the analysis and design of work

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© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. © 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. The Analysis and Design of Work 1–1 Principles of Human Resource Management 16 e Bohlander | Snell

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The Analysis and Design of Work. Principles of Human Resource Management 16 e Bohlander | Snell. Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you should be able to. LEARNING OUTCOME 1. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Managing Human Resources 15e.

The Analysis and Design of Work11

Principles of Human Resource Management16 e

Bohlander | Snell 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 261Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter, you should be able toExplain what a job analysis is, the parts that comprise it and how the information it generates is used in conjunction with a firms HRM functions.

Explain how the data for a job analysis typically is collected.

Identify and explain the various sections of job descriptions.

Provide examples illustrating the various factors that must be taken into account when designing a job.

Discuss the various job characteristics that motivate employees.

Describe the different group techniques used to broaden a firms job functions and maximize the contributions of employees.

Identify the different types of work schedules organizations are using today to motivate their employees.LEARNING OUTCOME 1

LEARNING OUTCOME 2

LEARNING OUTCOME 3LEARNING OUTCOME 4LEARNING OUTCOME 5LEARNING OUTCOME 6LEARNING OUTCOME 7 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 262What is Job AnalysisA job analysis is the systematic process of collecting information about all of the parameters of a jobits basic responsibilities, the behaviors, skills, and the physical and mental requirements of the people who do it. A job analysis should also outline the tools needed to do the job, the environment and times at which it needs to done, with whom it needs to be done, and the outcome or performance level it should produce.13 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 263Job RequirementsJob DescriptionStatement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities (TDRs) of a job to be performedJob SpecificationStatement of the needed knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of the person who is to perform the jobSince Griggs v Duke Power and the Civil Rights Act of 1991, job specifications used in selection must relate specifically to the duties of the job. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 264HRM Functions Affected by a Job Analysis

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 265

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 266Methods Used to Collect Job Analysis DataFive of the more popular methods are The functional job analysis The Position Analysis questionnaire system The critical incident methodA task inventory analysisA competency-based job analysis. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 267Key Elements of a Job DescriptionJob TitleIndicates job duties and organizational levelJob IdentificationDistinguishes job from all other jobsEssential Functions (Job Duties)Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplishedJob SpecificationsSkills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 268

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 269

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2610Highlights in HRM

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2611Problems with Job DescriptionsIf they are poorly written, using vague rather than specific terms, they provide little guidance to the jobholder.They are sometimes not updated as job duties or specifications change.They may violate the law by containing specifications not related to job success.They can limit the scope of activities of the jobholder, reducing an organizations flexibility. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2612Job DesignIndustrial EngineeringA field of study concerned with analyzing work methods and establishing time standardsJob DesignAn outgrowth of job analysis that improves jobs through technological and human considerations in order to enhance organization efficiency and employee job satisfactionErgonomicsThe process of studying and designing equipment and systems that are easy and efficient for people to use and that ensure their physical well-being. 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2613Basis of Job Design

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2614Job Characteristics Model: Designing Jobs to Motivate EmployeesJob CharacteristicsSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceAutonomyFeedbackPsychological StatesMeaningfulness of the work performedResponsibility for work outcomesKnowledge of the results of the work performed.Job OutcomesImproved work performanceIncreased Internal motivationLower absenteeism and turnover 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2615Enlargement, Rotation, & EnrichmentJob enlargementThe process of adding a greater variety of tasks to a job.Job rotation a process whereby employees rotate in and out of different jobs.Job enrichment Enhancing a job by adding more meaningful tasks and duties to make the work more rewarding or satisfying 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2616Empowerment, Crafting, & EngagementEmployee EmpowermentGranting employees power to initiate change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they doJob CraftingA naturally occurring phenomenon whereby employees mold their tasks to fit their individual strengths, passions, and motives betterEmployee EngagementA situation in which workers are enthusiastic and immersed in their work to the degree that it improves the performance of their companies 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2617Designing Work for Group/Team ContributionsEmployee Involvement Groups (EIs)Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestions for organizational improvementAlso known as quality circles (QCs)Success with EIs requires:Comprehensive training for group membersRecognition of the groups contributionsContinuing input and encouragement by managementUse of a participative/democratic leadership style 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2618Synergistic Team Characteristics

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2619Forms of Employee Teams

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2620Characteristics of Successful TeamsA commitment to shared goals and objectivesMotivated and energetic team membersOpen and honest communicationShared leadershipClear role assignmentsA climate of cooperation, collaboration, trust, and accountabilityThe recognition of conflict and its positive resolution 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2621Benefits of Employee TeamsIncreased integration of individual skillsBetter performance (quality and quantity) solutions to unique and complex problemsReduced delivery timeReduced turnover and absenteeismAccomplishments among team members

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2622Flexible Work SchedulesFlextimeWorking hours that permit employees the option of choosing daily starting and quitting times, provided that they work a set number of hours per day or week.Compressed WorkweekShortening the number of days in the workweek by lengthening the number of hours worked per day.Job SharingThe arrangement whereby two part-time employees perform a job that otherwise would be held by one full-time employee.TelecommutingThe use of personal computers, networks, and other communications technology such as fax machines to do work in the home that is traditionally done in the workplace.

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2623Keys for Successful Telecommuting

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2624Key Termscritical incident methoddejobbingemployee empowermentemployee teamsergonomicsflextimeindustrial engineeringjobjob analysisjob characteristics modeljob craftingjob descriptionjob designjob enlargementjob enrichmentjob rotationjob specificationposition analysis questionnaire (PAQ)task inventory analysistelecommutingvirtual team

2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 2625Chapter 4 - Learning OutcomesLearning Outcome StatementsRelated Outcomes from Body of the Text1Explain what a job analysis is, the parts that comprise it and how the information it generates is used in conjunction with a firms HRM functions. Are there any HR functions that are not affected by the job analysis process? If so, what are they?2Explain how the data for a job analysis typically is collected.Answer the questions in Highlights in HRM 1 based on the job you currently hold or most recently held. Do the answers give you enough information to create a job analysis?3Identify and explain the various sections of job descriptions.Using your answers to the questions asked in Highlights in HRM 1, write a job description for your job or the job you most recently held. Are there elements of the job that are not reflected in the job description?4Provide examples illustrating the various factors that must be taken into account when designing a job.Explain how industrial engineering and ergonomics can both clash with and complement each other in the design of jobs.5Discuss the various job characteristics that motivate employees.Can a firms managers control the process of job crafting? What challenges does it present for them?6Describe the different group techniques used to broaden a firms job functions and maximize the contributions of employees.Describe the types of teams you have worked in. Were some more successful than others? If so, why? How might what you have learned from being a team member be applied in an HR context?7Identify the different types of work schedules organizations are using today to motivate their employees.Name some of the jobs people do at your school. Which of the jobs do you think could effectively incorporate flexible work schedules? Which could not? 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 36 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.# of 26