the activities-specific balance confidence (abc) scale* ??web viewthe activities-specific balance...

Download The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale* ??Web viewThe Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC ... M28-34 The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC ... on the word “go” they are to get

Post on 06-Feb-2018

214 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale*

The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale*

Administration:

The ABC can be self-administered or administered via personal or telephone interview. Larger typeset should be used for self-administration, while an enlarged version of the rating scale on an index card will facilitate in-person interviews. Regardless of method of administration, each respondent should be queried concerning their understanding of instructions, and probed regarding difficulty answering specific items.

Instructions to Participants:

For each of the following, please indicate your level of confidence in doing the activity without losing your balance or becoming unsteady from choosing one of the percentage points on the scale form 0% to 100%. If you do not currently do the activity in question, try and imagine how confident you would be if you had to do the activity. If you normally use a walking aid to do the activity or hold onto someone, rate your confidence as it you were using these supports. If you have any questions about answering any of these items, please ask the administrator.

Instructions for Scoring:

The ABC is an 11-point scale and ratings should consist of whole numbers (0-100) for each item. Total the ratings (possible range = 0 1600) and divide by 16 to get each subjects ABC score. If a subject qualifies his/her response to items #2, #9, #11, #14 or #15 (different ratings for up vs. down or onto vs. off), solicit separate ratings and use the lowest confidence of the two (as this will limit the entire activity, for instance the likelihood of using the stairs.)

*Powell, LE & Myers AM. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. J Gerontol Med Sci 1995; 50(1): M28-34

The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale*

For each of the following activities, please indicate your level of self-confidence by choosing a corresponding number from the following rating scale:

0%102030405060708090100%

no confidence

completely confident

How confident are you that you will not lose your balance or become unsteady when you

1. walk around the house? ____%

2. walk up or down stairs? ____%

3. bend over and pick up a slipper from the front of a closet floor ____%

4. reach for a small can off a shelf at eye level? ____%

5. stand on your tiptoes and reach for something above your head? ____%

6. stand on a chair and reach for something? ____%

7. sweep the floor? ____%

8. walk outside the house to a car parked in the driveway? ____%

9. get into or out of a car? ____%

10. walk across a parking lot to the mall? ____%

11. walk up or down a ramp? ____%

12. walk in a crowded mall where people rapidly walk past you? ____%

13. are bumped into by people as you walk through the mall?____%

14. step onto or off an escalator while you are holding onto a railing? ____%

15. step onto or off an escalator while holding onto parcels such that you cannot hold onto the railing? ____%

16. walk outside on icy sidewalks? ____%

*Powell, LE & Myers AM. The Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. J Gerontol Med Sci 1995; 50(1): M28-34

Modified Falls Efficacy Scale*

Administration:

The Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (mFES) can be self-administered or administered via personal or telephone interview. Larger typeset should be used for self-administration, while an enlarged version of the rating scale on an index card will facilitate in-person interviews. Regardless of method of administration, each respondent should be queried concerning their understanding of instructions, and probed regarding difficulty answering specific items.

Instructions to Participants:

Subjects are asked, How confident/sure are you that you do each of the activities without falling?

Instructions for Scoring:

The mFES scale is a visual analog scale in which items are scored from 0 to 10, with 0 meaning not confident/not sure at all, 5 being fairly confident/fairly sure, and 10 being completely confident/completely sure. Total the ratings (possible range = 0 140) and divide by 14 to get each subjects mFES score. Scores of < 8 indicate fear of falling, 8 or greater indicate lack of fear.

*Hill KD, Schwarz JA, Kalogeropolous AJ, Gibson, SJ. Fear of Falling Revisited. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77:1025-1029.

Modified Falls Efficacy Scale*

Instructions: For each statement circle the level of confidence expressed, using the code below.

0= No confidence at all to 10 = Extreme confidence

How confident are you that you can...

1. Get dressed and undressed

012345678910

2. Prepare a simple meal

012345678910

3. Take a bath or a shower

012345678910

4. Get in/out of a chair

012345678910

5. Get in/out of bed

012345678910

6. Answer the door or telephone

012345678910

7. Walk around the inside of your house

012345678910

8. Reach into cabinets or closets

012345678910

9. Light housekeeping

012345678910

10. Simple shopping

012345678910

11.Using public transportation

012345678910

12.Crossing roads

012345678910

13.Light gardening or hanging out the washing

012345678910

14.Using front or rear steps at home

012345678910

..without falling?

Score = Total _____/14 = ______

*Modified from Hill KD, Schwarz JA, Kalogeropolous AJ, Gibson, SJ. Fear of Falling Revisited. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996;77:1025-1029.

Timed Up and Go*

Directions:

The timed Up and Go test measures, in seconds, the time taken by an individual to stand up from a standard arm chair (approximate seat height of 46 cm, arm height 65 cm), walk a distance of 3 meters (approximately 10 feet), turn, walk back to the chair, and sit down. The subject wears their regular footwear and uses their customary walking aid (none, cane, walker). No physical assistance is given. They start with their back against the chair, their arms resting on the armrests, and their walking aid at hand. They are instructed that, on the word go they are to get up and walk at a comfortable and safe pace to a line on the floor 3 meters away, turn, return to the chair and sit down again. The subject walks through the test once before being timed in order to become familiar with the test. Either a stopwatch or a wristwatch with a second hand can be used to time the trial.

Instructions to the patient:

When I say go I want you to stand up and walk to the line, turn and then walk back to the chair and sit down again. Walk at your normal pace.

Variations:

You may have the patient walk at a fast pace to see how quickly they can ambulate. Also you could have them turn to the left and to the right to test any differences.

*Podsiadlo D, Richardson S. The timed up and go: a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons. JAGS 1991; 39: 142-148.

Berg Balance Scale

Description:

14-item scale designed to measure balance of the older adult in a clinical setting.

Equipment needed: Ruler

2 standard chairs (one with arm rests, one without)

Footstool or step

Stopwatch or wristwatch

15 ft walkway

Completion:

Time:

15-20 minutes

Scoring:A five-point ordinal scale, ranging from 0-4. 0 indicates the

lowest level of function and 4 the highest level of function.

Total Score = 28

Interpretation:41-56 = low fall risk

21-40 = medium fall risk

0 20 = high fall risk

< 36 fall risk close to 100%

Berg Balance Scale

Name: __________________________________Date: ___________________

Location: ________________________________Rater: ___________________

ITEM DESCRIPTION

SCORE (0-4)

1. Sitting to standing

________

2. Standing unsupported

________

3. Sitting unsupported

________

4. Standing to sitting

________

5. Transfers

________

6. Standing with eyes closed

________

7. Standing with feet together

________

8. Reaching forward with outstretched arm

________

9. Retrieving object from floor

________

10. Turning to look behind

________

11. Turning 360 degrees

________

12. Placing alternate foot on stool

________

13. Standing with one foot in front

________

14. Standing on one foot

________

Total

________

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Please document each task and/or give instructions as written. When scoring, please record the lowest response category that applies for each item.

In most items, the subject is asked to maintain a given position for a specific time. Progressively more points are deducted if the time or distance requirements are note met, if the subjects performance warrants supervision, or if the subject touches an external support or receives assistance from the examiner. Subject should understand that they must maintain their balance while attempting the tasks. The choices of which leg to stand on or how far to reach are left to the subject. Poor judgment will adversely influence the performance and the scoring.

Equipment required for testing is a stopwatch or watch with a second hand, and a ruler or other indicator of 2, 5, and 10 inches. Chairs used during testing should be a rea

Recommended

View more >