the archaic period
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DESCRIPTIONThe Archaic Period. 620 to 490/80 BCE. Temple Architecture – use book to define. stylobate fluting capital volute Doric order Ionic order pediment frieze peripteral naos/cella. Peripteral is a temple that has a single row of columns around it ’ s perimeter. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
The Archaic Period
620 to 490/80 BCE
Temple Architecture use computer or book to definestylobateflutingcapitalvoluteDoric orderIonic orderpedimentfriezeperipteralnaos/cella
Peripteral is a temple that has a single row of columns around its perimeter.
Cella (or Naos) Central room in a temple.
Temple of Hera I, Paestum, Italy 550 BCE
Freestanding SculptureLifesize or larger, these sculptures would be standing or in stride with one foot in front of the other. Brightly painted (even though we cant see it anymore)Kore: female statueKouros: male statueSimilar to EGYPTIAN SCULPTURE
Standing Kouros (meaning youth)580 BCE, MarbleEchoes Egypt Hair is patterned with consistent knots. STYLIZEDArchaic smile alive & in good health (possibly technically difficult to carve smile on shape of head)RigidStridingIdealized
Kroisos KourosCemetery at Anavysos, Athens530 BCE, MarblePowerful, round bodyA continual interest in artists rendering the human body with more detailStride, arms, fists, hair, and archaic smile
Peplos KoreAcropolis, Athens530 BCE, Marblepeplos: garment, draped rectangular clothMotionless, vertical, stylized hairfluting
Archaic Vase PaintingDuring the Archaic period, Athens = center for manufacture and trade for pottery.
Athens adopted the Corinthian black-figure style.
TYPES OF VASESAmphora from the Greek "To carry on both sides." was used for storage and was a large vessel (also called the belly amphora)Krater Mixing bowl (ex: the Geometric Krater.but this one had no bottom and most have enclosed bottoms.https://goo.gl/ZjxI9f
Euphronios was a student of Exekias (one of the first Greek red figure vase painters).Euphronios interested in depicting human figure as it is seen taking up real space, very different from what we have seen thus far.Twisted composition helps with struggle and motion of figuresCalyx Krater used to hold wine.Herakles wrestling Antaios (detail of an Attic red-figure calyx krater), by EUPHRONIOS,
from Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 510 BCE
P______ K____ (530 BCE) references a c________ with rigidity and linearity.P_________ is a temple that has a single row of columns around its perimeter.Columns rest on a s__________, aka the top step of a temple.The n______, or c______, is the central room in a Greek temple.A p________ is the triangular top section on the e______ and w______ side of a temple.The R________ F_______ T________ was a common form of Greek P ______.Peplos KorecolumnPeripteralstylobatenaoscellapedimenteastwestRedFigure technique Pottery
K______ is a standing nude male statue.K_____ is a draped female statue.A new physical feature depicted in Greek sculpture is an A______ S_____ which has the meaning of being A_____ and in good H_____.
WRITE 5 FACTS/READ EACH TITLE FOR DIRECTIONS
NAME 3 GREEK ARCHAIC SCULPTURES/1 ARCHITECTURENAME SPECIFIC DETAILS ABOUT THE SCULPTURELIST NAME & FACTS FOR THE GREEK ARCHAIC VASE126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.5.5.
Archaic Greek Homework: Temple Architecture PRINT, CUT OUT EACH WORD, AND PASTE TO AREA ON PICTURE TRY TO DO THIS WITHOUT THE BOOK OR NOTES!stylobateflutingcapitalvoluteDoric orderIonic orderpedimentfriezeperipteralnaos/cella
**DORIC ORDER DECORATIVE SCULPTURE APPEARS ONLY IN THE METOPE AND PEDIMENT VOIDS. MAINLY FOUND ON THE MAINLAND AND IN WESTERN COLONIESIONIC BUILDERS WOULD DECORATE THE ENTIRE FRIEZES AND SOMETIMES EVEN IN THE LOWER DRUMS. MAINLY FOUND ON AEGEAN ISLANDS AND WESTERN COAST OF ASIA MINOR. THIS ORDER IS MOST USED IN ATHENS!
10. CELLA THE CHAMBER (GREEK - NAOS) AT THE CENTER OF AN ANCIENT TEMPLE; IN A CLASSICAL TEMPLE, THE ROOM IN WHICH THE CULT STATUE USUALLY STOOD.
TEMPLES GREEK GREAT ORDER, SYMMETRY, SENSE OF PROPORTIONS, EFFORT TO ACHIEVE IDEAL FORMS IN TERMS OF REGULAR NUMERICAL RELATIONSHIPS AND GEOMETRIC RULES.
GABLE ROOFED COLUMNAR STRUCTURE
GREEK TEMPLE WAS THE HOUSE OF THE GOD OR GODDESS, NOT OF HIS OR HER FOLLOWERS
ANCIENT GREEKS WERE INDUSTRIOUS BUILDERS, BUT HOMES WERE UNPRETENTIOUS PLACES, NO MONARCHS TO HOUSE ROYALLY UNTIL HELLENISTIC TIMES, RITES WERE PERFORMED IN THE OPEN.
THE ALTAR LAY OUTSIDE THE EAST END, FACING THE RISING SUN, TEMPLE HOUSED A SHRINE OF THE GRANDEST VOTIVE OF ALL OFFERINGS TO THE DEITIES, ..THE CULT STATUE
PRIMARY FUNCTION IN PUBLIC LIFE WAS EMPHASIZED IN ITS ELEVATED SITE, OFTEN ON A HILL ABOVE THE CITY (ACROPOLIS MEANS HIGH CITY)
ARISTOTLE STATED THE SITE SHOULD BE A SPOT SEEN FAR AND WIDE, WHICH GIVES DUE ELEVATION TO VIRTUE AND TOWERS OVER THE NEIGHBORHOOD. (COMPARE TO CURRENT DAY HOLLYWOOD HILLS.)
THE DESIGN OF THIS TEMPLE (WITH A SIGULAR LINE OF CLUMNS IN THE CENTER OF THE CELLSNOT SHOWN CORRECT HERE), DOES NOT ALLOW FOR A CENTRAL SCULPTURE OF THE DEITY TO WHOM THE TEMPLE WAS DEPICTED.**Columns rest on a STYLOBATE, aka the top step of a temple
A PEDIMENT is the triangular top section on the EAST and WEST side of a temple
EARLY GREEK EFFORTS FRO DORIC TEMPLE DESIGN WELL PRESERVED
80 FEET BY 170 FEET ENTIRE PERIPHERAL COLONNADE OF THIS HUGE STRUCTURE STILL STANDING BUT MOST OF ENTABLURE, AND FRIEZE, PEDIMENT AND ALL OF ROOF HAS VANISHED
CALLED THE BASILICA B/C IT RESEMBLED THE ROMAN COLUMNAR HALL BUILDING TYPE
HEAVY, CLOSELY SPACED COLUMNS WITH PRONOUNCED SWELLING AT THE CENTER OF THE SHAFT. SHAFTS TOPED WITH LARGE, BULKY, PANCAKE-LIKE DORIC CAPITALS, SEEM COMPRESSED BY THE OVERBEARING WEIGHT OF THE ENTABLATURE. ROOF WOULD HAVE EVEN MORE SO COMPRESSED
LATER DORIC TEMPLES SPREAD OUT THE COLUMNS AND REFINE THE ARCHITECTURE**GREEK KOUROS, MARBLE, 600 BCE VS. EGYPTIAN LATE PERIOD - Mentuemhet, Karnak, D. XXVI, 650 BCE, Granite
Meaning of Greek word KOUROS is Youth,
MAN IS SMILING! FROM THIS POINT ON ALMOST ALL GREEK STATUES SMILE EVEN IN INAPPROPRIATE CONTEXTS, ARCHAIC SMILE thought this smile was indication that the subject of the sculptor is alive and in good health, could also be a technical difficulty to carve the smile onto the archaic shaped heads (somewhat triangular heads)
FISTS CLINCHED WITH THUMBS FORWARD, LEFT FOOT STRIDING FORWARD, ARMS DOWN BESIDE THE BODY,
SERVED AS A FUNERARY PURPOSE, SOMWHERE IN ATHENS STOOD OVER A GRAVE IN THE COUNTRYSIDE THESE STATUES REPLACED THE HUGE VASES LIKE THE Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE
ALSO USED AS VOTIVE OFFERINGS IN SANCTUARIES
SOME THOUGHT AT ONE TIME THAT ALL IMAGES OF A KOUROI (SINGULAR TERM FOR KOUROS) WERE IMAGES OF APOLLO*THE INSCRIBED BASE STATES STAY AND MOURN AT THE TOMB OF DEAD KROISOS, WHOM RAGING ARES DESTROYED ONE DAY AS HE FOUGHT IN THE FOREMOST RANKS.
NOW FAR MORE NATURALISTIC!!! HEAD IS NO LONGER TOO LARGE FOR THE BODY, FACE MORE ROUNDED, SWELLING CHEEKS REPLACE FLAT PLANES OF EARLIER STATUES, HAIR FALLS NATURALLY OVER BACK, ROUNDED HIPS INSTEAD OF V SHAPE RIDGES OF KOUROS.
ORIGINAL PAINT SURVIVES MAKING STATUE LOOK EVEN MORE REAL..ALL GREEK STATUES WERE PAINTED,.FLESH WAS LEFT NATURAL COLOR OF STONE / WAXED & POLISHED . EYES, HAIR, LIPS, AND DRAPERY WERE PAINTED IN ENCAUSTIC = TECHNIQUE WHERE PIGMENT IS MIXED WITH WAX AND APPLIED WHILE HOTPEPLOS A SIMPLE, LONG, WOOLEN BELTED GARMENT THAT GIVES THE FEMALE FIGURE A COLUMNAR APPERANCE.
TRACES OF PAINT ALSO PRESERVED
STOOD AS A VOTIVE OFFERING IN ATHENAS SANCTUARY.
HER LEFT ARM WAS ORIGINALLY EXTENDED, BREAKING FROM THE EGYPTIAN STANDARDS SHE ONCE HELD IN HER HAND AN ATTRIBUTE THAT WOULD IDENTIFY THE FIGURE AS A MAIDEN OR SUGGESTED A GODDESS, MAYBE ATHENA HERSELF
SCULPTOR RENDERED FIGURE SOFT, NATURAL FORM***ANTAIOS LIBYAN GIANT, A SON OF EARTH WHO DERIVED HIS POWER WITH THE CONTACT FROM THE GROUND
TO KILL HIM HERAKLES HAD TO LIFT HIM UP TO STRANGLE HIM SO NO PART OF HIS BODY TOUCHED THE EARTH
THIN GLAZE USED TO DELINEATE THE MUSCLES
PLAYING WITH PERSPECTIVE LEFT ARM DISSAPEARING BEHIND THE LEG OF THE OTHER, THEN HAND COMING OUT ON OTHER SIDE
This piece is not the exact one covered for the AP Art History Exam, but is very similar in style.****