in the Archives of the United States[draft], ca. 1996, 40-41, in Judith A. Kouckys possession.

    17. For more information on the Red Cross, see Foster Rhea Dulles, The AmericanRed Cross: A History (New York: Harper, 1950); Patrick F. Gilbo, The American RedCross (New York: Chelsea House Publications, 1987); Henry Pomeroy Davidson, TheAmerican Red Cross in the Great War (New York: Macmillan, 1919).

    18. Jerome Finster to NNF, 14 October 1975; Jane F. Smith to Mr. Heise [memo],Comments on Offer of Records of the American National Red Cross, ca. 1975;Thomas W. Waldow to George M. Elsey, April 30, 1976; Thomas W. Waldow toGeorge M. Elsey, July 23, 1976; National Archives Records Service Appraisal Evalu-ation: American National Red Cross, August 1976; CSA News Release, October15, 1976, NC-3-200-76-9 American National Red Cross, Transaction Dossier File, fileroom 2619, NACP.

    19. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 9-11. For the organizations role in WorldWar I generally, see RG 120 Records of the American Expeditionary Forces (WorldWar I), NACP.

    20. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 27; Charles McCurdy Matthias, Jr. to DonW. Wilson, December 26, 1989, Don W. Wilson to Charles McCurdy Matthias, Jr.,January 16,1990; Anne Walton to James W. Moore, January 16, 1990, NN3-200-91-003Records of the American Committee on the French Revolution, Transaction DossierFile, file room 2619, NACP.

    21. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 27; Ronald E. Sweczek to NN and NNT,February 16, 1990; Trudy Huskamp Peterson to Charles McCurdy Matthias, Jr., 9 Feb-ruary 9, 1990, NN3-200-91-003 Records of the American Committee on the FrenchRevolution, Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP.

    22. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 26; James B. Rhoads to Robert M.Warner, NC3-200-84-2 Papers of James B. Rhoads, Transaction Dossier File, fileroom 2619, NACP.

    23. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 39; Arrangement and Narrative Descrip-tion, NC3-200-77-1 Papers of Victor Gondos, Jr., Transaction Dossier File, file room2619, NACP. See Victor Gondos, Reader for Archives and Records Center Buildings(Chicago: Society of American Archivists, 1970); Gondos, American Archival Ar-chitecture (Washington, DC: General Services Administration, 1960); and Gondos,J. Franklin Jameson and the Birth of the National Archives, 1906-1926 (Philadelphia:University of Pennsylvania Press, 1981).

    24. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 39; Arrangement and Narrative Descrip-tion; Thomas W. Wadlow to Dorothy Gondos Beers, July 19, 1978, NC3-200-77-1Papers of Victor Gondos, Jr., Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP. Seealso section 64.6 Records of the Office of the National Archives and Predecessor Pro-gram, 1932-1989, in RG 64 Records of the National Archives and Records Administra-tion, NACP.

    Aaron D. Purcell 65

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  • 25. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 22. See Ernst Posner, American State Ar-chives (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964); and Posner, Archives in the An-cient World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1972).

    26. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 22-23; Ernst Posner to James B. Rhoads,April 21, 1970; James B. Rhoads to Ernst Posner, April 24, 1970, NN-370-190 Papersof Ernst Posner, Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP.

    27. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 36; Bolon Turner, 90, Tax Court Judge,Dies [undated]; Appraisal Report on Transfer Offer, July 1976, NC3-200-76-14 Pa-pers of Bolon Turner, Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP.

    28. Koucky, Donated Materials [draft], 36; Bolon B. Turner to Clarence Lyons,June 21, 1977, 1-5; Philip R. Ward, Sr. to Bolon Turner, September 28, 1977; BolonTurner, 90, Tax Court Judge, Dies [undated]; Appraisal Report on Transfer Offer,July 1976, NC3-200-76-14 Papers of Bolon Turner, Transaction Dossier File, fileroom 2619, NACP.

    29. Koucky, Analysis of RG 200 Materials, 20 March 1989, 1-6.30. Robert M. Warner to Anne von Storch, February 21, 1985, Appraisal Report

    on Transfer Offer, ca. 1985, NC3-200-85-4 Journal of Charles Malcolmson,1941-1944, Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP. For related records, seeRG 60 General Records of the Department of Justice (DOJ), NACP.

    31. Change of Holdings Report, April 4, 1966, NN-366-55 Benjamin PritchardPapers, Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP; Jefferson Davis, Dictio-nary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1931), 3:123-131.For related records, see RG 109 War Department Collection of Confederate Records,NACP. For more information on Jefferson Davis, see Hudson, Jefferson Davis: Con-federate President (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Company, 1959); Strode, Jeffer-son Davis: Tragic Hero, the Last 25 Years, 1864-1899 (New York: Harcourt, Brace,and Company, 1964); and Robert McElroy, Jefferson Davis: The Unreal and the Real,2 vols. (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1937).

    32. John F. Rider to Robert H. Bahmer, 20 January 20, 1966; Robert H. Bahmer toJohn F. Rider, February 4, 1966, Change of Holdings Report, April 4, 1966,NN-366-55 Benjamin Pritchard Papers, Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619,NACP.

    33. Appraisal Report on Transfer Offer, January 13, 1975, NN-377-86, Papers ofLeo Bellarts, Sr., Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP. For more informa-tion on Earhart, see Mary S. Lovell, The Sound of Wings: The Biography of AmeliaEarhart (London: Hutchinson, 1989). For related records, see 237.2 Records of theAeronautics Branch and the Bureau of Air Commerce, in RG 237 Records of the Fed-eral Aviation Administration (FAA), NACP.

    34. Leo G. Bellarts, Jr. to James D. Rhoads, October 11, 1974; Meyer H. Fishbein toLeo G. Bellarts, Jr., December 9, 1974; Appraisal Report on Transfer Offer, January13, 1975; Change of Holdings Report, February 27, 1975, NN-377-86 Papers of LeoBellarts, Sr., Transaction Dossier File, file room 2619, NACP.

    Received: January 28, 2004Revised: March 24, 2004

    Accepted: July 1, 2004

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