THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS 776 BC - 393 AD. THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS TOUR: Introduction –Olympia: site of ancient Olympic games. Green. Lush area. Sanctuary of.
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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS 776 BC - 393 AD </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS TOUR: Introduction Olympia: site of ancient Olympic games. Green. Lush area. Sanctuary of Zeus was located here. Greeks gathered here for over 1000 years to celebrate this great festival. Heracles (Hercules) mythical founder of Olympic games. Games dedicated to Zeus Victor received a simple crown of wild olive. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Greeks referred to sanctuary of Zeus as the Altis. From the Greek word Alsos for grove. Sanctuaries were centers of worship. Greeks built temples, altars, treasuries on these sites. Aerial view of sanctuary </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Crown: Crowns were made from a wild olive tree in the Altis. This tree was called the olive of the beautiful crown. Olive oil was the most exported product of Greece. (Hercules gets credit for introducing the Olive tree to Greece) </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Early Buildings: The earliest building at Olympia are a cluster of Bronze Age houses at the base of the Kronos hill. One of these buildings was supposed to be the megaron of Oinomaos, legendary king. Another structure is the tumulus of Pelops. (tumulos is a large artificial mound built over a grave) View of Kronos Hill </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Chariot Race: According to legend, the hero Pelops entered a chariot race with King Oinomaos to compete for the hand of Oinomaos' daughter Hippodamia in marriage. Hippodamia fell in love with Pelops and convinced her father's groom to sabotage the racing chariot by removing the linchpins attaching the wheels. After Oinomaos' chariot was destroyed and he was dragged to his death by his horses, Pelops became king and ruled over the region, which he called the Peloponnese after himself. Today, the southern part of the Greek mainland is still called by this name. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Scenes from this race decorated the temple of Zeus, built between 470-457 BC. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The First Temple: 1 st Temple: 7 th BC, was dedicated to Zeus and Hera. Originally of wood but gradually replaced in stone. West end of the cella (internal chamber) were sculptures of Zeus and Hera. Head of Hera has been recovered. Eventually, this became a temple to honor Hera only. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Hera: </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Hera: Built in a system of regular proportions. So that many parts relate to others harmoniously. Width to length ratio: 3:8 # of pillars seen from front and back: 6. # of pillars seen from the sides: 16. Height of columns, half the width of the cella. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Hera: Uncovered: Cedar chest inlaid with ivory and gold. Bronze disc. Ivory and gold table: where the olive crowns were set out. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Treasuries: On a terrace at the base of Mount Kronos. poorly preserved built in the sixth century. Built by different Greek city-states from 600s BC --The best preserved is the Treasury of Sikyon. --Served as storehouses for valuable objects. --Many gave to Olympia as a sign of piety and to win the gods favor </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Sikyonian Treasury: two chambers lined with bronze. the sword of the hero Pelops, with a hilt of gold; an ivory horn inscribed to Olympian Zeus; and a wooden statue of Apollo with its head plated in gold. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS The Treasuries: </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Zeus: completed in 456 BC was one of the largest temples in Greece. Doric style architecture Columns: simple capitals, no bases, and heavy proportions. six columns on each end, thirteen on the flanks built entirely of local shell limestone </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Zeus: The sculptures are the best preserved. East Pediment: prep for chariot race between Oinomaos and Pelops. West Pediment depicts battle between Lapiths and Centaurs It was a peripteral temple: inner chamber was surrounded by a columned porch. first significant monument of the Early Classical period. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Temple of Zeus: </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Stadium and Events: First Olympic event was a foot race. (only event for 1 st 13 olympics) By Classic Period: 18 more contests including: Wrestling, boxing, horse races, pentathlon, other running events. Stadium was outside the area of the sanctuary. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Stadium and Events: A vaulted passageway connected sanctuary to stadium. Only a few stone seats for officials. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> The Ancient Olympics Stadium: The track is 212.54 m (697.3 ft) long and 28.5 m (94 ft) wide and surrounded by grassy banks on all sides. All the seats were made of mud and on the southern slope there was a stone platform The Stadium The Exedra or judges seats </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Facilities for Athletes: Palaestra: west of sanctuary. Place for boxers and wrestlers to train. Gymnasium: north of palaestra. Southwest of Altis was the Leonidaion, hotel. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Facilities for Athletes: Palaestra. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> The Ancient Olympics Leonidaion: lodging place for athletes taking part in the Olympic Games at Olympia constructed around 330 BCE and was funded and designed by Leonidas of Naxos. The building consisted of four Ionian colonnades with 138 decorated columns, forming a square of approximately 80 meters. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Workshop: Sculpture Pheidias. It is where a statue of Zeus was made. Plan of this building matches that of the cella of the temple. Molds and tools for making the sculpture were discovered here. A cup bearing his name was also found here. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Boxing: Fewer rules No rounds: fought until a K.O. Or one man gave up. Could hit opponent when down. No weight classes Men and boys divisions. No gloves but himantes: leather wraps himantes </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Equestrian Events: Chariot Racing: 2 and 4 horse chariot races 12 lap length (9mi.) Riding: Separate races for full grown horses and foals 6 lap length (4.5 mi.) Only wealthy could afford the event Owner received wreath for winning. </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS Equestrian Races: </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Pentathlon: 5 event challenge Discus, javelin, running, jumping, wrestling Discus: made of stone, iron, bronze or lead. Shaped like a saucer. Size of discus varied according to boys and mens division. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Javelin: Man size length of wood. End: sharpened or attached metal. Looks like a spear. Leather strap attached for grip Increased precision and distance </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Jump: Jumpers used lead or stone weights Shaped like phone receivers (halteres) Increased distance Held in front during ascent Brought behind and dropped during descent. Doubled as weight lifting during training </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Running: 4 types of races Stadion: oldest event. Sprint one stade. Length of the stadium (192 m.) 2 stade race (384 m.) Long distance run, 7-24 stades. (1,344m-4,608m.) Armor race: 2-4 stades (384- 768m). Ran in armor. Helped train warriors. Armor: 50-60 lbs. (helmet, greaves, shield) </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> THE ANCIENT OLYMPICS ANCIENT OLYMPIC EVENTS: Wrestling: Needed to throw opponent on hip, shoulder or back for fall. 3 throws needed to win a match. Biting not allowed One could break opponents fingers. </li> </ul>
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